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ticles. On arriving at the Meson, or inn, spite. By pursuing this vocation some time which only professes to furnish food for the the ruffian acquired a good deal of money, animals, you ask for a room, and are shown and retiring from public life, established into a place with four brick cr adobe walls, himself as an honest soapboiler, in the neighand containing a few boards placed on a borhood of Guadalaxara. An unlucky credframe; this is the bed. Possibly there may itor called one day, whilst my friend was mabe a table, but never any more superfluous king soap, and requesting the settlement of furniture. You ask what can be had for his small account, was incontinently pitched dinner, and, if possible, a fowl is caught and into the boiler, and went the way of the killed, if not, you must put up with eggs, al. . poor workhouse boy. For one, if not both ways procurable, tortillas, (maize-cakes,) to- of these murders, this villain was tried, and matoes, chiles, and frijoles, (beans.) There- the crime clearly proved, but he showed the fore let any of my friends who read this, and trying judges cogent reasons why he was not may be disposed to travel in Mexico, carry in a fit state to be shot, and he escaped acwith them necessary supplies of every thing; cordingly. When I saw him with some chocolate alone excepted, which is always to others, nearly as bad as himself, he was be bad.
about to proceed to California, where I hope " It is but justice, however, to say, that he has been lynched long ago. If he has not, the servants you take with you, or mozos, it is not my fault, as I gave his name and are the most attentive fellows in the world, described his appearance and character to and will get you any thing that is to be some worthy Yankees I subsequently met had in the village, even at the sword's in an American steamer, and they promised point, if necessary. They perform for their to bear him in mind on their return to Calimaster of the time being, all the offices fornia. of valet, chambermaid, boots, waiter, and “Justice, however, once in a way, does groom, and not unfrequently cook. As a overtake some of them. I myself saw one whole, they are most honest and agreeable man shot who bad committed seven murders, people, and if one is lucky, as I was, to and had been tried before; but then he was meet with good mozos, they are invaluable.” | rich. Alas, in an evil hour when poor, he These, however, are not the most serious
chopped up with his axe a passenger who
wished to cross the Rio Santiago where he unpleasantnesses to be looked for in Mexico.
was ferryman. His comrade assisted at the Jack Sheppards and highwaymen of every murder, and afterwards turned Queen's, or I grade are reputed to be common. Our “ Bar- presume they would call it in Mexico, Presrister” was so fortunate as not to meet with ident's evidence; and the ferryman having any brigand inclined « to take the law off vo ready cash by him, was convicted. The
culprit having passed the two previous days him,” though he had an occasional half
and nights in what is called capilla ardiente, crown to pay for an escort; it was his fate, having a priest always with him, was however, to see one villain unhanged, and brought down to the common by the river, another less lucky, shot. As his professional and a square being formed of mounted nasympathies were roused in the former case,
tional guards, he was fastened in a sitting the scoundrel being a lawyer-cide, we think
position to a cross placed against an adobe
wall, and shot by a party of national guards. it not at all improbable that the precautions They fired witħin ten paces, and the man he adopted for eventually bringing about died at the first discharge, though they kept the regular course of justice, in however ir- on firing as long as the least motion was regular and transatlantic a form, have before perceptible. Comparatively very few peothis taken effect.
ple were present at this spectacle, and I saw
one carriage containing ladies, which I “ Before I left Tepic my attention was one thought would have been better away. day drawn to a ruffiavly-looking fellow, Probably the lady reader may think, I holding his horse at the door of a house, and should have staid away too. If it is any who, I was credibly informed, was known consolation to her, I arrived late and did not to have committed, it was said, twenty-five see the unfortunate man until unbound from murders—at all events more than one. He the cross quite dead.” had for some time been the leader of a band of robbers on the Guadalaxara road, and,
In these unromantic days every body is whilst exercising his vocation in that quar- aware that dragons have ceased (except in ter, had most wantonly cut the throats of a pantomimes) to eat up common people and lawyer of that town, of his wife, and two or crunch the armor of knights. What they three children. The poor man was only
do live upon, now they are no longer cannigoing to spend his Sunday in the country, and had purposely left his purse at home ; l
bals, we were not sure of until we read the owing to which oversight he and his family following authentic notice of the source of were all killed by this villain out of mere | their nourishment in Mexico :
For in the sea good fish there be
As ever from it came.”
Young Gianni strove-young Gianni hove
The leaded net with might, And to his wish, the silvery fish
Came up to land and light.
His luck had changed. No boatmen ranged
The bay to make him grieve;
They kept St. Peter's eve.
Again he strove, his net he hove,
Again the deep to spoil; And, lo! a maid her steps hath stayed,
To watch the fisher's toil.
“Whilst stopping bere, Her Majesty's Consul started off with his rifle to have a shot at a venerable alligator which was basking in the sun on the sand by the side of an estero. The unfortunate brute had eaten his last dog, and died in two shots, both of which struck him full in the back and in the middle of the scales, though I had always understood these to be impenetrable. For my especial edification the beast was lazoed and dragged out of the water, to which he had retreated on receiving his death-wound. He was ten feet long, and furnished with a prodigious row of teeth, with which, in his death agonies, he nearly took off the leg of one of the mozos. My friend was waited upon by a deputation of ladies from the nearest village, who felicitated him upon destroying the venerable monster who for many months had lived upon their pet dogs."
How happy such an alligator would be in Regent Street!
If our “ Barrister” travels again and writes another book, he would do well to keep notes, and also before he starts to acquire such a knowledge of natural history as would render his sporting propensities serviceable to science and more amusing to himself. Nor should be ramble through a land like Mexico without telling us more of the traces of its ancient inhabitants, and the localities rendered classical as the scenes of the wondrous exploits of the old conquerors and their leader, Cortes, the most chivalrous of adventurers.
Her garments were both rich and rare,
But hung in disarray;
Had chased the bloom away.
“ Madonna, why that tearful eye,
That lovely cheek so pale ? Those tresses rare of golden hair,
Why float they in the galego * My peace is fled-my love is dead,
In fatal tourney slain! "Twere bliss to die, for never I
Shall see his like again !"
In good St. Peter's name!
As ever from it came."
The lady smiled; of woe beguiled,
Her loss she better brook'd; For well she knew the proverb true,
On Gianni when she look'd. And Gianni sued, and Gianni wooed,
And knelt upon the sand :
But not her lily hand.
He won before 'twas dark ;
At eventide, the clerk.
From “ Tait's Magazine."
SAINT PETER'S EVE.
* The sun is high, my Gianni, why
So late a-bed dost 'bide ? Thy line or net the meal should get We share at eventide."
And well he thrives who hopes and strives
With courage still the same; For in the sea good fish there be
As ever from it came.
“ Nay, mother, peace! Thy chiding cease!
I never idly played ;
To ply my father's trade.
< But strangers roam from distant home
To scour the winding bay;
And sweep the fish away.
" Nor net of mine, nor hook and line,
Our scanty meal can win; Yet toil I long past evensong,
And with the day begin.”
From “ Chambers' Edinburgh Journal." GAS-LIGHT-ITS INVENTORS AND
IMPROVERS. We believe that the daily applications of science to economic purposes would excite a greater degree of interest, and attract the attention of a larger portion of the commu nity, if the nature and history of such dis
* Luck comes at last-go, make a cast,
In good St. Peter's name !
coveries were more familiarly known. In | Boyle, who died in the year 1691. In this this remark we do not refer to discoveries in letter, published in the “ Philosophical science, properly so speaking ; these require, i Transactions” for 1739, he states that he to be appreciated, a certain acquaintance distilled coal in a close vessel, and obtained with the subject to which they belong, which abundance of gas, which he collected in is perhaps only possessed by those who bladders, and afterwards burnt for the have seriously engaged in its study. To the amusement of his friends. Other experipurely scientific investigator, the attainment | menters, among whom Bishop Watson is of knowledge is the aim, and the discovery conspicuous, (“ Chemical Essays,") confirmed of a new fact or principle is his reward. Dr. Clayton's discovery; and the properties Such men are the pioneers in the march of coal-gas, and the method of preparing it, towards physical improvement, though they thus became well known to chemists. may be themselves unconscious of their The idea of applying this air for purposes mission; and the facts which they are the of illumination seems to have first occurred means of bringing to light, while they pos- to Mr. Murdoch-an engineer residing at sess a special value in as far as they con- Redruth in Cornwall* In the year 1792 tribute to the extension of knowledge for its he commenced a series of experiments on own sake, have also a special interest for the gases obtained by the action of heat those who devote themselves to such ac upon coal, wood, peat, and other inflamquirements. It is not in this light, however, mable substances, and actually prepared that we regard them at present. Apart coal-gas on a scale sufficiently large to light from the special importance to which we up his own house and office. Five years have alluded, the facts of science are often after, while living at Cumnock in Ayrshire, fraught with valuable applications to the he again erected a coal-gas apparatus. In useful arts, which may not happen to be 1798 he was engaged to put up his appafollowed out to this end by the cultivator ratus at the manufactory of Messrs. Boulton of science alone: the economic powers which and Watt, Soho, near Birmingham, where they contain are often left to be trained he continued to experiment, with occasional into service by more practical men, who are interruptions, until the year 1802. It does usually stimulated to the task, as well per- not appear, however, that much attention haps for their own profit as for the benefit was excited by these first efforts at gasof the public.
lighting, except among a very few scientific It is a common saying that great dis- individuals, until the general illumination at coveries are often made gradually, the pro- the Peace of Amiens afforded opportunity for gress of knowledge leading slowly but surely a more public display. On this occasion the towards them; and the remark is peculiar - front of the manufactory was brilliantly ly applicable to many of the useful arts. A lighted up by the new method, and it at happy arrangement is often attained at last, once attracted the wonder and admiration not so much by the labors of one individual, of every one who saw it. “All Birmingham as by a succession of inventors, to whom it poured forth to view the spectacle; and is difficult to apportion the credit which strangers carried to every part of the couneach may justly claim. To illustrate these try an account of what they had seen. It views, and with the hope of exciting the was spread about everywhere by the news. interest of our readers in a subject of con papers ; easy modes of making gas were siderable social importance, we propose to described; and coal was distilled in tobaccolay before them a short account of the his-pipes at the fireside all over the kingdom." tory of gas-making, to which our own at By the exertions of a Mr. Winsor, a comtention has recently been directed, by a pany was formed for supplying London with process which promises to be a valuable gas; but it struggled for many years with contribution towards the cheap production the difficulties at once of inexperience and and an extended use of this useful article. public prejudice, and was a cause of loss to
The first notice of the artificial production of an inflammable air from coal is to be
* Mr Murdoch was a native of Scotland. There found in a letter from the Rev. Dr. John is
an is a good full-sized portrait of him in the balls of Clayton of Kildare to the Hon. Robert | the Royal Society of Edinburgh.-Ed.
many individuals. This is the less to be advantages claimed for the new gas were wondered at, as the coal-gas first produced the simplicity of its preparation, for no was not in a state of great purity: it was purifiers were required; it could have no injurious to many articles of furniture, and noxious qualities not equally pertaining to to wares exposed in shops, and it had a very oil-lamps or candles ; it gave a more brildisagreeable smell. In course of time, how | liant light, and took longer time to burn, ever, methods have been devised, by the than an equal bulk of coal-gas. All these joint labors of the chemist and practical merits, however, though justly belonging to engineer, to remove nearly all its noxious it, have not enabled it to compete with the and disagreeable qualities; and now the superior economy of its progenitor, and oilwhole apparatus for making gas and the gas may be now considered to be in disuse. mode of its purification seem to be so perfect The gases which have been spoken of, in well-constructed gas-works, that it is whether from coal or oil, are not simple or doubtful whether much remains to be done uncompounded airs; they both consist of an either in simplifying the processes or im- air called hydrogen in combination with proving the quality of the product from charcoal. When pure hydrogen is burned, coal.
it gives a very feeble light; but if a small The following is a brief and general state portion of an incombustible substance be ment of the process by which the best coal- held in its flame, such as a piece of thin gas is made :--Cannel or parrot-coal is platinum wire, the wire becomes heated to quickly shovelled into a red-hot cylinder of whiteness, and is strongly luminous : it is iron or clay, and the mouth of the cylinder said to be incandescent. In a common gas being closed by an appropriate lid, the flame the charcoal is separated from the vapors which instantly arise from the coal hydrogen before it is consumed; and thus are carried away by a wide tube which losing its gaseous form, it exists for an passes from the cylinder into a series of instant in the condition of minute solid vessels, where the mixed product is cooled, particles suspended in the flame. This fact, and loses much condensible matter : thus first explained by Sir Humphry Davy, can partially purified, the gas still contains be made apparent by the introduction of sulphureous, and other vapors, which, if the edge of a white plate into the burning allowed to remain, would give it a very gas. If the plate be thrust into the lowest nauseous smell, and tarnish paint and me- part of the jet where the flame is blue, it tallic surfaces wherever it was burnt. To will not be stained, because the charcoal is remove these impurities, it is subjected, in still in the gaseous state ; but if it be raised some gas-works, to dilute sulphuric acid, to the middle of the fame, where the light which separates ammonia ; but it is mainly | is brilliant, it is instantly coated with char. purified by quicklime, contained in a series coal. In accordance with these facts, it is of vessels, through which it is made to pass ; seen that heated particles of charcoal are and being thus cleared from all sulphureous the source of light emitted from coal-gas ; gases, it flows on to the gasometer, where it and as the luminosity of incandescent bodies is stored for use.
is greater as the heat is more intense, an The change from all the older modes of increase of light should be obtained by inillumination to the employment of coal-gas creasing the temperature of a flame by more was certainly a very remarkable one, rapid combustion--an object which is in so whether we look to the novelty of the far effected in the Argand and other immethod or to the brilliancy and economy of proved burners. the light; yet it has only stimulated to the As early as about the beginning of the search for better methods and greater present century, Dr. Thomas Young in Loneconomy, and few arts have produced so don, and Dr. Ure in Glasgow, (1806,) intromany inventions in so short a time, or led duced a jet of oxygen (the great supporter to so great an expenditure in patents. It of combustion) into the interior of the flame was a very natural step from the production of a lamp, and thereby produced a more of gas from coal to attempt to make it from rapid combustion and an increase of light. oil, and it was not long before oil-gas ap- ! In 1838 and 1839 patents were taken by peared to compete with the other. The Mr. G. Gurney for a similar method of burning an Argand oil-lamp, and also for coal- | decomposed; but in this case its oxygen is gas. This light, commonly attributed to not retained; it forms gaseous compounds him, takes its name from his residence in with the charcoal, which come over along Cornwall, and is called the Bude Light. Mr. with the hydrogen. In both cases the reGurney also improved the London coal-gas sulting gases will burn—but they give a for his lamp, by passing it through a vessel very feeble light. In fact the water gases, of naphtha, a vaporizable substance abound- as we may call them, cannot give much ing in charcoal ; and he finally obtained a light, from their deficiency in charcoal, light of so great brilliancy, that for flames which we have already shown to be the of equal size it was twelve times more great source of light in ordinary flame. On luminous than ordinary gas. Unfortunately, the other hand, there are many substances the Bude light is troublesome to manage, of no great value which, when heated, and expensive ; and though it has been tried | abound in vapors rich in charcoal-such are by the Trinity Board with a view to its in- coal-tar, naphtha, resin, turpentine, &c.troduction in light-houses, and was used for but they deposit a great quantity of their some time to light up the House of Com- | charcoal when exposed to a decomposing mons, we believe that it has been abandoned temperature, and cannot be profitably conin both cases, and its expense is likely to verted into gas. Now if the water or other prevent it from being ever generally adopted. I gases deficient in charcoal, and the tar or
The principle of an incandescent solid body resin vapors holding it in excess, could be being the main source of the luminosity of combined together, the probability is great flame, is beautifully apparent in another that they would produce a gas of good intense light, obtained by directing a stream illuminating power, and at a cheaper rate of mixed oxygen and hydrogen gases upon also than it can be manufactured from coal. lime or clay. It was first noticed by Dr. Viewing this problem theoretically, the Hare of Philadelphia, who used clay as the chemist has some reason to doubt the facilincandescent substance ; but lime was sub-lity of solving it; yet he is aware that othersequently employed at the suggestion of wise improbable unions do take place when Mr. Gurney, and it is now usually called the bodies meet each other in what may be Lime-ball Light. The flame of the mixed called a nascent condition. And it is possigases which contain no solid matter is scarce-ble so to present the water gases and the ly visible; but the heat is intense, and the resin vapors to each other. Next to the first lime at so high a temperature is almost too experiments by which coal-gas was brought brilliant for the eye to look upon. It has into notice, we regard this era in the history been proposed to use the lime-ball as a min- of gas-making as the most interesting, and iature sun, where one powerful lamp might will therefore plead no excuse for narrating supersede a great number of ordinary lights; a number of its inventions. They may be but it is not easily managed, and, like the regarded in four different groups-namely, Bude light, it is expensive.
those in which coal-gas is sought to be imOf late years experimenters in gas-making proved by the addition of carboniferous vahave mainly directed their attention towards pors; where the water gases are treated in new methods for procuring it at a cheaper the same way; where inferior gases are prorate than its present cost. And the easy duced at the same time with the vapor of tar preparation of hydrogen gas from water, and resin; and finally, where the water gases long known to chemists, has especially are brought into contact, at a red heat, with pointed to it as a basis for their operations. the vapors forming from tar, resing, or oils. Water, which is a compound of two gases— Mr. Gurney's method of improving the Lonoxygen and hydrogen—is decomposed at a don coal-gas for the Bude burner is an exred heat both by iron and charcoal. If | ample of the first; and had the union of the steam, for instance, be forced through a gas with the naphtha vapor been permanent, mass of red-hot iron filings, its oxygen is the feat would have been accomplished. retained by the iron, and its hydrogen, which But the naphtha vapor is liable to be conis an inflammable gas, passes off by itself. | densed into a liquid, and the improved gas If, again, steam be passed through a quan- cannot be passed through any great length tity of red-hot charcoal or coke, it is equally l of pipe. A patent was taken for a similar