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ought to characterize history and the biog- supported, so far as we are aware, by any raphy of men distinguished as kings, gen- documentary evidence of a trustworthy kind. erals, or statesmen. In the place of history, Detailing much from his own personal recproperly so called, we have party pamphlets ollection, and from that immediate knowl-in more or less volumes, as the case may edge which though not personal is often be—and professorial lectures glowing with admitted in history on the writer's responsired or white heat of contemporary passion. bility,-be forgets that in other matters afEven the most admired, and in some re- fecting the character of his hero his statespects most admirable, of the historical ments require authentication. Yet with all works of our near neighbors come within its faults—and they will appear greater to the terms of this description. M. Guizot Englishmen than to Frenchmen generally taught his own political doctrines from the this book claims a place in the library of the professor's chair years ago, -as Mr. Michelet Revolution, and will have to be referred to contends that he has a right to do now. by future historians of these times. Louis Blanc's “ History of Ten Years" and M. Michaud avows himself in the preface Lamartine’s “ History of the Girondins,” a partisan of the elder branch of the Bourworks widely different in character, are yet bon family : and as he expresses his convicbut extended pamphlets, conceived in a fugi- tion that the members of that family are tive spirit. M. Thiers's “ Consulate and endowed by nature with a rare combination Empire” is of the same kind. Frenchmen of amiability, frankness, and generosity, he in our day, with hardly an exception, write feels bound to maintain that Louis Philippe history as they write pungent articles for is not a Bourbon. He adopts and tells the the Débats or the National. They do not strange story of Marie Stella Petronilla, even pretend to any thing like neutrality of which made so much noise at one time in position with respect to the objects of daily the saloons of Paris. The pith of the story strife in the world around them. Avowed is, that Philippe Égalité-whose character, partisans, advocates, or champions of certain unfortunately, affords no guarantee against men and certain ideas, they voluntarily de- the possibility of such an incident-exchangcline the judgment-seat,—deny themselves ed his infant daughter for the son of a jailer the exercise of their judicial faculties. But with whom he had formed an acquaintthough they make bad judges, they are the ance when travelling in Italy, in order cleverest of advocates. The manners of the to preserve the family estates from lapsing court in which they profess to plead lack to the crown for want of heirs male. All the decency and decorum to which we are the incidents connected with this supposed accustomed in England; but the want of exchange of infants, and with the events of dignity is, in part at least, compensated by their after-lives, have the character of roadditional wit, vivacity, and variety. mance:—the scene, the chief actors, and the
M. Michaud's “ Life of Louis Philippe”—a final issues. Our readers shall see what thick volume of five hundred pages, going view M. Michaud takes of the transaction :with much detail into the leading events of “The virtues of the duchess have been that prince's career, so as to form a more pointed to as a refutation of the charge of connected and continuous narrative than has
exchanging children. It has also been alyet been published by friend or foe-is an
leged that no inducement existed for either
the husband or the wife to perpetrate such illustration of these remarks. It is written a crime. We deny not the virtues of that by a man who knew his hero for many years, illustrious lady; but who can tell how far served under him in his earlier campaigns her wishes were controlled by her husband? as a republican general, and observed at no
We know that the greater part of their for
tune consisted of demesnes, (appanages,) great distance his subsequent course from ex.
which, failing male issue, of necessity reile to a throne and from a throne back to exile. verted to the crown; and that at this very But it is conceived in a bitter and vindictive period the duchess, after having been married spirit. M. Michaud allows the unfortunate four years, had given birth to but one child, monarch no single virtue. He tries to con
and that a daughter still-born. Such was
the state of affairs when the princess and nect him with several atrocious deeds, such
atrocious deeds, --such her husband set out for Italy, where, under as the murder of the Duc de Berri; and in the titles of Count and Countess de Joinsinuates charges against him which are up-/ ville, they spent several months at a village
named Modigliana, situated on the top of | Your mother, who is long dead, was a the Apennines. Here the duchess proved stranger to me. A proposal to exchange to be in an interesting situation. The duke, my boy for you was laid before me, and who was fond of mean society, formed an after repeated solicitations I was prevailed intimacy with a jailer, named Chiappini, on to consult my worldly interests, for the whose wife was similarly circumstanced. A terms were highly advantageous. You bebargain was entered into, that if the duch- came a member of my family, while my son ess's offspring should prove a daughter and was received into that of the other party. the jailer's a son, an interchange should be Heaven, I perceive, has made up for my effected. Things turned out according to faults ;-you have been raised to a condition this anticipation, and the terms of the en-superior to your father's, though his rank gagement were mutually fulfilled. The also was noble; and therefore I leave the jailer received a large sum of money. His world with some peace of mind. Keep this son, born at Modigliana on the 17th of April, by you, as a testimony that I was not alto 1773, was removed to Paris, and kept con- gether deaf to the voice of conscience. In cealed till the 6th of October, when the entreating you to pardon my crime, I beceremony of private baptism was gone seech you to conceal it from mankind, that through, as we have already seen ; while the world may never know what is now inthe duchess's daughter remained in Chiap- capable of remedy. This letter will be for. pini's house, and was educated as his own warded to you after my death. child, under the name of Marie Stella Pe
“(Signed) LAURENT CHIAPPINI.” tronilla, supplies being secretly sent once a This epistle was forwarded to her by the year from France. According to the Memoirs of Marie Stella Petronilla, she continued long
sons of Chiappini :-though it is said they in this melancholy position, ignorant of her kept back some papers which might have high birth, and very ill-treated by her sup- been of great use to her in recovering the posed mother, who loved her not, and la- lost traces of her parentage. “Words," says mented that son whose fate was hidden from M. Michaud. “ can hardly express the effect her. The father had some idea of the truth: but knowing the duke only as Count de Join- i produced by such a discovery on the mind villo, never dreamed that he was a Prince of of Marie Stella,”the Blood Royal of France. His reputed “Gifted with great energy and lofty sendaughter excelled all his other children in timents, she passed at once from a position beauty. Every thing, indeed, about her indi. | which had been excessively bumiliating to cated that she was of different blood. Her wit a bigher rank. Not a jailer, but a great and precocity astonished every one. Before lord is her father. But who is the great she had completed her seventeenth year she lord ? Impatient to fathom this mystery so captivated Lord Newburgh,a British noble- unwilling to believe with the jailer that the man, then travelling in Italy, that he made past evil admitted of no remedy, she made her his wife almost against her inclination, inquiries and sought evidence in every and conducted her to a home of splendor quarter. Her efforts procured her the and magnificence on the banks of the Thames. knowledge that her father was the Count By this marriage she had several children, de Joinville, a French nobleman, whose rank one of whoin is now an English Peer. On and fortune she was ignorant of. To learn the death of Lord Newburgh she succeeded all the truth on the subject, she set out in to a handsome jointure, but of this she after the beginning of the year 1823 for France, wards forfeited a great part on her marriage accompanied by her youngest child, Edward, with a Russian nobleman, the Baron de son of Baron Sternberg. She found her Sternberg. With him she lived for several way to the village of Joinville, of which years in great style in St. Petersburgh. A her father had held the lordship. Here she son was there born to her, who, while yet learned that Joinville had been part of the young, accompanied her to Italy before the patrimony of the House of Orleans, and that death of Chiappini, whom she still regarded the duke, who perished on the scaffold in as her father. This man before his death 1793, had sometimes travelled under that addressed a letter to her, which altered her title. She next visited Paris, and there whole destiny and troubled the remainder made several vain efforts to reach him who of her days."
had succeeded to the title and the wealth This letter, supposing it to be real, re.
of that powerful family. She consúlted
many men of business, and became the dupe vealed to the Baroness de Sternberg the
of sharpers and police officers, who received secret of her birth. It ran as follows: much money from her by way of payment,
“My Lady, I am near the term of my and robbed her of a good deal more. When earthly existence, and now, for the first time, i her means failed she had recourse to an arunfold the following secret, which very inti- tifice, which, considering her position and mately concerns you. On the day that you difficulties, was certainly very excusable. were born my wife gave birth to a son. She made known through the public journals,
that the Baroness de Sternberg was in the miration to her forcible assertion of her possession of a secret in which the heirs of claims. It was scarcely possible to listen the Count de Joinville were much interested. without being persuaded of their justice. Louis Philippe was not long in hearing of She bore a striking resemblance to Madame this; his covetous disposition already rejoiced Adelaide, the duke's sister, while the features in the hope of some addition to his immense of the latter vividly recalled to her her repossessions. He accordingly communicated puted father, the jailer. It is even said, with the baroness through bis natural uncle, that, on one occasion, when she conducted the old Abbé of St. Phar, who thought that her youthful son Edward to the picture galpossibly he too might derive some worldly lery, the child, on observing a portrait of benefit from the adventure; but when the Louis Philippe, cried several times, Papa royal duke and his associate found that the Chiappini ! Papa Chiappini! The baroness secret referred to restitution, and not aug- was vexed by this incident. The police who mentation, the gates of the Palais Royal were ever on her track, who did all in their were hermetically closed against the Baron power to prevent the circulation of her meess. She made great efforts, but as she was moirs, threatened her repeatedly with ima stranger in Paris, and all her motions prisonment. It is a strange fact that Louis were watched by the police, then nothing XVIII. and Charles X. not only consented better than the slaves of Louis Philippe, to, but originated, all those manæuvres she became once more the prey of those de against the baroness. Those princes seemed signing men with whom Paris swarms, who then to repose entire confidence in him were probably the agents of him whose in- | whom they regarded as their cousin, though terest it was above all to overthrow her that individual was ceaselessly engaged in pretensions. A distinguished writer, whose schemes which compassed their destruction. name she does not give, but whom, from her The fall of the elder Bourbons and the sucdescription, we readily identify, vainly en- cession of Louis Philippe to his good cousins, deavored to make interest for her with the rendered the baroness's position more than Duchess of Angoulème. After being duped ever difficult. She was more than once deand plundered thus, she was obliged to resired to return to England. The interventurn and renew her research in Italy. She tion of the ambassador shielded her from returned from Italy after an absence of sev- persecution ; but she was now alone. The eral months armed with fresh and import- Baron de Sternberg bad conducted her faant evidence, and above all with a judgment vorite son Edward to Russia, so that her pronounced by the Ecclesiastical Tribunal courage and consciousness of the justice of of Faenza, on the 29th of May, 1824, which her claim formed her only protection against fixed her rank, and proved that she was not the spies that surrounded her. Her memoirs Chiappini's but the Count de Joinville's having been seized and tribunals of justice daughter. * * When we know that the closed against her by the ruling powers, Duke of Orleans was the only Frenchman whose tools they then were, they ended by who could then bear the designation of the pronouncing her mad; the only pretext for Count de Joinville, and that at the very this calumny being a peculiar fancy which period in question he really was travelling she had for feeding some birds which flew with his duchess, this evidence seems suffici- to her windows from the gardens of the ent to settle the question.”
Tuileries. We know, however, on irrefragThe additional evidence did not "settle
able testimony, that to the last she retained the question” so far as poor Marie Stella
full possession of her reasoning faculties.
She never abandoned her claims, but always was concerned. Her story reads like a ro
subscribed herself Baroness de Sternberg, mance to the end of the chapter. M. Michaud | born Joinville. During the last five years continues :
of her life, a fear of being arrested in the "Armed with this, and other important
street caused her to confine herself to her pieces of evidence, the baroness set to work
own house, where she knew she was safe again, hopeful and confident; but, unfortu through the protection of the English amnately, she could not find one honest man in
bassador. On the night before her death, Paris to direct her. She fell once more into
in 1845, happening to hear the cannon anthe snares of the crafty, and spent her money
nounce the opening of the chambers, she to no purpose. Pecuniary temptations were
| called for the public journal that she might presented to her in the most insidious man. read the speech of that brigand. She never ner by Louis Philippe's agents, but she spoke again." resisted all with a pride truly worthy of It is a very curious feature of the timeroyalty. Convinced that she was the daughter contrasting strangely with the clear publiof the Duke of Orleans, nothing short of a city to which every event in high places full recognition of her rights as such would satisfy her. Her stature, mien, and manners,
seems devoted through the agency of the even her voice, testified to this distinguished I press—that family doubts and difficulties origin. All impartial men listened with ad lie in the way of all the royal dynasties in
France. M. Michaud appears to consider the ty, to feel that for us to break down barriers present Orleans family as not Bourbons on and obstacles is nothing. The sterner cares the male side,-doubts have been often ex- of life, which afterwards rob us of so much pressed as to the legitimacy of Louis Na buoyancy, and hang like a leaden weight at poleon-and the Count de Richemont claims our heart, are never understood until exthe crown as prior in blood to the Duc de perienced ; and the young, however much Bordeaux. Thus, the Republic has not only they may think they view their own future, three royal lines to face, but in each line only perceive the dim outline of what life there are claims and counter-claims to settle. has in store, until they are fairly launched
Through the subsequent career of the hero forth to forge their own destinies, to make whom M. Michaud considers that he has their own way, to create their own home. “proved” to have been an “imposition" It is a beautiful spectacle, but one tinged from his birth, we have no intention of fol- with melancholy, to behold the budding lowing the new biographer. Some of our forth of the human soul in its infancy; to readers will no doubt be interested in this watch it gently feeling its way, and expandbook. Whether a Bourbon or a Chiappini, ing like the petals of a flower, at first freely the life of Louis Philippe was one of the in the pure air, before it rubs against some most varied and romantic in history. Could rude rock. It is pleasant to behold how it we have the story told without prejudice or basks in the sunshine, reposing with ineffable passion, it might be one of the most instruc-tenderness upon any support nature may tive on record. But this, for the present at afford, stealing fragrance from all that bursts least, is not to be expected. Enemies will fresh upon its comprehension, and loving continue to deny him every merit-partisans every thing. Man lives perhaps twenty will unduly exalt his virtues--so long as the long years in the world before the inanisuffrages of France are supposed to be pend- mate objects of creation are perfectly ing between rival claimants for the perma- familiar to him. During that time every nent succession to the throne.
thing is possessed of novelty. All the beauties of nature, its varied aspects, its loftier sublimity and grandeur strike upon
him with strange impressiveness; and it is From “Eliza Cook's Journal,
this feeling, inexplicable but deep-seated, LINKS AND ASSOCIATIONS.
which forces man, as it were, to linger in
memory upon scenes thus hallowed. None In our most ordinary conversations and are conscious of the actual sameness in the familiar dialogues we frequently make events of each existing person's life. The use of phrases which, though apparently same circumstances, the same impulses and having no peculiar signification, are, in passions, form the leading feature of every reality, fraught with deep meaning, at least one's existence. They only manifest themto the reflecting. There is in the mind of selves under varied forms. It is, if we knew almost every one a tendency to look back it, only the freshness of sensations that ward, and dwell upon some scenes and plunges us into that rapture of soul, surpleasures past, which seem as if nothing in rounding us when we begin to experience the present or future could surpass for the influence of passion and devotion. The joyousness. We dare not hope too much, intenseness of our first feelings rises into a after having once passed the barrier which kind of bewilderment; we feel more than divideg us from early youth; we dare not | we can explain to ourselves; we wonder at hope to reproduce such delights as belong | the novelty of our sensations; we exist only alone to a time when we were upencumber. in our dream. ed with responsibilities, rigid duties, or deep And who would destroy the blissful ignopurposes. It is this independence of soul rance of youth before its time, or force it to that creates a great portion of the halo contemplate what, sooner or later, must which everyone is so lavish of casting come, the conviction that there is a canker around youth. We are then so prone to in every earthly joy, corroding it at its root? trust, to individualize ourselves, to separate No love so pure but knows some fear ; no ourselves from the mass of suffering mortali-affection so strong but knows some shatter.
ing; no passion so engrossing but knows nothing in the world can give beside, for she some background of doubt. Fortunate for knows that, however much in after years, us that it is so. If every bope of life were love, ambition, traffic, worldly cares may crowned with success, if love could never withdraw some portion of that love, then die, or affection wither away, if all in this the little being, with all its little wishes, world proved true, man would be rendered hopes, and desires, is all her own. All the intensely selfish, and unwilling to acknowl- tenderness floating in its innocent eyes is edge the consoling power of faith. Our for her to whom it owes all. This cannot purpose in this world is to know and to last; the moment the little foot finds it can suffer, for suffering purifies, and refines, and make itself a way unaided, some portion of expands our sympathies towards others. its devotion ceases. Toys, amusements draw The mission of man is universal, not exclu- away its attention, and in the absorption of sive, and sweet as is the early experience of the child in its playthings and playmates, life, with its freedom from sorrow and re- the mother beholds a miniature picture of sponsibility, we would not have it in ex- its future life. Studies, amusements of anchange for the deep and sacred calm which other character then step in, and the passions descends upon our soul after having ex- which all must feel, and whose withering perienced something bringing pain. For influence all men more or less experience. along with that pain comes reflection and Life now dawns in reality; the all-enthought; the power of thought is an attri- grossing power of ambition; the sweetness bute never to be foregone.
and the bitterness of love; the thickly. Childhood is the age of innocence and bap- crowded cares of life's daily struggle for expiness. A trite observation it may be, but istence; the yearning after fame; the deits truth falls into every heart. An interest votion to money; the attractions to business; in beings that have not yet known and felt the excitement of travel, and even, perhaps, is always sure to be awakened. The im- the gnawing, corroding, soul-depressing inpulses of our nature lead us to love that fluence of poverty, sweeps away gradually which is hidden, secret, and innocent. We the gentleness, the tenderness, the guilelesslove the flower that grows in the shade, the ness, the purity even of youth; and for a half-hidden rill, the quiet knoll, the unwhile, lost in the giddy whirl of love and plucked blossom in the forest, protected by pleasure, man forgets the freshness of his eombre trees. The wild rose nestling in the early existence, the sweetness of sensations brambly hedge, the violet covering its feet which men feel without perfectly comprewith fragrance, are ever dear to us. And so hending them, is quite obliterated, and he the child kept apart from the world, spring- goes forth hardened and prepared for the ing each day into fresh consciousness, and sterner realities of life which, while they fit depending almost wholly on the being who him to hold a more manly position in society, gave it birth for direction and assistance, is render him oftentimes less pleasing in the loved and looked upon with admiration ; and domestic hearth. as it quits the sunny land of childhood, and It is strange to contemplate how, after long rapidly approaches near the dark tract of years separation from the period of youth, experience which a riper age will bring, we the mind will suddenly take a leap backview it with a more anxious tenderness, and wards, and plunge its memory into the grieve silently over the rebuffs it must know. scenes of the past. The indescribable train We secretly breathe a wish that it could of association is not to be perfectly underever rest as it did, a babe on its mother's stood. Some trifle falling across our path breast, hallowed in its innocence, a thing of will sometimes carry us back year by year purity, born only to give and to receive joy. to some time-hallowed scene, and place 118 Never in the whole course of our existence with the same feelings and impulses in the are we so loved as in our infancy; for un- very spot we then occupied. Out of some consciously reposing on what we know not such links, conversations the most agreeable then-a mother's love-we draw our life, have arisen. Some associations having been our nourishment, our happiness from one,– created, life episodes, narratives, anecdotes, and that one, when she nestles her babe to feelings all connected with the past, burst her bosom, experiences a thrill of rapture, / impetuously forth, and much of the old heart