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know, off my rent of half-a-crown. It's , looms-the wife's, the husband's, and the rather a large room.”
young man's, as they go again—make a Is that your wife at the other loom P" chorus. " That's my wife. She's making a com- “This man's work, now, Mr. Broadellemoner sort of work, for bonnets and that.” he can't hear us apart here, in this noise :
Again his loom clashes and jars, and he " Oh, no!" leans forward over his toil. In the window —“ requires but little skill ?" by him, is a singing-bird in a little cage, “Very little skill. He is doing now, exwhich trolls its song, and seems to think the actly what his grandfather did. Nothing loom an instrument of music. The window, would induce him to use a simple improvetightly closed, commands a maze of chimney- ment (the 'fly shuttle') to prevent that conpots, and tiles, and gables. Among them, traction of the chest of which he complains. the ineffectual sun, faintly contending with Nothing would turn bim aside from his old the rain and mist, is going down. A yellow ways. It is the old custom to work at home, ray of light crossing the weaver's eager eyes in a crowded room, instead of in a factory. and hollow white face, makes a shape some- I couldn't change it, if I were to try.” thing like a pike-head on the floor.
“Good Heaven, is the house falling! Is The room is unwholesome, close, and dirty. there an earthquake in Spitalfields ! Has a Through one part of it the staircase comes volcano burst out in the heart of London ! up in a bulk, and roughly partitions off a What is this appalling rush and tremble ? corner. In that corner are the bedstead and It is only the railroad. the fireplace, a table, a chair or two, a kettle, The arches of the railroad span the house; a tub of water, a little crockery. The looms the wires of the electric telegraph stretch claim all the superior space and have it. over the confined scene of his daily life; the Like grim enchanters who provide the family engines fly past him on their errands, and with their scant food, they must be propi- outstrip the birds ; and what can the man tiated with the best accommodation. They of prejudice and usage hope for, but to be bestride the room, and pitilessly squeeze overthrown and flung into oblivion! Look the children--this heavy, watery-headed to it, gentlemen of precedent and custom baby carried in the arms of its staggering standing, daintily opposed to progress, in the little brother, for example—into corners. bag-wigs and embroidered coats of another The children sleep at night between the legs generation, you may learn from the weaver of the monsters, who deafen their first cries in his shirt and trowsers ! with their whirr and rattle, and who roar There, we leave him in the dark, about to the same tune to them when they die. kindle at the poor fire the lamp that hangs Come to the mother's loom.
upon his loom, to help him on his laboring " Have you any other children besides way into the night. The sun has gone down, these ?"
the reflection has vanished from the floor. “I have had eight. I have six alive.” There is nothing in the gloom but his eager
“Did we see any of them, just now, at eyes, made hungrier by the sight of our the-"
the dark shapes of his fellow“ Ragged School ! O yes! You saw four workers mingling with their stopped looms ; of mine at the Ragged School I"
the mute bird in its little cage, duskily exShe looks up, quite bright about it-has pressed against the window; and the waa mother's pride in it—is not ashamed of tery-headed baby crooning in a corner God the name: she, working for her bread, not knows where. begging it—not in the least.
We are again in the streets. She has stopped her loom for the mo- “ The fluctuations in the silk-trade, and ment. So has her husband. So has the consequently, in the condition of the Spityoung man.
alfields weaver," says our friend,“ are sud“Weaver's children are born in the weav- den and unforeseen ; for they depend upon a er's room,” says the husband, with a nod at variety of uncontrollable causes.
Let us the bedstead. “Nursed there, brought up take, for example, the past four or five there-sick or well—and die there." years."
To which, the clash and jar of all tbree “ But does that period afford a fair aver
age of the condition of the trade? Were vancing price of raw silk,* I have within the not the fluctuations extreme ?"
last fortnight been compelled to discharge “They were. In 1846 the price of raw one hundred hands." silk was very low. The manufacturers Spitalfields, however, has its bright side. bought all they could, and worked up all | As yet machinery has not been taught to they bought. Not a hand was idle, not a turn artist, or to guide the shuttle through loom at rest. Enormous stocks soon accu the intricate niceties of the Jacquard loom, mulated, silk became dearer ; but in May, so as to execute designs. Figured and bro 1847, there came sudden stop.”
caded silks must still be done by hands, and “Was it not, then, that the last loud cry those hands must be skillful. of distress arose from Spitalfields, and that "Our silks,” Mr. Broadelle tells us, “ have public meetings were held for finding means never been inferior, in quality, to those of of redress ? "
our foreign rivals ; but, we have always “It was.
The stagnation was prolonged been beaten in taste. In the stolid assiduous by a dispute, in which the silk manufac- pains-taking motion of the hand and treadle, turers and wholesale dealers were involved the English weaver is unsurpassed; but, he with the large retail houses. It got the has seldom exercised his fancy. Until lately, name of the 'short measure question. The therefore, few designs originated in this retailers wanted us to give them thirty-country. We silk-manufacturers, like the seven inches to every yard. The autumn Dramatic Authors' Society, have been contrade was completely crippled by this dis- tent to take our novelties from the French." cussion; which did not end till the breaking "You say, 'until lately. Has the Enout of the French Revolution, in Februa- glish manufacturer improved in that rery, 1848. West-end and wholesale buyers spect ?” rushed over to Paris and Lyons, in regi. “Decidedly. Schools of Design have done ments, and with unlimited capital. They something: the encouragement given by bought for almost any price they chose to masters to those who make available patto offer. This cut two ways; although terns, has done something too; but, the great wholesale and retail houses brought home improver of the English silk trade was the great parcels of manufactured articles, we last French revolution." also bought raw silk, in France, from fifteen
“ How ?” to twenty per cent. below the lowest price I " That political disaster brought the manever knew it. What do you think, sir, of ufacturers of France to a dead-lock. During the finest French organzine for a guinea a the whole of 1849, the English markets were pound ?”
stocked with the most splendid fashions that We answered by an exclamation of vague ever came into it. As we could not sell a surprise.
yard of our manufacture, we had plenty of “Such a price as this enabled us to set leisure to examine the different foreign goods some of our looms at work for stock, and, minutely. So rich a variety had never fallen during 1849, the French goods being ex. under our observation, and never before had hausted, ours came into play. Indeed, du- such a flood of light been thrown on the ring that year the British manufacturer was manufactures of our greatest rivals. We in a position to defy competition.”
profited by it. More important improve“The French had not recovered them- ments bave been effected in the fabric of selves ?"
fancy silk goods since 1848, than were “Not only that—but we had bought near- made, down to that time, since the days of ly all their raw silk, and they were actually Jacquard.” obliged to buy it back from us at advances This shows the value of national interof from twenty to fifty per cent.! From course, Mr. Broadelle. Will the Great Exthat time prices advanced here, and work hibition do much service in this way?" kept on increasing, so that, during most of “I have no doubt it will. But, we are last year, Spitalfields was busy." “A glut of stock has been again the con
* The price of “organzine” during the month of aequence."
March was :-French, 328.; Piedmont, 268.; China, “ Yes; and what with that and the ad- ! 229.
A nearer one
now at the door of a figure-weaver ; and you although she is doing very ordinary work. will compare this visit with our last." Industry, contentment, sense, and self-re
We knock at the door of a cheerful little spect, are the hopeful characteristics of house, extremely clean. We are introduced every thing animate and inanimate in this into a little parlor, where a young artist sits little house. If the veritable suinmer light at work with crayons and water-colors. He were shining, and the veritable summer air is a student of the School of Design. He is were rustling, in it, which the young artist at work on a new pattern for a table-cover. has tried to get into the sketches of green He has learnt to paint in oil. He has paint glades from Epping Forest that hang near ed the portraits of his sisters—and of some father's loom, and can be seen by father one who I suspect is not a sister, but who while he is at work, it could not be more
cheering to our hearts, oppressed with what
we have left. Yet and a dearer one,
I meant to have had a talk with our good and they decorate the room. He has painted friend Mr. Broadelle, respecting a cruel pergroups of flowers. He shows us one that sistence in one inflexible principle which was in last year's Exhibition of the Royal gave the New Poor Law a particular severAcademy. He shows us another that he ity in its application to Spitalfields, a few means to finish in good time to send to the years back, but which I hope may have been next Exhibition. He does these things over amended. Work in the stone-yard was the and above his regular work. He don't mind test of all able-bodied applicants for relief. work-gets up early. There are cheap casts Now the weaver's hands are soft and deliprettily arranged about the room, and it has cate, and must be so for his work. No mata little collection of cheap books of a good ter. The weaver wanting relief, must work sort in it. The intrinsic worth of every sim- in the stone-yard with the rest. So, the ple article of furniture or embellishment is Union blistered his hands before it relieved enhanced a hundredfold (as it always may him, and incapacitated him from doing his be) by neatness and order. Is father at work when he could get it. home? Yes, and will be glad to see the But, let us leave Spitalfields with an visitors. Pray walk up!
agreeable impression, and be thankful that The young artist shows us the way to the top of the house, apologizing cheerfully for the ladder-staircase by which we mount at last. In a bright clean room, as pure as
Frona "Chambers' Edinburgh Journal." soap and water, scrubbing, and fresh air, can
SYMPATHETIC SNAIL COMPASS. make it, we find a sister whose portrait is down stairs—we are able to claim her in- HERETOFORE there has been a limit to the stantly for the original, to the general satis- security and rapidity of mental intercourse faction. We find also, father, who is work both between individuals and nations. The ing at his Jacquard loom, making a pretty most tender epistles, the most important pattern of cravat, in blue upon a black dispatches, must needs be subject to the ground. He is as cordial, sensible, intelli- dangers and caprices of the winds and gent a man as any one would wish to know. waves; nor can the electric telegraph bear He has a reason for every thing he says, and our messages beyond the confines of our every thing he does. He is learned in sani- island home, for hitherto, at least, its attary matters among other necessary knowl- tempts to find a pathway in the mighty edge, and says the first thing you have to deep have proved an utter failure. The do, is, to make your place wholesome, or you longings thus expressed for an instantaneous can't expect to work heartily. Wholesome communication of thought with distant counit is, as his own pleasant face, and the pleas- tries, and which bave hitherto been baffled ant faces of his children well brought up and disappointed, are now, however, on the He has made various improvements in his eve of being realized by a discovery which own loom; he has made an improvement in will enable us, in a moment of time, to span his daughter's, who works near him, which the great globe itself by our inmost thought, prevents her having to contract her chest, and to whisper it in silence to the listening
ear of our friend at Calcutta or New Zealand. great distance from each other This is the
“ But by what mighty agency will this next point to be ascertained. Well, it would instantaneous communication be effected ?” appear from the statements of our two “By a enail."
philosophers, that when these tender crea“By a snail ! Incredible! Impossible !" |tures are torn asunder by the relentless
Incredible, if you will, but not impossio hand of fate, there flows forth from one to ble; for it is to the snail that this mission the other a sort of fluid, of which the earth of thought-bearing is assigned; and the vast is the conductor, and which unfolds itself, so community of snailhood will doubtless fulfill to speak, like the almost invisible thread of their office with a becoming sense of its a spider or a silk-worm, only with this difimportance."
ference—that the escargotic fluid is quite Let us now attempt to unravel this mys- invisible, and that it passes through space tery.
with the rapidity of lightning. It is by About eight or nine years ago it was means of this fluid that is excited and comdiscovered, almost simultaneously, by an municated the escargotic commotion, which American and a Frenchman, (Messrs. Biat is instantaneously transmitted from one beand Benoît,) that certain snails, after having loved snail to the other, even though their once entered into affinity with each other, habitations be fixed on opposite sides of the were endued with the remarkable faculty globe. In order to establish this communi. of remaining permanently under a mutual cation, however, it suffices not to awaken sympathetic influence, which was not de escargotic sympathy : there must also exist stroyed, nor even weakened, by the most an harmonie sympathy between the indiprolonged intervention of time or space. viduals who desire to correspond; and this This electric sympathy was not always dual harmonic sympathy is obtained by animal in its nature, for it was found to exist with magnetism, and by intermingling the symequal intensity among whole families of pathetic escargotic fluid with the mineral snails whose early lives had been passed and adamic magnetic fluid under the influwithin the same paternal hole. It was disence of the galvanic mineral fluid. covered, moreover, by our philosophers, that This is not the place to inquire what this sympathy is strengthened and directed analogy there may naturally exist among by placing the sympathizing snails en rap- these different fluids. Suffice it to say, that port with (we use the terms without pro- the necessity for their interfusion is the chief fessing to understand their meaning) the fact of the discovery, and without which the magnetic, mineral, and adamic fluid, which whole system must fall to the ground. In a may be effected by bringing them under a word, the entire system of this novel comcertain conditions necessary to the mainte-munication may be said to rest as a basis nance of this threefold sympathy. In order upon the medium of galvano-magnetic-minto obtain these results, there has been in- eral-animal-adamic-sympathy. vented by these gentlemen a portable ap- There remains now to be ascertained by paratus, called a Pasilalinic Sympathetic what sort of apparatus this escargotic comCompass, by whose aid they obtain instan- motion is obtained, and what means are taneously, and at whatever distance the adopted to render this commotion subsympathetic snails may be placed, a sensible servient to the transmission of thought. movement—designated by them an escar- The pasilalinic-sympathetic compass congotic commotion,” and which is manifested sists of a square wooden box, within every time that the parted sympathetic which is placed a galvanic battery whose snails are excited by the approach of other metallic plates, instead of being placed sympathetic snails which are in affinity above one another, as in the voltaic piles, both with them and with each other; even are arranged in series, and fixed in grooves, in like manner as the electric commotion made for that purpose in a circular wooden manifests itself to the experimentalist each plate, which revolves round its axis of iron. time that he approaches with his finger a In place of metallic disks, Messrs. Biat and body which has previously been electrified. Benoît have substituted circular troughs or
But how can this sympathy be mutually cups of zinc, each one lined with linen which inanifested when the snails are placed at a bas been previously steeped in a solution of
sulphate of copper which is riveted to the lous sympathetic compaes, who desirous to cup. At the bottom of each trough is fixed, satisfy him fully with regard to the truth of by a certain composition, known only to the the discovery, invited him to be present inventors, a living snail, which imbibes in during one of his correspondences with Mr. this metallic solitude a due portion of gal- Biat in America. Accordingly, M. Jules var influence, to be subsequently combined Allix bent his steps with an anxious and with the electric influence, which is de beating heart to the Parisian dwelling where veloped when the wheel is set in motion, his doubts were to be resolved and his curibearing along with it the captive snails osity satisfied. The philosopher in America which have been fixed around it in their cells. having been warned of their intention, they
The box wherein is inclosed this mov- stood before the magic compass. M. Jules able battery may be made of any form or Allix not being in a state of harmonic symsubstance whatever ; but a close covering is pathy with the correspondents, it was arabsolutely essential, as the snails must not ranged that M. Benoît should convey any be exposed to atmospheric influence. More word or sentence he desired to express. over, each of the galvanic troughs must be The magnitude of the undertaking overfurnished with a spring, whose pressure will whelmed him with awe, and his mind filled reveal the escargotic movement of the being with reverence for the venerable philosopher which dwells within. It will be readily ap- who, at the other side of the Atlantic, awaited prebended that in order to the formation of his message. The only word he could utter a corresponding apparatus, two of these Biat !" M. Benoît, with a sympathisnail-prisoning instruments will be neces- zing snail in his hand, touched one of the sary; the corresponding cups of each con captives in a trough: it moved! The letter taining snails which have a reciprocal affin B was noted down. Another was then ity, so that the escargotic commotion may touched, and another, and another. The be transmitted from one precise point of the name of BI A T was composed and transbattery to the same precise point of the mitted to the American sage. In a few other battery in the duplicate compass. moments an escargotic motion became once
One more particular remains to be noticed. more visible on the dial, and letter after letMessrs. Biat and Benoît have affixed to the ter was noted down, until these words were wheels of those two instruments, and close deciphered, “ C'est bien” (“ It is well.") One to each of the sympathetic springs, corre- or two other brief sentences passed between sponding letters, which form a sort of alpha them, which fully satisfied M. Allix as to betic and sympathetic dials, by means of the reality of the discovery; but we are which the communication of thought is obliged in common honesty to confess that effected easily and instantaneously to any some slight inaccuracies occurred in the place, however distant; the escargotic com- spelling, not sufficient, however, to render motion indicating on the corresponding dial the words unintelligible; and considering those letters which one person desires to that the snails have but recently begun their transmit to the other.
education, we think it is but fair to make In order to effect the communication, noth- some allowance for them. Meantime, who ing more is required than for the two cor- will deny that the invention of Messrs. Biat respondents to place themselves before these and Benoît exceeds both in wonder and in two instruments at the same hour, and to importance all the discoveries of Galvani, of be in the necessary condition of harmonic Volta, and of Mesmer? Its agency so hum. sympathy, so that they may, without the ble and so simple !—its results so magnifiintervention of steam-packets or electric cent and so complex! Henceforth, where telegraphs, and without any eye resting will be the boudoir, or where the council upon them save the sympathizing glance of chamber, which shall not possess its pasitheir friendly snails, unfold the inmost secret | lalinic sympathetic compass ? There will of their hearts.
doubtless be some of massive construction In the article from whence the above details and classic form intended for our public have been drawn, the writer, M. Jules Allix, offices, from whence they may in a moment goes on to describe his interview with M. of time transmit to the most distant parts of Benoît, one of the inventors of this marvel- the globe the eloquent outpourings of our