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The true end of education, is to unfold and direct aright our whole nature. Its office is to call forth power of every kind-power of thought, affection, will, and outward action; power to observe, to reason, to judge, to contrive; power to adopt good ends firmly, and to pursue them effic. iently; power to govern ourselves, and to influence others; power to gain and to spread happiness. Reading is but an instrument; education is to teach its best use. The intellect was created, not to receive passively a few words, dates, facts, but to be active for the acquisition of truth. Accordingly, education should labor to inspire a profound love of truth, and to teach the processes of investigation. A sound logic, by which we mean the science or art which instructs us in the laws of reasoning and evidence, in the true methods of inquiry, and in the sources of false judgments, is an essential part of a good education. And yet, how little is done to teach the right use of the intellect, in the common modes of training either rich or poor. As a general rule; the young are to be made, as far as possible, their own teachers—the discoverers of truth—the interpreters of nature—the framers of science. They are to be helped to help themselves. They should be taught to observe and study the world in which they live, to trace the connections of events, to rise from particular facts to general principles, and then to apply these in explaining new phenomena. Such is a rapid outline of the intellectual education, which, as far as possib'e, should be given to all human beings; and with this, moral education shouiu go hand in hand. In proportion as the child gains knowledge, he should be taught how to use it wellhow to turn it to the good of mankind. He should study the world as God's world, and as the sphere in which he is to form interesting connections with his fellow-creatures. A spirit of humanity should be breathed into him from all his studies. In teaching geography, the physical and moral condition, the wants, advantages, and striking peculiarities of different nations, and the relations of climate, seas, rivers, mountains, to their characters and pursuits, should be pointed out, so as to awaken an interest in man wherever he dwells. History should be constantly used to exercise the moral judgment of the young, to call forth sympathy with the fortunes of the human race, and to expose to indignation and abhorrence that selfish ambition, that passion for dominion, which has so long deluged the earth with blood and woe. And not only should the excitement of just moral feeling be proposed in every study, the science of morals should form an important part of every child's instruction. One branch of ethics should be particularly insisted on by the government. Every school, established by law, should be specially bound to teach the duties of the citizen to the state, to unfold the principles of free institutions, and to train the young to an enlightened patriotism.

W. E. CHANNING. Christian Examiner, Nov., 1833.

The object of the science of education is to render the mind the fittest possible instrument for discovering, applying, or obeying the laws under which God has placed the universe.

WAYLAND.

We regard education as the formation of the character, physical, intellectual, and moral; as the process by which our faculties are developed, cultivated, and directed, and by which we are prepared for our station and employment, for usefulness and happiness, for time and eternity.

W. C. WOODBRIDGE All intelligent thinkers upon the subject now utterly discard and repu. diate the idea that reading and writing, with a knowledge of accounts, constitute education. The lowest claim which any intelligent man now prefers in its behalf is, that its domain extends over the threefold nature of man; over his body, training it by the systematic and intelligent observance of those benign laws which secure health, impart strength and prolong life; over his intellect, invigorating the mind, replenishing it with knowledge, and cultivating all these tastes, which are allied to virtue; and over his moral and religious susceptibilities also, dethroning selfishness, enthroning conscience, leading the affections outwardly in good-will towards man, and upward in gratitude, and reverence to God.

Far above and beyond all special qualifications for special pursuits, is the importance of forming to usefulness and honor the capacities which are common to all mankind. The endowments that belong to all, are of far greater consequences than the peculiarities of any. The practical farmer, the ingenious mechanic, the talented artist, the upright legislator or judge, the accomplished teacher, are only modifications or varieties of the original man. The man is the trunk; occupations and professions are only different qualities of the fruit it yields. The development of the common nature; the cultivation of the germs of intelligence, uprightness, benevolence, truth that belong to all; these are the principal, the aim, the end, while special preparations for the field or the shop, for the forum or the desk, for the land or the sea, are but incidents.

The great necessities of a race like ours, in a world like ours, are: a Body, grown from its elemental beginning, in health; compacted with strength and vital with activity in every part; impassive to heat and cold, and victorious over the vicissitudes of seasons and zones; not crippled by disease nor stricken down by early death; not shrinking from bravest effort, but panting, like fleetest runner, less for the prize than for the joy of the race; and rejuvenant amid the frosts of age. A Mind, as strong for the immortal as is the body for the mortal life; alike enlightened by the wisdom and beaconed by the errors of the past; through intelligence of the laws of nature, guiding her elemental forces, as it directs the limbs of its own body through the nerves of motion, thus making alliance with the exhaustless forces of nature for its strength and clothing itself with her endless charms for its beauty, and, wherever it goes, carrying a sun in its hand with which to explore the realms of nature, and reveal her yet hidden truths. And then a Moral Nature, presiding like a divinity over the whole, banishing sorrow and pain, gathering in earthly joys and immortal hopes, and transfigured and rapt by the sovereign and sublime aspiration TO KNOW AND DO THE WILL OF God.

HORACE Maxx.

INDEX

TO

REPORT AND DOCUMENTS OF COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION,

1867-'68.

Academy, meaning of, 414.
Academie education, xxxi, 403.

Circular respecting, 401.
Historical development, 409.
Endow inents, 411.
Maxsachusetts policy, 414.
Increase of, 420.
Relation to colleges, 428.

Monuments of private liberality, 429. Adams, J., education clause in Mass. Constitu.

tion, 86.
State and education, 320.
Adans, J. Q., State and education, 320.
Adilison, Joseph, education defined, 838.
Adolescence, education for, 427.
Agriculture, schools and colleges of, 129.

Circular respecting, 129.
Jefferson as to professorship in 1795, 46.
Historical data, 233, 249, 252.
Congressional land grants in aid of, 78, 133.
State legislation and action, 135.
California, 135, 297.
Connecticut, 141, 217.
Delaware, 143.
Illinois, 145, 305.
Iowa, 154, 382.
Kansas, 161, 301.
Kentucky, 164, 291,
Maine, 168, 299.
Maryland, 172, 273.
Massachusetts, 173, 249.
Michigan, 179, 267.
Minnesota, 182
New Hampshire, 185, 277.
New Jersey, 187, 287.
New York, 189, 253.
Ohio, 194.
Pennsylvania, 197, 259.
Rhode Island, 199, 309.
Vermont, 201, 279.
West Virginia, 207, 283.

Wisconsin, 211, 283.
Alabama, 77, 107.

Constitution of 1819; of 1865, 108; of 1867, 125.
Albany, Normal School at, 703.
Altenstein, ininistry of public instruction, 441.
American Acadeiny of Arts and Science, 87.
American Journal of Education, 9.

Classified index of subjects, 17.
Amherst, Agricultural College, 249.

Donation to Agricultural College, 249.
Andover, Phillips' Academy, 403.
Andrew, Gov., on Agricultural College, 235.
Anu Arbor, Union School at, 589.
Annual Report of Commissioner of Educa.

tion, ix,

Architecture, schools of, 244, 278.
Aretin, education of girls, 378.
Arkansas, State of, 77, 110.

Constitution of 1836, 110; of 1863, 126.
Arnold, collection of birds in 1774, 86.
Aristotle, education of girls, 383.

State and education, 331.
Art, schools and museums of, 822.
Ascham, R., education defined, 834.

State and education, 334.
Attendance at school, compulsory, 338.
Bacon, Francis, custom and education, 834.
Barbarism, the danger of a new country, 408.
Baltimore, Ma., plan of school-houses, 633.
Barnard, Henry, Commissioner of Education, 5.

Plan of Journal of Education, 9.
Central Agency, 9.

Teachers' Institute in Wisconsin, 755.
Barnard, D, D., government and education, 323.
Baur, education of girls, 380.
Benefactors of education, xxi.

Bussey, 235.
Chandler, 278; Cornell, 254,
Durfee, 251.
Farnum, 738.
Gray, 234.
Hopkins, 407; Harvard, 406.
Irwin, 260.
Lawrence, 234; Lowell, 234.
McNeely, 796.
Phillips, 234, 423.
Sheffield, 22, 217.
Thompson, 234 ; Thayer, 278.

Van Repsselaer, 253.
Benefactions by towns and counties.

Amherst, Mass., 249.
Champaign, Ill., 307.
Centre county, Pn., 260.
Dane county, Mich., 213.

Oswego, 805.
Bernhard's Study Plan for Gymnasium, 493.
Bibliography, agricultural schools, 231.
Biography of Teaching, 38.
Blind, schools tor, 34.
Board of Education, 318.
Boarding arrangements, 737.
Bolingbroke, genius and learning, 834.
Boston Latin School, 421, 518.
Botanic gardens and agriculture, 234.
Boutwell, George S., 701.
Bowman, J. B., and Kentucky University, 291.
Bowdoin Grammar School-house, 526.
Brandenburg, province of, 459.
Bridgewater, (Mass.) State Normal School, 689.
Brooks, Charles, and Normal Schools, 664.

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Brougham, Lord, 50, 333, 335.

Circular, school-honses, 519. Brown. Thoinas, the process of education, 845. Circular, Formal Schools, 651. Brown University and Agricultural College, 199. Circular, 1110ins of natural tistory, 821. Brown's hot water furnace, 341.

Circular, academies of art. 2. Brownson, 0. A., education d'fined, 844.

Circular, public grounds. 89. Bullock, Gov., address on Normal Schools, 671. Circular, educational tracts, 32. Burlington (Vt.) State University and Agricul. Common schools abouill be co0d, 317. tural College, 279,

Basis of all public education, 319.
Burgher Schools of first grade, 517.

Sources of ail publie prosperity, 322.
Bushnell, Horace, taxution for schools, 330. Cheap as well as good, 326.
Burke, Edmuud, education defined, 837.

'True idea of. 316.

Competitive examination. xxi.
Cabinet and Library of Department, xxiii. Compulsory school attendance, 53, 33.
California, 119.

Zurich law, 338.
Constitution of 1819. 119.

Connecticut, early educational history, 48, Agricultural land grant, 125.

Statistical data. 77. Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts Code of 1050, 328. College, 297.

Constitution of 1818, 89.
State Norinal School, 769.

School fund. 9.
Carlyle, T., principl* and result of culture, 845. Agricultural land grant, 141,
Carter, J. G., and Normal Schools, 661.

College of agriculture, 217.
Castine (Maine) State Sorin: School, 778. Conrector in Germain gympas 10s, 470.
Cellarins, and a teacher's seminary at falle, 481. Constitutional provision respecting education,
Central Agency of Education in 1942 and 1854. xxix, 81, 1:25,
Channing, W. E., true end of education, 817. General principles of, xxix, 123.
Chandler, A., 27.

Cornell University, le 23). Scientific Depart, of Dartmouth College, 278. Legislation respecting, 182. Chapman school-honxe, model size, 518.

Cornell, Ezra, 2.34. Charitable institutions, XX.

Conant. M.. and Normal Schools. fo. Charleston, (S. C.)State Normal School, 787. Correspondenc: of department, xxii. Cheever, Ezekiel, 518.

Cottage Grove school-house', Chicago, I. Chemistry, school of, 923.

Cousin's tribute to Pru-sian scbonis. 414. Chicugo, plans of school-houses, 577.

Courses of study, elementary sehool, 33. Wells school, 578.

Agricultural colleges, 2:13, 2511, 355, , 92, Cottage Grove, 521.

227, 291, 303, City University, 582.

Gyinnasiums 357. 495. Chinese maxims, influence of education, 331. Normal schools, 361 Cicero, genius and diseipline, 844.

Technological schools, 223, 29. Pursuit of knowledge, 330.

R-al-school, 502. Cincinnati school-bouwen. 593.

Mining schools, 24, 263. City candidates for college, 421,

Cox, W., circle of buman knowledge, ED. City grammar school-house, wiz- of, 542. City training schools, FUB, 809.812.

Dane county, (Wis.,) donation of, 213. Citizenship and education, 216, 3:24.

Dane, Nathan, report on acuderies, 416. Circulars of Commisioner, 63, 81, 129, 311, 369, Davenport (Iowa) City Training School 813 401, 519, 657, 821, 832 8:23.

Davenport, Johu, 400.
Monthly, xxiii; contents, (1-12,) xxxiii. Services to classical learning, 400.
Special as to act establishing department, 5. Dartmouth College, 185, 279.
Monthly circular, 2.

Agricultural land grant, 185.
Plan of publication, 5.

Daughters, education of, 371. Civil engineering, 225.

Deat-mute pineation, 34. Classes in Prussian gynnasiums, 493.

Degrees and diplomas, academic, 216.
Class professors in Gerinany, 469.

Bachlor of agriculture, 2.
Classification of society and education, 526. Bachelor of arts, 246.
Clinton, DeWitt, State and education, 321.

Bachelor of science, 266, 272.
Cochran, D. H., and X. Y. Norinal School, 711. Bachelor of philosophy, 223.
Co-education of the Hexes, 383.

Dostor of philosophy, 236. Advantages of, 288.

Military and mining engineering, 268.
Disadvantages considered, 392.

Master of science, 272, 216.
Experience of the Friends' Schools, 397. Delaware, 77, 94.
Columbia, District of, xxvii.

Constitution of 1831, 94.
College defined, xvii.

Agricultural land grant, 141.
Cominissioner of Education, appointed, viii. College, 141.
Duties, x.

Denominational schools, 34.
Plan of operations in 1867, xii.

Department of Education, ix, 5. General circular, xiii.

Dickinson, J. W., philosophy of teaching, hes Plan of publication, xxiii, 5.

Directors of Prussian gymnasiums, 164 Reports annual and special. xxv,

Dinter, official duty to education, 61. Work done in 1867-68, xxvi.

District of Columnbia, xxvii. Expenses of, xxxii.

District school mystem, original object of, 415 Circular respecting land grants, 63.

Doane, George, address by, 313. Circular, constitutiopal provision, 80.

Domestic traiaing of girls, 374. Circular, schools of science, 1:29.

Drawing, teachers of in Prussia, 483. Circular, national education, 311.

Dummer School at Bytield, Mass., 410. Circular, female education, 369.

Duty of State to education, 313. Circular, academies, 401.

Dwight, Edmund, 693. Circular, secondary education, 433.

Free school, constitutional provision.
Alabaina, 125 ; Arkansas, 126; Florida, 128;

Georgia, 128; Louisiana, 128; North Caro-
lina, 128; South Carolina, 128 ; Virginia,
128.

Gallaudet, T. H., and Normal Schools, 664.
Gartield, James A., on national education, 49.
Gedike, 475, 187.
Georgia, 77, 99.

Constitution of 1798, 99; of 1868, 128.
Gilman, D. C., on school-houses, 559.
Girls, schools for, 35, 371, 385.
Goethe, education of girls, 381.
Government and education, 314,

Punishment and prevention, 315.

Taxation for schools, 323.
Graded schools, school-houses for, 517.
Grammar schools of New England, 404.
Greek in Prussian gymnasium, 497.
Gymnasium, 357.

Zurich, 357.

Prussia, 433. Gymnastics, branch of instruction in Prussia,

500. Teachers of, in Prussia, 283. Guizot on Normal Schools, 800.

State and education, 336.

Eaton, Nathaniel, 404.
Edinboro' (Penn.) Normal School at, 753.
Edinburgh High School, 403.
Education, defined, 833.

General principles, 18.
History of, 18.
Individual views on, 19.
Special -ystems, 19.
Cominon aud universal, 316, 325.
Personal and public, 323.
State interest in, 313, 323.

Compulsory, 325.
Ehrenberg and female education, 381.
Eichhorn's administration of schools, 444.
Eiler, G., 446.
Eleinentary schools, defined, xv.

Legislation respecting, xxix.

Zurich system, 342.
Emerson, G. B., lesson of the hour, 662.

Normal School advocate, 665,
Emporia (Kansas) Normal School, 771.
Engineering, civil, 288.

Mechanical mining, 241, 242, 263.
Epictetus, the chief duty of city, 331.
Erasmus, not how inuch, but how well to know,

844.
European system of education, xxx.
Evansville, Iud., city training school, 816.
Everett, E, 329

Duty of education, 59.
Female education, 381.
School-house, 536.

Normal School, 561.
Examinations of teachers in Prussia, 475.

Examen pro loco, 476.
Examen pro facultate docendi, 477, 481.
Examen per ascensione, 477.
Curriculum vitae, 478.
Conditional, 481.

Trial year, 489.
Experimental farm and agricultural colleges.

Connecticut, 218.
Iowa, 155.
Illinois, 308.
Massachusetts, 252.
Pennsylvania, 265.
New York, 238.

Michigan, 272.
Extremes of society in public schools, 545.
Factory children, 342.
Fairchild, J. H., co-education of the sexes, 385.
Farmery high school of Pennsylvania, 259.
Farmington (Maine) State Normal School, 777.
Farnum preparatory Normal School, 738.
Fellenberg, educatiou detined, 873.
Female principalship of Normal School, 672.

Governor Washburn's address, 673.

Teachers, 672, 679.
Female education, xxx, 369.

Circular respecting, 371.

Suggestions, 371.
Final examinations in Prussia, 479.
Florida, 112.
Constitution of 1839, 112; of 1865, 112; of

1868, 127.
Fort Wayne City training school, 815.
Foundation schools, 404.
France, statstics of schools, 61.
Fruningham State Normal School, 659.
Franklin school-house, (Washington,) 610.
Friser, J., on training schools of England, 795.
Frederic I, and chools, 436.
Frederic II, 436.
Frederic William III, 438.
Free academies, 411.
Free, meaning of as applied to schools, 412.

Hall, S. R., and Normal Schools, 662. Hamilton, Sir W., end of liberal study, 845. Hammond, C., 403.

Academies of New England, 403. Harris, James, nature of instruction, 838. Hart, John S., and Normal Schools, 732. Heating apparatus, 551. Hecker, J. Julius, and real schools, 501. Henry, Patrick, 94. Hickson, E. II., kind of education needed, 336. High schools, relative position, 420.

Impossible in country towns. 4:31.

Compared with academies, 421. History, teachers of, trained in Prussia, 486. Hoar, president of Harvard College, 233.

Suggestions as to garden and workshop in

1672, 233.
Hobby, R., knowledge and experience, 836.
Hollingsworth school-honse, 605.
Hooker, R., nature of law, 835.
Home education, 35.

Not possible for all children, 435,

Not favorable for some purposes, 436.
Hopkins, Edward, 407.

Services to classical learning, 407.
Grammar school at New Haven, 407.
Grammar school at Hartford, 408.

Hadley foundation, 408.
Horace, the mind a growth, 844.
Horublower, Chief Justice, 315.

State of education, 315, Hughes high school, Cincinnati, 593. Hulburd, C. T., and Normal Schools, 705. Hunboldt, William Von, 440. Hyattsville (M.) State Agricultural College,

272.

Idiots, schuols for, 34.
Illinois, 77, 107.

Constitution, 107.
Agricultural land grant, 78, 145.
Industrial University, 145, 305.

Normal University, 745.
Incorporated academies, 417.
Indianapolis, Iud., city training school, 815.
Indiana, 77, 104.

Constitution of 1816, 105, of 1851, 105.
Agriculturul land grants, 152.

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