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The general principles of education are the same, or nearly the same in all ages, and at all times. They are fixed unalterably in the natural and moral constitution of man. They are to be found in our affections and passions, some of which must be controlled and some cherished in every state of manners, and under every form of society. From the right apprehensions of them, we discover “the way in which a child ought to go,” and by the right use of them “when he is young,” we shall qualify him, “when old,” for not departing from it.
In promoting the happiness of our species, much is effected by authority of legal restraint, and much by public instruction from the pulpit. But education, in its large and proper sense, [of not merely the inculcation of moral precepts and religious doctrine, but a system of discipline applied to the hearts and lives of young persons,] may boast even of superior usefulness. It comes home directly to "the bosoms and business of " young persons, it rectifies every principle and controls every action; it prevents their attention from being relaxed by amusement, dissipated by levity, or overwhelmed by vice; it preserves them from falling a prey to the wicked examples of the world when they are in company, and from becoming slaves to their own turbulent appetites when they are in solitude. It is not occasional or desultory in its operation; on the contrary, it heaps “line upon line, and precept upon precept;" it binds the commands of religion, for a “sign upon the hands of young men, and frontlets between their eyes;" it is calculated to purify their desires and to regulate their conduct, when they “sit in the house, and when they walk in the way;" when they “lie down in peace to take their rest,” and when they “rise up" to "go forth to their labor.”
DR. PARR. What is the education of the generality of the world ? Reading a parcel of books? No. Restraint of discipline, emulation, examples of virtue and justice, form the education of the world.
EDMUND BURKE. The heart of a nation comes by priests, by lawyers, by philosophers, by schools, by education, by the nurse's care, the mother's anxiety, the father's severe brow. It comes by letters, by silence, by every art, by sculpture, painting, and poetry; by the song on war, on peace, on domestic virtue, on a beloved and magnanimous king; by the Iliad, by the Odyssey, by tragedy, by comedy. It comes by sympathy, by love, by the marriage union, by friendship, generosity, meekness, temperance; by virtue and example of virtue. It comes by sentiments of chivalry, by romance, by music, by decorations and magnificence of buildings; by the culture of the body, by comfortable clothing, by fashions in dress, by luxury and commerce. It comes by the severity, the melancholy, the benignity of countenance ; by rules of politeness, ceremonies, formalities, solemnities. It comes by rights attendant on law, by religion, by the oath of office, by the venerable assembly, by the judge's procession and trumpets, by the disgrace and punishment of crimes, by public fasts, public prayer, by meditation, by the Bible, by the consecration of churches, by the sacred festival, by the cathedral's gloom and choir.
I consider a human soul without education like marble in the quarry, which shows none of its inherent beauties, until the skill of the polisher fetches out the colors, makes the surface shine, and discovers every ornamental cloud, spot, and vein, that runs through the body of it.
Education, after the same manner, when it works upon a poble mind, draws out to view every latent virtue and perfection, which, without such helps, are never able to make their appearance.
If my reader will give me leave to change the allusion so soon upon him, I shall make use of the same instance to illustrate the force of edu. cation, which Aristotle has brought to explain his doctrine of substantial forms, when he tells us that a statue lies bid in a block of marble; and that the art of the statuary only clears away superfluous matter, and removes the rubbish. The figure is in the stone, and the sculptor only finds it. What sculpture is to the block of marble, education is to a human soul. The philosopher, the saint or the hero, the wise, the good or the great man, very often lie hid and concealed in a plebeian, which a proper education might have disinterred, and have brought to light. ** Those who have had the advantages of a more liberal education, rise abore one another by several different degrees of perfection. For to return to our statue in the block of marble, we see it sometimes only begun to be chipped, sometimes rough hewn, and but just sketched into a human figure; sometimes we see the man appearing distinctly in all his limbs and features; sometimes we find the figure wrought up to great elegancy, but seldom meet with any to which the hand of a Phidias or a Praxiletes
a could not give several nice touches and finishings.
Nothing is more absurd than the common notion of instruction; as if science were to be poured into the mind like water into a cistern, that passively waits to receive all that comes. The growth of knowledge resembles the growth of fruit: however external causes may in some degree coöperate, it is the internal vigor and virtue of the tree that must ripen the juices to their just maturity. JAMES HARRIS. Hermes
Human creatures, from the constitution of their nature, and the cir. cumstances in which they are placed, can not but acquire habits during their childhood, by the impressions which are given them and their own customary actions; and long before they arrive at mature age these habits form a general settled character. And the observation of the text—"Train up a child in the way he should go; and when he is old he will not depart from it "—that the most early habits are generally the most lasting, is likewise every one's observation.
Bishop BUTLER Organic structure, temperament, things affecting the senses or bodily functions, are as closely linked with a right play of the faculties, as the material and condition of an instrument of music with that wonderful result called melody.
W. B. Clulow.
Education does not commence with the alphabet; it begins with a mother's look, with a father's nod of approbation, or sign of reproof; with a sister's gentle pressure of the hand; a brother's noble act of forbearance; with handful of flowers in green dells, or hills, and daisy meadows; with birdsnest admired, but not touched ; with creeping ants and almost imperceptible emmets; with humming bees, and glass bee-hives ; with pleasant walks in shady lands, and with thoughts devoted, in sweet and kindly tones and words, to nature, to beauty, to acts of benevolence, to deeds of virtue, and to the source of all good—to God himself.
He [man] would look round upon the world without, and the thought would arise in his mind—“ Where am I ?” He would contemplate himself, his form so curious, his feelings so strange and various; he would ask—" What am I?" Then reflecti would begin to stir within him, and reviewing the world without and within, and pondering upon the mystery of existence, he would exclaim—“Why am I?” And the replies to these three questions compose the entire circle of human knowl. edge, developed in its natural order.
W. Cox. The Advocate, his Training. I believe, that what it is most honorable to know, it is also most profitable to learn ; and that the science which it is the highest power to possess, it is also the best exercise to acquire.
And if this be so, the question as to what should be the material of education, becomes singularly simplified. It might be matter of dispute what processes have the greatest effect in developing the intellect; but it can hardly be disputed what facts it is most advisable that a man entering into life should accurately know.
I believe, in brief, that he ought to know three things:
First. Where he is.—That is to say, what sort of a world he has got into; how large it is; what kind of creatures live in it, and how; what it is made of, and what may be made of it.
Secondly. Where he is going.—That is to say, what chances or reports there are of any other world besides this; what seems to be the nature of that other world; and whether, for information respecting it, he had better consult the Bible, Koran, or Council of Trent.
Thirdly. What he had best do under those circumstances.—That is to say, what kind of faculties he possesses; what are the present state and wants of mankind; what is his place in society; and what are the readiest means in his power of attaining happiness and diffusing it. The man who knows these things, and who has had his will so subdued in the learning them, that he is ready to do what he knows he ought, I should call educated; and the man who knows them not, uneducated, though he could talk all the tongues of Babel.
Education does not mean merely reading and writing, nor any degree, however considerable, of mere intellectual instruction. It is, in its larg: est sense, a process which extends from the commencement to the termination of existence. A child comes into the world, and at once his education begins. Often at his birth the seeds of disease or deformity are sown in his constitution—and while he hangs at his mother's breast, he is imbibing impressions which will remain with him through life. During the first period of infancy, the physical frame expands and strengthens; but its delicate structure is influenced for good or evil by all surrounding circumstances-cleanliness, light, air, food, warmth. By and by, the young being within shows itself more. The senses become quicker. The desires and affections assume a more definite shape. Every object which gives a sensation ; every desire gratified or denied; every act, word, or look of affection or of unkindness, has its effect, sometimes slight and imperceptible, sometimes obvious and permanent, in building up the human being; or, rather, in determining the direction in which it will shoot up and unfold itself. Through the different states of the infant, the child, the boy, the youth, the man, the development of his physical, intellectual, and moral nature goes on, the various circumstances of his condition incessantly acting upon him—the healthfulness or unhealthfulness of the air he breathes; the kind, and the sufficiency of his food and clothing; the degree in which his physical powers are exerted; the freedom with which his senses are allowed or encouraged to exercise themselves upon external objects; the extent to which bis faculties of remembering, comparing, reasoning, are tasked; the sounds and sights of home; the moral example of parents; the discipline of school; the nature and degree of his studies, rewards and punishments; the personal qualities of his companions; the opinions and practices of the society, juvenile and advanced, in which he moves; and the character of the public institutions under which he lives. The successive operation of all these circumstances upon a human being from earliest childhood, constitutes his education ;-an education which does not terminate with the arrival of manhood, but continues through life, which is itself, upon the concurrent testimony of revelation and reason, a state of probation or education for a subsequent and more glorious existence.
Joan LALOR. Prize Essay. The appropriate and attainable ends of a good education are the possession of gentle and kindly sympathies; the sense of self-respect and of the respect of fellow-men; the free exercises of the intellectual faculties; the gratification of a curiosity that "grows by what it feeds on," and yet finds food forever; the power of regulating the habits and the business of life, so as to extract the greatest possible portion of comfort out of small means; the refining and tranquilizing enjoyment of the beautiful in nature and art, and the kindred perception of the beauty and nobility of virtue; the strengthening consciousness of duty fulfilled, and, to crown all, “ the peace which passeth all understanding."
The specific signification of Education has often been defined by means of the distinction between educere and educare. But this is not a sufficient basis for a precise definition. E. M. Arndt, in his “ Fragments on Human Culture, "* considers educare to signify the artistic process or art of education, and thinks that educere is more correctly translated by “to bring up," or "raise up;" spépsiv. Schmidt in one place considers educere to be the business of the mother, because she brings forth the child.t In another place, he says it means “to bring out of the family, into a larger sphere of life-into the world ;"I and in a third, that it means “to awaken, set in activity and develop the inner higher faculties."'S Educare is in the latter place taken to mean, on the contrary, “ to bring the boy out of his animalized state of existence; to change the animal man into the spiritual."
Let us now consider whether German etymology may not furnish a more definite answer. Ziehen means to remove any thing from one place to another, in such a way that the thing moved follows the power, and does it, also, in a steady manner, in contradistinction to throwing, striking, or carrying; and the thing moved is in a certain sense forced to go itself, even though it struggles not to do so. This radical word has gained a metaphorical meaning in the department discussed by this work, by its relation in meaning to the sense in which it is used to sig. nify the gardener's production of flowers from a bulb. Thus ziehen describes the management of his assistants by a teacher; of his orchestra by a leader, (though the compound heranziehen is more precisely proper); and in these cases the meaning is still very nearly the same with that of the original word, for there is a drawing after himself by the leader, without however any reference to the means by which the influence is exerted. But when ziehen is used to denote the sort of training that is acquired by a wild young man who is sent to be a soldier, the most prominent idea is that of the means used; the strenuous discipline; and the design is not that he shall follow after his discipliner in any sense, but that by means of his receiving the action here denoted by ziehen, that is by means of the passivity into which the constraint of his discipline brings him, he shall learn a right passivity, which is the negation of his previous wrong activity ; namely, by means of an obedience to persons, authorities, orders; which obedience is the negation of his own undisciplined self-will. Aufziehen has a definite pedagogical meaning. It is the continuation of that careful protection from dangers to life, which is given to young infants; and therefore the physical care of the child, up to the period when it can take care of itself; a duty which can after the death of the mother be performed, for instance, by a maid. Here
"Fragmente riber Menschenbildung." 1 * Outline," &c., p. 40. “The child is brought forth into the light of day ; educitur, as the proverb says, educit obstetrix, educat nutriz, instituit paedagog us, docet mag ister." * Ib., p. 221.
$ Ib., p. 223. ! Ziehen corresponds very nearly to the Latin root word of “educale," viz., duco, to leada draw, &c.