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The Institution is situated on a beautiful eminence, commanding a fine westerly view, that embraces a part of the village, and a wide and varied landscape. The society of the place is of an elevated character. There are churches of the Unitarian, Baptist, Congregational, and Episcopal orders; and each pupil is expected to attend regularly such one of these as she may select at the commencement of the term.

The number of pupils who have entered the Normal School is 1,541; the number who have graduated, 1,092 ; number in 1867, 158.

LESSON OF THE HOUR. In the “Memorial of the Quarter-Centennial celebration of the establishment of State Normal Schools in America, held at Framingham, July 1, 1864," we find a letter from George B. Emerson, LL. D., in which he inculcates the “Lesson of the Hour," as drawn from the life of Father Peirce, and the teachings of this school :

Aim only at the highest ends : Appeal only to the purest and highest motives: Fill your souls with the noblest aspirations, your hearts with the warmest affections, your minds with the richest thoughts, and consecrate all to the great work in which you are engaged, the best and noblest work to be done on earth: Aim always at perfection; “Be ye therefore perfect,"-as no lower aim is adequate to the immortal destiny of man: Appeal always to conscience, so as to exercise it constantly from the beginning; asking, in every event, what is right and good, and what is evil and wrong, and faithfully listening to its diotates and following them: Inculcate the great truth that all pleasure, all enjorment, must come from the exercise of one or more of our faculties of body or mind, and that labor of body or mind is thus the great blessing of humanity: Prepare for the leisure of life and for old age: Inculcate accountability to one's self as an immortal being, destined to bear the consequences of negleet and enjoy the fruits of faithfulness,—accountability to God as His child, for every power and opportunity to do good to his other children,—the imitation of good and great men, the benefactors of the race,-the imitation of Christ.

Never appeal to brute force except when it is absolutely demanded; remembering, however, that corporal punishment may sometimes be necessary, but he must be a poor teacher who often has recourse to it. Never appeal to emulation, but insist on the divine lesson, “in honor preferring one another:" Remember the injunction of the holy Paul, “Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good,” and that the only absolutely irresistible power is erer. enduring, wholly unselfish love.

The teacher must be armed with this principle. She must love children; and she ought to remember that all of them are or have lately been of that number of whom the Divine Master said, “Of such is the Kingdom of Heaven."

Remember that the art of teaching, which should be the oldest, is really the newest of arts; that, in most schools, in all departments, much time is wastri in teaching what is of little value, while many things, most important for the child to learn, are not taught at all. In short, what should be the great and leading object in every school,—preparation for the duties and labors of life is, in many ways, in schools of all grades, almost entirely neglected.



BETWEEN the years A. D. 1820 and 1835, there appeared upon the stage a small class of intelligent, cultivated self-sacrificing men, with all the vigor and freshness of early manhood, who saw, as it were at a glance, how matters stood [in elementary schools]; deplored the educational decline ; and began earnestly, and, in general wisely, to apply the remedy. An “Educational Revival," as our brotber, the Orator, has aptly termed it, took place. The people began to see that a right education, widely diffused, would prove the glory of the State-nay more, was for her the only source of influence, power, and lastog greatness.

Time and present circumstances forbid us to speak in fitting terms of these Educational Revivalists, to portray their characters, and to recount the noble deeds which each performed. Indeed, thank God! many of them yet live; yet enjoy the rich fruits of their early labors; are yet able and ready to lend a helping hand to every good workt

Foremost, perhaps, among these pioneers, was James G. Carter, genial as a friend, accomplished as a teacher, ardent as a politician, who fought most manfully, and for a time nearly alone; and to whom it is believed, belongs the honor not only of starting the great reform, but of perceiving how essential to its completeness and permanent utility, would be the thorough, professional education of teachers under public supervision and at the public charge. His newspaper articles on popular education, from A. D. 1821 to '24,—his letters to Hon. William Prescott, LL. D., on the Free Schools of New England, with Remarks on the Principles of Instruction, -his Essays upon Popular Education, containing a particular examination of the schools of Massachusetts, and an outline for an Institution for the Education of Teachers,"—his Memorial to the State Legislature in 1827, praying for aid to establish a Seminary for the Education of Teachers, with a Model School attached, -his efforts in Lancaster, his Dative town, to carry out the school as a private enterprise, -his activity and influence in founding the “ American Institute of Instruction" in 1829-30, that noble society which for thirty years has been a source of life to the educational interests of the country,—his unremitted labors as a politician in behalf of Popular Education,-his successful introduction of a bill establishing the Board of Education,- the detraction, persecution and financial disasters he encountered in the advocacy of his schemes,-all these entitle James G. Carter to a most honorable mention.

There were William C. WOODBRIDGE, a teacher and the son of a teacher, distinguished as a geographer and editor of the Annals of Education and other works, -and SAMUEL R. Hall, for many years a teacher of teachers, and in 1829, the founder, at Andover, of a Seminary for Teachers—the first regular seminary in this country designed for such an object- a genuine Normal School,

* Abridged from an Address delivered at the Quarter Centennial Celebration of State Normal Schools in America, at Framingham, July, 1864.

1 Memoirs of the Educational labors of James G. Carter, William C. Woodbridge, Samuel R. Hall, Thomas H. Gallaudet, William A. Alcott, Horace Mann, Samuel Lewis, Walter R. Johnson, Josiah Holbrook, Cyrus Peirce, Samuel J. May, George B. Emerson, Charles Brooks, Edmund Dwight, William Russell, Edward Everett, Francis Wayland, Warren Colburn, Mrs. Emma Willard, Nicholas Tillinghast, and other laborers in the educational field from 1825 to 1850, have appeared in Barnard's American Journal of Education, and are gathered into American Educational Biography, vols. I. and II.


though not of State patronage or adoption,—and GARDNER B. Perry, of Brad. ford, a modest country clergyman, in early life a teacher of a distinguished literary institution, who through a long and able life labored as he found opportunity, to promote popular education.

There, too, were Thomas H. GALLAUDET, the skillful, devoted instructor of the deaf and dumb, who made the dull ear to hear of the wonders of the creation, and the tongue of the dumb to sing the praises of God, -and WILLIAN A. Alcort, the eccentric physician and educator and author of many good books.

Horace Mann, the first Secretary of the Board of Education, came late into the work, (1837] but brought with him all the powerful energies of his mature life; all the learning, culture and acumen which had distinguished him at the bar; all the knowledge of human nature and skill in management which made him successful as a politician; and all the influence wbich he had acquired among the people. Withdrawing himself from less laborious and far more lucrative occupations, he gave himself, soul and body, to the great enterprise. Or bis earnest, self-sacrificing devotion, of his indomitable perseverance amid opposition and reproach, of his enormous personal labors, we cannot here speak. The prime agent in establishing the Board of Education, its soul as well as its Secretary, he was the establisher of this school, and its most earnest and constant friend, so long as it continued within his reach; and but for him it would have died for want of that mere pittance on which so much of its life has been supported, and which, again and again, he secured.

Prominent among these was EDMUND Dwight, the merchant prince, as unos. tentatious as munificent, whose open purse enabled the Secretary to live, which State patronage alone never could have done; and whose timely gift of $10,000 to the State of Massachusetts, presented March 10, 1838, secured from its Legislature a corresponding grant; and was, as Mr. Mann has expressed it," the origin, the source, the punctum saliens of the Normal Schools of Massachu

But time fails me to speak of SAMUEL LEWIS, WALTER Johnson, Josiah Hole BROOK, John A. Shaw, and a host of others. These and many more rest from their labors and their works do follow them.

We have yet with us, thank God! WILLIAM RUSSELL, the Educational journalist and associate of Woodbridge, whose native grace and charming elocution were as attractive as his pen was persuasive, and whose whole life has been spent in urging forward the work of popular education :

SAMUEL J. May, the accomplished orator of this occasion, and the second Principal of this Institution ; the record of whose life is self-sacrifice, and earnest, unremitting endeavor in every good word and work designed to benefit mankind:

Charles Brooks, whose labors in the years 1835-6-7, were second to those of no man-one might alniost say to no number of men—to whom we owe the particular form which Normal Schools took, and who did very much toward preparing the publi mind to look with favor upon the new system; who, be ginning with his own parish in Hingham, for the space of three years, without compensation or payment of expenses, traveled over New England, lecturing upon the Prussian system of Elementary Education, with especial reference to Normal Schools. From his friend, Victor Cousin, the first scholar of France, he obtained reports and documents, and encouraging words, which were to him the pabulum vitæ; for in this phase of the enterprise he stood almost if not quite alone; yet planting his feet literally on “Plymouth Rock," he was conscious of strength. In behalf of a convention of teachers, called by him in Plymouth, he memorialized the Legislature in 1837, and was twice called before that body to speak upon his favorite subject:

HENRY BARNARD, as much as any man in this country, entitled to be called the Educator, whose fruitful labors are in their prime, and are destined to produce results greater and still greater as time progresses, and of whom this is not the place to speak at length.

Time and your patience fail me to speak of others who deserve the most hon. orable mention, and a large place in the affections of the hosts whom they have benefited. One more only shall be spoken of. I refer to ,Mr. Geo. B. EMERSON, whose whole life has been given to educational labors.' The son of a distinguished physician, full of interest in popular education, and of labors to promote it, he has by inheritance the qualities which, under his own careful training and culture, have made him eminent in his profession, and distinguished him as the friend of common schools. In A. D. 1821, he was selected to fill the responsible office of Principal of the English High School in Boston, then just established. The work of organization, the plans and course of study, the nature of the discipline to be used, the means and motives to be employed, the moral and religious principles to be urged, all were left to his wisdom, skill and goodness. How well he did his work, let that noble institution, from that hour to the present the just pride of the city, tell. To him Warren Colburn, his friend, submitted the manuscript of that best of works on the science of numbers, “First Lessons in Arithmetic," that, lesson by lesson, he might practically test the work in his school; and the deserved popularity of this book was owing to Mr. Emerson's warm recommendations. In 1827, Mr. Emerson withdrew from the High School to open a Private School for Young Ladies, which he conducted with the most eminent success for more than a generation; retiring from it in 1855, at a moment when, if possible, its popularity was greater than it had ever been before.

Mr. Emerson, in 1827, was instrumental in forming the Boston Mechanics Institute, was its first Secretary, gave the opening address and delivered the first course of Lectures. In 1830 he was one of the foremost in forming the American Institute of Instruction, was its first Secretary, and for many years its President. In 1836, he was Chairman of a Committee to memoralize the Legislature on the subject of the Superintendence of Common Sehools, and drew up the memorial. No particular action being taken by the Legislature, in 1837 a second memorial, also drawn up by Mr. Emerson, was presented, on the estiblishment of a Seminary for Teachers. In 1843 be wrote the second part of the School and School Master, one of the wisest and best works of the kind ever given to the public. In 1830 he was active in the formation of the Boston Society of Natural History, of which he was for many years President, and he was also for many years Corresponding Secretary of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 1837, having been appointed by Gov. Everett Chairman of a Commission to conduct a Botanical and Zoological survey of the State, he gave to the public his admirable and exhaustive report on the "Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts."

From the very first, almost of course, Mr. Emerson was deeply interested in the Normal Schools, and labored assiduously to promote their interests. In 1847-S, he was member of the Boston School Committee, and the latter year was chosen a member of the Board of Education, and during the eight years of his service was most active and influential. He has been for several years, since his return from Europe in 1856, the Treasurer of the Board.

The bill establishing the Board of Education was approved by Edward Everett, then Governor of the State, on the 20th of April, 1837. Horace Mann was then President of the Senate. At the first meeting of the Board, June 29th, 1837, Mr. Mann was chosen its Secretary.

The constitution of the new Board made the ultimate introduction of Normal Schools a certainty. Indeed, any scheme undertaken by such men as Edward Everett, Horace Mann, James G. Carter, Edmund Dwight, George Putnam, E. A. Newton, Robert Rantoul, Jr., and Jared Sparks, was a success the moment they grappled with it. The first two reports of the Board were written by Mr. Everett, and his addresses at Lexington and Barre, with his great personal influence, did much to prepare the public mind to welcome the new measures.

In 1839, on the 19th of April, that day so memorable and glorious, the Leg. islature by joint resolve accepted the munificence of Mr. Dwight, and appropriated an equal sum to the founding of Normal Schools.

The first examination of pupils for admission to the First Normal School established under this resolve, was at the school-house in Lexington, on Wednes. day, July 3d, 1839, and the institution began with three pupils. It was a disappointment, cruel, indeed. To feeble minds, the mortification would have been intense, and the seeming failure crushing ; but, small at it was, this was a beginning, and they knew it, and were content.

Nothing daunted, the Board, on the first Wednesday of September, 1839, op n d a second school at Barre, under the direction of the late Prof. Newman; and on the second Wednesday of September, 1810, a third in Bridgewater, under the direction of the late Col. Nicholas Tillinghast.

It should be here understood that these schools were not at first State schools, but the schools of private munificence, aided by the State—the State being responsible neither for success nor failure. Consequently, and indeed as a measure of policy also, private aid was solicited and private coöperation secured. To the school in Lexington, a building, used as an academy years before, was given, free of rent, for three years; and some contributions were made by well-wishing citizens for repairs, apparatus, &c. A similar arrangement was effected for each of the other schools.

The gentleman selected by the Board of Education to commence the experiment at Lexington, was Rev. Cyrus Peirce, a native of Waltham, Mass., born August 15, 1790, and graduated at Harvard College in 1810, where he left behind him a reputation for pure morals, upright demeanor, and thoroughness in scholarship. In his sophomore year he taught the village school in West New. ton, where he was destined nearly fifty years after to close his long and successful educational career. Soon after leaving college, in 1810, he took the charge of a private school on the island of Nantucket; whence, after two years of acceptable labor, he returned to Cambridge, and completed a course of study preparatory to the Christian ministry. After spending three years in preparation for what he looked forward to as his great life-work, he was urgently solieited to return to Nantucket and resume the work of instruction. Here he labored with his accustomed zeal and success until 1818, when he relinquisbed his place and entered upon the work of the ministry. During his residence in Nantucket Mr. Peirce was united in marriage with Miss Harriet Coffin of that place, to whose wisdom in counsel, readiness and constancy of sympathy, promptness and energy in action, combined with cheerfulness and hopefulness of disposition, and rich and varied culture, he doubtless owed much of his success in the different positions he afterwards filled. No sketch of his school, at least, could be complete which did not recognize the modest and uncompensated labor of Mrs. Peirce. May she long live to enjoy the gratitude of her own as well as her husband's pupils, and the benign smiles of our Heavenly Father!

Mr. Peirce was settled as a minister in North Reading in A. D. 1819, and continued ably and successfully to perform the duties of his office for eight years, when he resigned and again resumed the work of instruction, subsequently returned again to Nantucket, where he became a recognized authority in all school matters, and was first and foremost in every good word and work. His influence on the common schools of the island was great, and served to make them among the very best in the country. While in charge there of the new public High School, Mr. Mann accidentally met him, visited his school, became charmed with the man and delighted with his work. Hence he was invited, is 1839, as has been stated before, to take charge of the new, difficult and doubtful experiment at Lexington. No one can comprehend the situation of affairs at the time,—the grandeur of the enterprise if successful,—the disastrous consequences, if it failed, without cheerfully considering that this appointment was the highest honor that could be conferred on any educator in the country; without understanding something of his feelings when he exclaimed to his wife, “ Harriet, I would rather die than fail in this experiment." To his reputation as an instructor a failure would have been a death from which there would have been for him no resurrection. No wonder that, when he returned home from the disappointment of that first day, he said to Mrs. Peirce, “ The Board have made a mistake in electing me; beyond Nantucket I am not known as a teacher, and the public have no confidence in me." The despondency was but a passing cloud, -cheerfulness and hopefulness returned.

The little school at Lexington of three pupils, with some additions in the next few daye, was organized, and commenced its noble career, unfalteringly. Numbers slowly increased; a Model School was organized in October, its first teacher being Miss Swift, now Mrs. Lamson, who is with us to-day; and thus, on a small scale, the system was complete Many persons will remember how apathetic were the people in general, at this time, in regard to these schools;

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