Изображения страниц

IV. TEACHERS; NORMAL AND MODEL SCHOOLS; TEACHERS' INSTITUTES. The School and the Teacher in English Literature, Holland. Normal School at Haarlem, XIV. 501

WI, 155, 449; IV. 183; VIII, 283; XVI. 432. Prussia. Provisions for Education and Sapporto Legal Recognition of Teaching as a Profession ; Me- Teachers, XI. 165–190. System of Norcal Scie, morial, X, 297-308.

IV, 191-240. Seminary School at le The Teacher as an Artist, by Z. Richards, XIV. 69 VIII. 455; XIV. 219. Dr. Julias on, IVI 3 The Teacher's Motives, by Horace Mann, XIV, 277. Regulations of 1854, XVI. 395. Essentials to Success in Teaching, I. 561.

Normal Schools in Switzerland, XML. 313-440 Letters to a Young Teacher, by G. F. Thayer, I, 357; Normal and Model Schools of Lpper Ceasla. IIT.

II. 103, 391, 657; III. 71, 313; IV. 219, 450; VI. 483. 435; VIII. 81.

United States - Documentary History of Natu Lectures to Young Teachers ; Intellectual Education, Schools-Adams, I. 389; Bacbe, VIII. Bet

by W. Russell, II, 113, 317; III, 47, 321; IV, nard, X, 24, 40; Bates, XVI. 153 : Brooss, I. 199, 309. Moral Education, IX. 19.

Barrowes, XVI, 195; Calhoun, XVI. ; Curse Special Training a Pre-requisite to Teaching, by H. XVI. 77; Channing, XII. 453 ; Cliotec. XIII Mann, XIII. 507,

341; Dwight, IV, 16: Edwards, XVI. 21; Ex Teachers and their Education, by W. E. Channing, erson, XVI. 93: Everett, XIII. 758; Gas XII. 453.

X, 16; Hall, V, 386 ; XVI. 75; Humphrey, XII. Professional Training of Teachers, XIII. 269.

655 ; Julius, XVI. 89; Johoson, V.798; Lindset, Didactics as a Department in Colleges, by T. Hill, VII, 35; Mann, V. 646 ; VIII. 360 ; Olssted T. XV, 177.

369; Peirce, IV. 305; Phelps. III. 417; Peaer. I German Views upon Female Teachers, IV, 795. 588; Sears, XVI. 471; Stepheris, I ; Teachers' Conferences and other Modes of Profession- Stowe, XV, 688; Tillioghast, I. 67 ; Webste. I al Improvement. XIII, 273.

590; Wickersham, XV. 221. Teachers' Institutes in Wisconsin, VIII. 673. In Chapter in the History of Normal Schods a les

Different Stntes--Historical Development, XV.387. England; Charles Brooks, I. 587.
Connecticut, 387; New York, 395; Ohio, 401; California. State Normal School, XYL 6.
Rhode Island, 405; Massachusetts, 412.

Connecticut. History of State Normal Sebod. I
School for Teachers, by W. R. Johnson, V. 799. 15–58. History of Teachers' Institutes, XY.
Teachers' Seminaries, by C. E. Stowe, XV. 688. Illinois. State Normal University st Boost
Relation of Normal Schools to other Institutions, by IV. 774,
W. F. Phelps, III. 417.

Kentucky. State Normal School, III. 917. Historical Development of Normal Schools in Europe Maine. State Normal School, XVII. and America, XIII. 753-770.

Maryland. State Normal School, XVII. Germany and other European States---Number, Loca- Massachusetts. State Normal School at Budgetiz.

tion and Results of Normal Schools, VIII. 360 ; V. 646; XVI. 595. At Barre ; Everet:'s Add Professional Training of Teachers in Anhalt, XV. XII. 758. At Westfield, XII. 652. Taschen 345; Austria, XVI. 345; Baden, X. 212; Bavaria, Seminary at Andover, V. 356. History of Tech VI. 289; Belgium, VIII. 593; Brunswick, XV. ers' Institutes, XV. 387. 453; France, XIII. 281; Greece, XII, 579; Han- New Jersey. State Normal School, III. *1 over, XV. 419; Hesse-Cussel, XV. 439; Hesse Aims, by D. Cole, V. 835. Faraum Prepared Darmstadt, XIV. 416; Holland, XIV, 501, 647; School, III. 397. Lippe Detmold, XV, 475; Mecklenburg, XV. 464, New York. State Normal School at Albars. IN 472; Nassau, II. 444; Prussia, XI. 165 ; Russia, 341, 531. History of Teachers' Institute IT. XII. 727; Sardinia, III, 517; Saxony, V. 353; 395. Training School at Oswego, XVI. Nusa Switzerland, XIII. 313.

mal School at Brockport, XVII. Grent Britain. Training Colleges in England and Ohio. History of TeachersInstitutes, XV. *.

Wales, X. 349. Normal Schools of the British and Normal Schools in, XVII. Foreign School Society, X. 435. Normal and Pennsylvania. Professional Training of Terbers, Model Schools of the Home and Colonial Society, XIV, 721. Normal School at Millerseite IT. IX. 449. St. Mark's Training College for Masters 221. Philadelphia Normal School for Feale of the National Society, X. 531. Battersen Train- Teachers, XIV. 797. XVI. 195. Normal Seben ing School for Parochial Schoolmasters, IX. 170. at Mansfield, XVII. Chester Diocesan Training College, X. 553. Nor- Rhode Island. Education of Teachers II mal Schools for Training Schoolmistresses, X. 571; History of Teachers' Institutes, XV. 46. Normal Schools at Edinburgh and Glasgow, X. 583. Vermont. Teachers' Seminary in 2, ITI 1 Irish System of Training Teachers, XI, 136.

State Normal Schools, XVII. France. Normal Schools and Training, XIII, 281. Wisconsin. Teachers’ Institutes, VIII. GI. Narra

Normal Schools of the Christian Brothers, III, 437. Schools, XVII.


The experience of every country where the schools, public, parochial, or private, have attained any high degree of excellence, and the teachers are respected for their personal and professional worth, has demonstrated that early and continued success in the work of instruction, and in the management of educational institutions generally, demands not only certain qualities of mind and character, and an amount and kind of scholarship equal at least to the standard aimed at in the schools, but special preparation in knowledge and methods, and continued efforts at self and professional improvement to obviate the inevitable tendencies of an isolated and monotonous occupation. To secure this preliminary training, and progressive improvement in individual teachers, to exclude from the profession unworthy and incompetent members, to give opportunities of a generous genial culture as the basis of all special studies, and the source of a powerful unconscious tuition in manner, character, and daily life, to protect all who follow the business of teaching from pecuniary anxiety, and increase their means of personal happiness and social influence, various institutions, agencies, and measures, legal and voluntary, have been resorted to, at different times, and in different countries. We here briefly enumerate some of these Institutions and Agencies, which will be more particularly described elsewhere.

I. Religious Communities, or Associations of persons, who, having served a severe and prolonged novitiate, or preparatory course to test their vocation, devote themselves for life, and without pecuniary fee, or worldly reward, to the business of instruction. Such were the Benedictines, the Hieronymians, or Brethren of the Common Life, the Oratorians, the Brothers and Sisters of St. Francis of Paola, and other religious orders which have done their work, and given way to the Jesuits, the Ursulines, the Brethren of the Christian Schools, (Institut des Frères des Ecoles Chrétiennes,) and other teaching communities, whose schools are found in every country where the Catholic Church is established. The Mother Ilouse of


each of these orders, where the novitiate is served, is, strictly speak ing, a Normal School, having its norma, or rule or pattern of professional life and practice. It is at the same time the home, where help, and rest and health are sought by its members in need, exhaustion, and old age. Several of these Houses preceded the establishment of Teachers' Seminaries which are the creation of the State.

II. Institutions, supported or aided by the government for the purpose of training teachers for the schools which the State bas undertaken to establish to protect itself from the ignorance of any portion of its people, or to add to its resources of strength and production the cultivated intellect and restrained passions of all its citizens. These institutions are called by different names, and are organized and managed on different plans in different countries, but in all, their aims and functions are special, viz., to give to young men and women, found qualified in age, character, and scholastic attainments, a practical knowledge of the labors and duties of the school

In most of the German states, where they first received governmental recognition, they are called Teachers' Seminaries or Normal Schools, although the latter designation was originally applied in Austria, to a select class in certain prominent schools composed of pupils who were receiving special instruction, and at the same time were employed as assistants in the school. In England they are called Training Colleges.

III. Classes, or departments in one or more of the best schools in the chief towns, composed of scholars who have mastered the studies of the school, and show an aptness and desire to teach. These pupils receive additional and special instruction, and are employed at a small and increasing compensation, first as assistants, then as under masters, and finally as head masters. This plan of training teachers for the public schools, especially in large towns, is the main reliance of the government in Austria and Holland, and with some modifications by which the best pupal-teacher become Queen's Scholars in the Training Colleges, in England. It is an admirable preliminary test and preparation of candidates for the regular Normal School, and might profitably be made supplementary to the latter.

IV. Courses of Lectures in all Higher Seminaries of Learning on the History, Principles, and Art of Education-designed particularly for such students as propose to teach or may be called on to organize and administer schools. Such lectures are delivered in many universities of Germany, and theological students are required to attend as a necessary preparation for the right performance of the

duties of school inspectors and local school committees, which are always, although not exclusively, composed of clergymen. Such instruction, whether given by lectures, or by class-book and recitation, should be deemed essential to graduation in any College or Academy or High School, which are the natural sources

supply teachers to the schools below. Originally the degree of Bachelor and Master of Arts were evidence of the scholarship and authority of the holders to establish, teach, and govern schools. Such knowledge should enter into the training of all liberally educated American citizens, whose services are in constant demand as trustees and committees of schools of different grade. When such courses are supplemented by practical training in a Normal School, it forms a valuable part of the professional education of a teacher.

V. Itinerating Normal Agents and Organizers of Schools, to hold Teachers' Institutes, to act as Inspectors of Schools, assist in the establishment of new institutions, and imparting life and efficiency to schools which have run down under inefficient teachers, and bring up to a normal standard the schools and the public sentiment of particular districts. The efforts of an indefatigable Normal Agent like William S. Baker, so highly appreciated in Connecticut and Rhode Island, or of a School Organizer like those sent out by the Commissioners of National Education in Ireland, or the British and Foreign School Society, by familiar conversation with teachers, and practical illustrations in their schoolrooms, of improved methods of arranging the studies, and conducting schools will reach more widely than a Normal School.

VI. Teachers' Institutes, or gatherings of teachers, both for conference and instruction, for a period of not less than one, nor more than four weeks, in successive years in different localities, and including in its operations school officers and parents. Such gatherings of teachers, old and young of both sexes, and of schools of different grades; in such numbers as will develop the sympathies and power of a common pursuit, and yet not so large as to exclude the freedom of individual thought and action; for a period of time, long enough to admit of a systematic plan of operations, and yet not so protracted as to prove a burdensome expense, or an interruption to other engagements; under the direction of men, whose claim to respect and continued attention is their large experience and acknowledged success as educators and teachers; in a course of instruction, at once theoretical and practical, combined with opportunities of inquiry, discussion, and familiar conversation—such gatherings of teachers 80 organized and conducted as to exclude professional jealousy, and at the same time to enlist the coöperation and attendance of school officers and parents, by assigning to the evening lectures and discussions, all topics of general interest to the community, as well as to teachers, will begin the work of renovation and improvement at once in the home and the school, in the heads and hearts of parents, in the enthusiasm, enlarged knowledge and practical skill of teachers, and in the well considered and liberal action of school officers, and the public generally.

VII. A system of examination, by which only persons of the right spirit, character, attainments, and practical skill, are licensed to teach, combined with modes of school inspection, by which incompetent and unworthy members are excluded from the profession.

VIII. Plans of associations of the teachers of a school, city, or larger district, for periodical conferences for mutual and professional improvement, and for occasional visits to each others' schools.

IX. Legal recognition of the true value of the teacher's office, by exemption from all services which interfere with the full performance of its duties, or imply that the constant care and highest nurture of children and youth are of secondary interest; and by provision for its permanence and adequate compensation, independent of the negligence or parsimony of parents and municipal authorities.

X. A system of promotion from a less desirable school, to one more so in respect to studies, location, and salary, dependent not upon favoritism, but upon an open and impartial examination.

XI. Access to books on the theory and practice of teaching, and to educational periodicals, by which the young and inexperienced teacher is made acquainted with the views of experienced teachers in his own and other times, in his own and other countries.

XII. Facilities for the acquisition of some industrial pursuit, out of school hours, which will add to the happiness and emoluments of the teacher, without diminishing his personal influence as the educator of the community.

XIII. A system of savings, aided and guaranteed by the government, but founded in habits of thrift and forecast in the teachers, by which provision is made for themselves in old age, or sickness, and for their families, in case of death.

By these and other institutions, agencies, and means, already recog nized or established to some extent, the office of teacher has been greatly elevated in usefulness and in social and pecuniary consideration. It is the object of this work to bring together the experience of different states in this most important department of the whole field of educational labor, as presented in official documents, and the observations of intelligent and trustworthy educators.

« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »