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The number graduates of gymnasiums entitled by the maturity examination to admission at universities was, in 1820, 590; in 1863, 1,805.

The total number of pupils in 1863 in 172 gymnasial institutions and 83 realschools (including higher burgher-schools) was 66, 135, under 3,349 teachers.

III.-TEACHERS.

The number of candidates for teacher at secondary schools, who passed satis. factorily the examination pro facultate docendi, during the period from 1839 to 1863 is 2,583. Of these 1,807 were Protestants, 736 Catholics, and 40 Jews. Specially qualified for instruction in religion, 225 ; ancient languages, 972; modern languages, 213; German literature, 291; history, 320; mathematics, 562. Among them were 224 not natives of Prussia.

At the gymnasiums and progymnasiums were engaged 168 directors, 529 chief teachers, 170 theologians, 868 ordinary teachers, 170 scientific assistant teachers, 287 technical teachers, 136 elementary teachers-total, 2,388 teachers.

At the real-schools and higher burgher-schools, 72 directors, 185 chief teachers, 65 theologians, 384 ordinary teachers, 61 scientific assistant teachers, 120 technical teachers, 100 elementary teachers--total, 937 teachers.

The salaries of teachers at gymnasiums in 1866 amounted to 1,379, 473 thaler, those of teachers at real-schools to 523,897 thaler-total salaries of teachers at secondary schools, 1,903,370 thaler.

IV.-INCOME AND EXPENDITURES.

Of the secondary schools, 72 are exclusively royal, 95 exclusively supported by cities, 12 derive their income from private foundations, and the others from various sources. All charge tuition fees.

The expenditure for gymnasiums and progymnasiums in 1864 amounted to 1,937,399 thaler, of which were raised by tuition fees, 817,774 thaler; by private endowments, 61,795 thaler ; by the commune, 208,483 thaler ; by state endos. ments, 230,368 thaler; by state treasury, 271,547 thaler.

Real-schools and higher burgher-schools show a total expenditure of 635,785 thaler. Raised by tuition fees, 385,281 thaler ; by private endowments, 13,4=2 thaler; by the commune, 192,563 thaler; by state endowments, 3,436 thaler ; by state treasury, 13,871 thaler.

Tuition fees vary from 6 to 33 thaler per year, according to the class attended by pupils.

SCHOOL ARCHITECTURE.

PART II.

PLANS FOR GRADED SOHOOLS.

PRELIMINARY REPORT. The following Illustrations of Buildings recently erected for Graded Schools in several of the principal cities of the country, are selected from a much larger number in possession of the Commissioner of Education, for many of which he is indebted to the Superintendents of Public Schools in these cities, who have in this way responded most promptly and liberally to his Circular (No. 9,) on the subject. A particular acknowledgment will be made in his full Report.

SCHOOL ARCHITECTURE,

553

PRELIMINARY REPORT.

PAGE. Special Circular of Commissioner of Education, No. 8,.... 513 Plans OF BUILDINGS RECENTLY ERECTED FOR GRADED School,

515 Boston, Mass.,......

Latin School and English High School,...
Grammar Schools.....

5:20 Name and Dedicatory Exercises,.

524 Bowdoin School,

5:35 Quincy School,..

598 Lincoln School, Everett School,..

535 Prescott School,

597 Norcross School,

547 Norwich, Conn......

Free Academy, . New Haven, Conn.,.

556 Skinner School,

556 WINONA, MINNESOTA,

560 Public High School,

500 San Francisco, CALIFORNIA,..

561 Lincoln School,

561 Denman School,

565 New ORLEANS, LOUISIANA,

598 St. Philip School......

548 LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY,..

569 Public Grummar School, St. Louis, MISSOURI,.

572 City High School,..

572 CHICAGO, ILLINOIS,

577 Wells School; Cottage Grove School,

577 SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS,. Public High School,.

583 MARSHALL, MICHIGAN,

594 Public High School,

384 YPSILANTI, MICHIGAN,.

585 Union Public School,..

585 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, Union Public School...

548 Cincinnati, Ou10,.....

593 Hughes City High School ; Woodward City High School,.

393 PHILADELPHIA, PENN.,.... Hollingsworth School,..

604 Tasker School ; Ludlow School,

612 Morris City School-20th Section,

614 Hesterville School-24th Section,

613 Fagen School-4th Section,...

619 Melon Street School--14th Section,

617 Rovoudt School-12th Section, Rutledge School—20th Section,.

621 Wyoming School-24th Section... A. D. Bache School-15th Section, Forest School-21st Section,... Keystone Grammar School - 15th Section,.. Wood Street School-17th Section,....

Reynolds School-20th Section ; Pine School, BALTIMORE, Mo.,

Public High School for Girls; Grammar School,.. New York City,

641 Grammar Schools, Nos. 30 and 47...

641

No. 9.

CIRCULAR RESPECTING SCHOOL ARCHITECTURE.

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION,

Washington, D. C., 1867. The following Circular is the substance of numerous letters which the Commissioner has already had occasion to write; and correspondents, to whom it may be addressed, will please receive it as specially addressed to them, in the way of answer, or of inquiry, on the points specified.

HENRY BARNARD, Commissioner.

A. No ocument explanatory of the principles of School Architecture, or illustrative of the present advanced practice in different States, has been published by the Department, but the Commissioner has been for years collecting the material for a comprehensive publication on the subject, to which any contribution in the way of suggestion or illustration will be duly acknowledged.

B. Information on any of the topics, and as far as practicable, impressions from any of the illustrations in the accompanying Classified Index, (XVIII) will be promptly furnished without expense to committees engaged in preparing plans for school edifices.

C. The following Title and Contents will explain the nature of the document above referred to:

SCHOOL-HOUSES; PLANS OF BUILDINGS recently erected for Educational Uses; with an Introduction on the Principles of School Architecture, and its Progressive Development in the United States. [A Document prepared for publication by the National Department of Education.]

CONTENTS. INTRODUCTION. 1. Progressive Improvement and Present Condition of School-houses and

their Equipment in the different States, drawn from official documents

published from 1830 to 1840, and from 1865 to 1868. 2. General Principles to be observed in the Location, Grounds, Material,

Construction, Lighting, Warming, Ventilation, and Furniture of Build

ings designed for Educational Purposes. 3. Plans of School-houses recommended by Official Authorities, Educators

and Architects in different countries. PLANS OF BUILDINGS DESIGNED FOR EDUCATIONAL USES RECENTLY ERECTEN. Part I. Unclassified Schools, or Schools with a single apartment, or at most

two, in Rural Districts. PART II. Graded Schools, or Schools with two or more classes, in Villages

and large Cities. Part III. Special Schools, such as Normal Schools, Scientific Schools, &c. &c. PART IV. Collegiate Institutions, or Buildings in which Residence and Do

mestic Uses are provided for, as well as Class and Lecture Rooms, Li

brary, Cabinets, Laboratory, Gymnastics, &c. &c. Part V. Library, Museum, Lecture-hall, Gymnasium, &c.—buildings for a

special purpose. The Introduction, and each Part, will be paged and issued by itself, as soon as completed, and its publication is authorized.

XVIII. SCHOOL ARCHITECTURE. chool Constructions, IX, 487.

Normal Schools-Plans, Elevations, &c. Illinois State id Practical Illustrations of School Archi- Normal School, IV, 774. New Jersey State Nortecture, oy Henry Barnard, IX, 487; X, 695; XI. mal School, MI. 220. Massachusetts State Normal 563; XI. 701; XII. 817; XIV, 778; XV. School at Westfield, XII. 653. New York State 782; XVI. 701.

Normal School, XIII. 539. Philadelphia City District Schools, or for Children of every age. Plan Normal Schools, XIV. 737. Girls' High Norms]

by H. Mann, IX, 540; by G. B. Emerson, 542, School, Charleston, S. C., XII. 620. Normal sad 548; by H. Barnard, 550, 553, 555; by R. S. Rust, Model Schools at Toronto, U. C., XIV. 488 0x 556; by T. A. Teft, 559; by A. D. Lord, 562 ; by wego Training School, XVI. 213. New Britain, X D. Leach, 563.

51. Bridgewater Normal School, XVL 466. Fra City Schools—Baltimore, V, 198; Boston, IV. 518; mingham, XVI. 469. Salem, XVI. 470.

VI. 518; X. 718; XII. 701 ; XVI, 711; Chicago, Public Library, Boston, VII. 252. Cooper Sciealise III. 537; VI, 515; XIII, 610; Cincinnati, XIII. Union, N. Y., I. 652. Dudley Observatory, Albeor, 623; IV. 522 ; New York, I. 408; VI. 524 ; X. I. 594. Yale College in 1764, V. 792. American 750; XIV. 788; Norwich, II. 699; Philadelphia, Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, Hartford, a. I

XI. 817; Providence, XI. 583; St. Louis, I. 348. 440. New York Institution for the Deaf and Damb. Primary and Infant Schools. General Principles, X, III. 346. New York Asylum for Imbeciles, Syra

695. Playground and Appliances, X, 697. School- cuse. IV. 416. N. Y. State Geological Hall, IV.781. room, by Wilders pein, X, 699; by Chambers, 702; Harvard Hall, V, 530. Yale College, 1764. V. 1 by British and Foreign School Society, 705: by Apparatus for Physical Exercise. IX. 530; XI. 19; National Society, 706; by Committee of Council XII. 677; for illustration, XIV. 569. on Education, 710; by Dr. Dick, 714 ; by J. Ken- Blackboard and well-surface, IX, 546, 563; X. dal, 715; by J. W. Ingraham, for Boston Primary 739; XVI. 575. Schools, 718; by J. D. Philbrick, 740; by New York Crnyons, how made, XVI. 574. Public School Society, 750; in Providence, XI. Dedicatory Exercises and Addresses, III, 193: IX. 583.

633 ; XIII, 836; V. 648; XI. 655; XIII. 53!; Baltimore Female High School, V, 198; Cincinnati XVI. 453 : I. 645, 647.

Hughes High School, XIII, 623 ; Boston Lalin Drawing-room and Desks, X, 554; XIV, 795; XVI. School, XII, 551; Woodward High School, IV.

722. 522 ; Chicago High School, III, 537 ; High School, Furniture for Schools, IX, 551; X, 754; XII, GT: Hartford, XI, 606; Public High School, Middle- Defective Construction, IX. 492, 518; XI. 517; town, XI, 612; New York Free Academy, XIV. Chase's Adjustable Desk, XIII. 656; Mott's Re 788; Providence Public High School, XI. 597; volving Seat, X. 563. Norwich Free Academy, I. 696 ; St. Louis High Furnaces, XVI, 579, 582. School, I. 348.

Hot-water apparntus, XVI. 713.
Seminaries for Girls. Packer Collegiate Institute, Library of Reference, I. 739 ; IX, 545.

Brooklyn, I. 581; Richmond Female College, I. Location and Playground, IX, 492, 503, 501, 510,
231; Public Grammar School for Girls in New 527, 542; X, 731.
York, I. 408; Providence Young Ladies' High Privies and Facilities for Cleanliness, IX. 520, 539 :
School, V, 14; Vassar College, XVII.

X. 728; XI. 607; XIII. 853.
Union and Graded Schools-Plans, Elevations, &c., Warming, IX, 546, 552; X. 705, 727 ; XI. 584,5e :

X, 563-612; XII, 701. Union School, Ann Ar- XII. 832; XVI, 579, 713. bor, Mich., VIII. 91. Public Floating School, Ventilation in American Dwellings, V. 35. In School Baltimore, V. 201. Haven School Building, Chi- Houses, IX. 563, 547, 568; X. 724 : XIII. 612 cago, XIII, 610. Newberry Public School, Chi- 832, 858; XIV, 801; XV. 782; XVI. 716, 79. cago, VI. 515. Putnam Free School, Newburyport, Ornamentation, X. 731; Mrs. Sigoumey on, 722; Mass., XII. 616. Public Schools No. 20 and No. Salem High School, XIV, 804; IX. 343. 33, New York City, VI, 524. School Houses in Specificntions, Terms of, X. 733 ; XII. 708. Philadelphia, XIII. 817. Graded School, Simcoe, Sents and Desks, Arrangement of. IX, 551; XI. 583; U.C., VIII. 679. Union Public School, Ypsilanti, XIII, 656; Octagonal Plan, XVI. 78; Barnard's

Mich., IV. 780. Norwich Central School. II. 699. plan, with division, X, 760, 761. Grammar Schools — Plans, XI, 701. Bowdoin Size of building, XVI. 716.

School, XIII. 702. Quincy School, XII. 704; Stand, movable, for blackboard, XVI. 709. Specifications, 709. Lincoln Grammar School, Stoves for Schools, Mott's, XVI. 590; Chilson, SVI Boston, VI. 518. Dwight Grammar School, Bos- 589; Emerson, IX. 546. ton, IV, 769. Prescott Grammar, XVI. 711. Fif- Rules for Care of School-house, XIII. 851, 857; teenth Ward (N. Y.) Public Grammar School for use of Furnaces, XV. 803 ; setting furnace, AVL Girls, I. 409. Central High School, Philadelphin, I.

584. 92; XII. 831. Grammar, Providence, XI. 588, 594.

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