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Government of Marienwerder : 8, Thorn, Real-School classes of the Gympa.
sium. II. PROVINCE OF BRANDENBURG. City of Berlin : 1, Royal Real-Schoo.; 2, Louisenstadt Real-School; 3, König.
stadt Real-School; 4, Dorotheenstadt Real-School; 5, Frederic Real
School. Government of Potsdam : 6, Potsdam; 7, Brandenburg, Soldern Real-School;
8, Perleberg; 9, Wittstock. Government of Frankfurt: 10, Frankfurt; 11, Landsberg on the Werta, Real
School classes at Gymnasium.
Government of Stettin : 1, Stettin, Frederic Wilhelm School.
School of the Zwinger, sim. Government of Liegnitz : 3, Gruenberg, Frederic Wilhelm School: 4, Goerlitz;
5, Landshut. Government of Oppeln: 6, Neisse, C. and P. V. PROVINCE OF Posen.
Government of Posen : 1, Posen, sim.; 2, Meseritz; 3, Fraustadt; 4, Rawicz.
Government of Bromberg : 5, Bromberg, C. and P. VI. PROVINCE OF SAXONY. Government of Magdeburg : 1, Magdeburg, Secondary Technical and Commer
cial School; 2, Halberstadt; 3, Aschersleben. Government of Merseburg : 4, Halle.
Government of Erfurt: 5, Erfurt, C. and P.; 6, Nordhausen. VII. PROVINCE OF WESTPHALIA. Government of Münster : 1, Münster, Cath.; 2, Burgsteinfurt, Real-School
classes at Gymnasium. Government of Minden: 3, Minden, Real-School classes at Gymnasium. Government of Arnsberg : 4, Dortmund, Real-School classes at Gymnasium;
5, Lippstadt; 6, Hagen ; 7, Siegen. VIII. PROVINCE OF THE RHINE AND HOHENZOLLERN. Government of Cologne : 1, Cologne, Real-School, C. and P.; 2, the same, Real
School classes at the Frederic Wilhelm Gymnasium. Government of Dusseldorf: 3, Dusseldorf, sim.; 4, Duisburg, Real-School
classes at Gymnasium; 5, Mühlheim ; 6, Ruhrort; 7, Elberfeld; 8, Bar
men, Real-School classes at Gymnasium. Government of Aic-la-Chapelle : 9, Aix-la-Chapelle, C. and P. Government of Treves: 10, Treves, C. and P.
REAL-SCHOOLS OF THE SECOND ORDER. I. PROVINCE OF PRUSSIA.
Government of Königsberg: 1, Wehlau.
Government of Marienwerder : 2, Graudenz. II. PROVINCE OF BRANDENBURG. City of Berlin : 1, Frederic Werder Technical School; 2, Louisenstadt Tech
nical School. Government of Potsdam : 3, Prenzlau, Real-School classes at Gymnasium.
Government of Frankfurt: 4, Cüstrin; 5, Lübben. III. PROVINCE OF POMERANIA.
Government of Stralsund: 1, Greifswalde, Real-School classes at Gymnasium. IV. PROVINCE OF WESTPHALIA.
Government of Minden: 1, Bielefeld, Real-School classes at Gymnasium. V. PROVINCE OF THE RHINE AND HOHENZOLLERN.
Government of Dusseldorf: 1, Essen, C. and P.; 2, Crefeld.
I. PROVINCE OF Prrssia.
Gorernment of Künijsberg: 1, Pillau.
Government of Danzig: 2, Jenkau, Pedagogium.
Government of Marienwerder : 3, Culm, sim. ; 4, Marienwerder Frederic School II. PROVINCE OF BRANDENBURG,
City of Berlin : 1, Stralau, secondary Burgher-School.
Government of Frankfort : 3, Crossen ; 4, Spremberg.
Government of Oppeln : 1, Kreuzburg ; 2, Neustadt in Upper Silesia.
Government of Arnsberg : 1, Luedenscheid.
Government of Cologne : 1, Mülheim.
Solingen; 6, Lennep.
PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS.
In presenting comparative statistics, the basis of three different years will be taken: 1818 as the year in which the reorganization of gymnasiums (begun in 1812) was completed ; 1832 as the year in which the instructions for final examinations at real and higher burgher-schools were issued; and 1859 as the year in which the programmes of instruction and examination of the same schools were promulgated.
The increase in the number of gymnasiums indicates, mostly, an increase by the establishment of new or the division of old institutions; there are but few instances of decrease and change in their confessional relations. Two of the gymnasiums in the province of Saxony became higher burgher-schools, one of wbich has since been reorganized as a gymnasium ; one school in the province of Posen was closed in 1863 for political reasons. The Academy of Knights of Brandenburg was also temporarily closed, (1849–1856.) The mixed (for different religious confessions) gymnasium of the city of Posen was in 1834 divided into two, one for Protestants and the other for Catholics. The Evangelical gymnasium at Erfurt was opened for both confessions in 1819. The mixed gymnasiums at Heiligenstadt and Düsseldorf became Catholic in 1841, respectively, 1854. The Evangelical gymnasium at Wetzlar was conducted for pupils of both confessions from 1843 to 1855. The greatest absolute increase was in the Rhine province, (14.) Of the 15 gymnasiums in the province of Brandenburg in 1818, five belonged to Berlin : and of the 24 gymnasiums it has at present, 10 belong to that city.
The total number of Catholic gymnasiums in the kingdom bas in the above period increased from 17 to 39, which is larger than the increase of Protestant gymnasiums in the state.
While the gymnasiums are firmly established, and with very few changes develop slowly but steadily, the progymnasiums are exposed to continual modifications.
Some changed by a combination with a gymnasium, (20;) others are transformed into real-schools (1) or burgher-schools, (4;) one in the Rhine province was dissolved. Throughout the period from 1832 to 1866 were established 29 new progymnasiums, while 26 changed their form as stated above, giving an absolute increase in number of three.
C.-- Real-schools. The statistics of real-schools must necessarily be compared for two periods: First, from 1832 to 1859; second, from 1859 to 1866. This class of schools also shows manifold changes.
The total number at the end of the year 1832, (9,) compared to that of 1859, (56,) confirms the real-schools as favorite offsprings of the century. But the realschools of the 2d order, since 1859, show less stability than the gymnasiums. The real-school opened at Warrendorf in 1835, first becomes a middle school in 1815, again a real-school. (1855,) and again a gymnasium in 1856.
Of these, also, like of all other secondary schools, we find only Protestant ones in Brandenburg and Pomerania ; in 1832 both had had not yet any of this class. Brandenburg erects 13, (six of which in Berlin,) one of which becomes a gymnasium. Pomerania establishes six real-schools, of which, in 1857–8, three become gymnasiums.
In the provinces of Prussia, Silesia, and Saxony, we find many mixed schools with the Evangelical institutions. In Westphalia some are Catholie, and Catholic and mixed real-schools are in Posen and the Rhine provinces ; but the greater number of them are attended also by Protestant pupils. Mixed real-schools have proved capable of life, but no Catholic one existed as early as 1832.
Most of the real-schools of the second order are in the provinces of Prussia and Saxony.
The increase in the total number of Evangelical real-schools is very considerable; nearly 250 per cent. in less than seven years. The one Catholic school at Münster, which existed in 1859, has been preserved, but no new one added to it, nor do we find any Catholic real-schools of the second order. Of mixed realschools there were 6 in 1859, to which three have been added. Often real.schools are parallel classes to a gymnasium, but since 1859 only in Evangelical schools.
While the real-schools, first order, show a stability equal to that of gymnasiums, and sometimes excelling the latter, the real-schools of the second order show great changes, and some have but a short-lived existence. But the decrease in number is due, in most instances, to their being raised to the first order. Realschools of the second order are sometimes parallel classes to gymnasiums, but only in Evangelical schools.
D.—Higher burgher-schools.—No schools of this class existed in 1859. Since then 26 have been established, of which one was changed into a real-school of the first order, so that their present number is 25. There are now,
in 1866, 56 real-schools of the first order, of which 46 are Evangelical, 1 Catholic, and 9 mixed; 11 of the second order, of which 10 are Evangelical and 1 mixed ; 25 burgher-schools of the highest class, of which 21 are Evangelical, 2 Catholic, and 2 mixed. The grand total of real-schools is 92, of which 77 are Evangelical, 3 Catholic, and 12 mixed.
The number of real-schools has increased in all provinces. The greatest increase is in the Rhine province, 14 ; Brandenburg, 9; Westphalia, 5; Pomerania, 3; Silesia, 2; and the other provinces 1 each.
Of all classes of secondary schools there were July 1, 1866, as follows:
Or, of 271 schools 154 are gymnasiums, 25 progymnasiums, 56 real-schools of the first ordur, 11 real-schools of the second order, and 25 higher burgher-schools. Among the religious confessions the Evangelical schools outnumber the others by far; but the Catholic and mixed schools have so increased under the Prussian administration that any complaints of governmental neglect are unfounded.
II.-ATTENDANCE, In reviewing the attendance of pupils at secondary schools, the years 1832, 1873–54, 1859-'60, and 1863 are compared.