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of them have had grants of State lands, that at Fryeburgh of 15,000 acres, and the other six, at Machias, Hallowell, Berwick, Marblehead, Taunton, and Leicester, one township each. To extend this plan of a township to each academy to those academies already allowed, and to those which from local circumstances may be justly claimed, would require the grants of twelve or thirteen town. ships more. The committee think this number too large, and therefore propose half a township of six miles square, of the unappropriated lands in the district of Maine, to be granted to each academy having secured to it the private funds of towns and individual donors before described, to be laid out or assigned (with the usual reservations) by the committee for the sale of easteru lands.
Of the eight academies already incorporated and not endowed by the Com. monwealth, part appear to have been endowed by towns and individuals; and as to part, no satisfactory evidence is produced of such endowments.
It appears that Dummer's Academy, in Newbury, has legally secured to it a permanent fund for its support, by a private donor, to the amount of $6.000; and that Phillips Academy, in Andover, has a fund something larger, secured in like manner; that each of these academies was established in a proper situation.
It appears that the academies in Groton and Westford are about seven miles apart, both in the county of Middlesex, and with a neighborhood perhaps not so adequate as could be wished to the support of two; that each of them has received the donations of towns and individuals to the amount of about $2,500, and that each of them is now much embarrassed for want of funds, but both of these academies have been incorporated and countenanced by the legislature, and must be considered as fully adequate for the county of Middlesex.
On the whole the committee propose an immediate grant of half a township of the description aforesaid, to each of these four academies. As to the academies at Portland, Westfield and New Salem, and in the county of Plymouth, the committee propose that half a township, of the description aforesaid, be granted to each of them: provided, each of them shall, within three years, produce evidence that there is a permanent fund legally secured to each by town or individual donors, to the amount of $3,000, and that the Act establishing an Academy in the town of Plymouth be repealed, and an Act be passed establishing an Academy in the county of Plymouth, on the principles of the petition from that county; and that half a township of land be granted to each of the counties of Barnstable, Nantucket, Norfolk, and Dukes County, and Hancock, for the purpose of an Academy; provided they shall, within three years, sererally furnish evidence that funds are secured by towns or individual donors to the amount of $3,000, for the support of each of the said academies.
The Joint Standing Committee on Education (Hon. Charles W. Upham, Chairman,) in a Report dated March 30, 1859—after reciting the above report, as proceeding from a Committee “composed of leading and experienced men, of whom Nathan Dane of Beverly was one,"_"and as published by the General Court, containing most decisive and emphatic annunciation of the policy of the State"remark:
The following principles appear to have been established, as determining the relations of academies to the Commonwealth. They were to be regarded as in many respects and to a considerable extent, public schools; as a part of an organized system of public and universal education: as opening the way, for all the people, to a higher order of instruction than the common schools can supply, and as a complement to them, towns, as well as the Commonwealth, were to share, with individuals, the character of founders, or legal visitors of them. They were to be distributed, as nearly as might be, so as to accommodate the different districts or localities of the State, according to a measure of population, that is, 25,000 individuals. In this way they were to be placed within the reach of the whole people, and their advantages secured, as equally and effectively as possible, for the common benefit.
ACADEMIES AND SECONDARY EDUCATION.
SECONDARY EDUCATION IN PRUSSIA.
PRELIMINARY REPORT. The following pages contain a preliminary paper on the System of Incorporated Academies and Classical Schools of New England, and particularly of Massachusetts; and an elaborate exposition of the System of Secondary Education in Prussia, drawn up by a Director of one of the most distinguished Gymnasiums of that kingdom. In the thorough scholarship obtained in this class of institutions in Prussia, it is possible to find the basis of the real scientific culture given in the Universities of Germany.
435 435 435 435
449 449 451
453 454 455 459 460 462 463 466
Decree of 1552, 1573, 1662, 1687,.
Baron von Altenstein, Eichhorn, Von Raumer,.
1. Province of Prussia,..
Director-Object, import and official position,.
Title, hours of work, leave of absence, 3. REGULATIONS FOR EXAMINATION,..
Examen pro facultate-Examen pro loco,...
Examination for teaching Drawing, Gymnastics, Surveying,.. 4. PREPARATION OF TEACHERS FOR SUPERIOR SCHOOLS,
Travel to visit Foreign Schools,.. 5. STUDY Plans,
Degrees of Instruction-1810, 1812, 1816, 1831, 1837,
Mental Philosophy, Religion, Gymnastics, Stenography, 6. REAL-SCHOOLS AND HIGHER BURGHER-Schools,
Plan of Study in 1859,. 7. GENERAL MATTERS, .
Establishment of New Institutions, School Year,
474 476 478 479 481 483
469 492 192 495
501 501 502 503 503
Privileges of Graduates,... 8. CLASSIFICATION OF INSTITUTIONS BY DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT,
Between the VIII. and XV. Centuries,
Sixteenth Century-XVII., XVIII. and XIX. Centuries, 9. ARRANGEMENT OF INSTITUTIONS BY PROVINCES,
505 506 508
509 515 515 516 516 517
PUBLIC INSTRUCTION IN PRUSSIA.
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION.
a. Supreme Administration, The various independent constituent parts of Prussia from which the kingdom has its origin, prevented an early central administration of public instruction, which was not established till the present century. The schools generally, according to their origin, were at first closely connected with the Church and its regulations, or dependent on the local authorities. The Elector Joachim II. organized in 1552 a consistory for evangelical church and school affairs in Brandenburg; John George decreed in 1573 a visiting and consistorial regulation, which determined the supervision of the schools, as well as their internal arrangements, the instruction and the relations of the teachers. Clergymen were made inspectors, and at the head was the consistory, composed of four or five meinbers, whose assessor was usually the general superintendent. This council undertook the traveling inspection in the provinces, which was fixed at every ten years for each province ; during which period the clergymen were exempt from school and church visiting duties. The regulation specified as visitors : “Our general Superintendents and one of our Consistory members, or from some other council, together with the Notarius" (clerk.) The visitors appointed as inspectors for the surrounding towns and villages, the paştors of the principal cities of each place. In regard to the instruction of teachers and pupils of the cityschools, which developed afterwards into high-schools, very special regulations were made. At the time of the institution of a privy counselorship, under the Elector Joachim Frederic, as the highest established administrative council, there originated with it, for the consistory, an additional clerical department. The Thirty Years' War, from whose devastating consequences the Brandenburgian countries suffered particularly, prevented for a long time any further progress in School administration. As a proof of this, we have the decree of Elector Frederick William concerning the affairs of the Protestant Church, in 1662, which contains also the beginning of a School regulation, namely, “that churches and communities should unite their efforts in organizing here and there, in villages, towns and cities, well-administered schools.” The Lutheran Church regulations for the Duchy of Cleves and the earldom of Mark, in 1687, recommend the same, although with more detailed specifications.
The union of the Duchy of Prussia with the Brandenburgian prøvinces, the erection of Prussia into a kingdom under Frederic III., rendered centralization in the administration possible, and thus in fact developed the general legislation of the Prussian State since the eighteenth century. Entering deeper into the question, and aiming at a still greater centralization of instruction, was the royal decree of Frederick William I., October 24, 1713, concerning the Prussian evangelical, inspective, presbyterial, parochial regulations for gymnasiums and schools. It gives the supervision of all the schools to the Church : “the gymnasiums and Latin schools of Berlin, Frankfort on the Oder, and Halle, to continue in their present organization and typis lectionum, and those of the other cities and provinces to be modeled as much as possible upon the former, so that some uniformity might be obtained.” The decidedly Protestant character of this regulation shows itself in the importance it gives to the Heidelberg catechism : “No other catechism for the young to be allowed in schools or churches." The exclusive use of this catechism was again prescribed in 1716. Important for higher instruction was the revised regulation of September 30, 1718, both for students in schools and universities, as also for the Canditorum ministerei, in which the moral and scientific requirements of those devoting themselves to university studies, namely, the theologians, are strongly set forth and enforced.
In December 22d, 1722, Frederic William I. issued instructions for the general treasury, war and domain departments, which contained also an article relative to church and school affairs : “In all places,” says the article, “where the jus patronatus belongs to us, the churches and schools shall be kept in good condition, and the administration shall direct the authorities of the provinces to see to this matter." The mere æsthetic development of the mind found no sympathy with this king: he cared chiefly for the wants of the common people. The administration of this department was given to Printzen, president of the German and French members of the consistory, director of all ecclesiastical affairs, protector of the academy of fine arts, principal trustee of all the royal universities, etc., who held it from 1722 to 1725. He was succeeded by the Baron of In-and-Knyphausen, to whom, in consequence of an accumulation of work in the consistorial affairs, (1730) was associated as vice-president, Von Reichenbach. In the four provincial departments, the church and school affairs were administered by members of the consistory and the legislature.
It is natural that under a monarch like Frederick II., the school administration should be more intelligently conceived than under his predecessor, so far his inferior in real culture. As soon as the storms of war were over, he issued a decree, (1750,) for the Lutheran high consistory of Berlin, to whom was intrusted the supervision of the consistories of the provinces, with the exception of those of Schleswig. Its first president was the chief of the ecclesiastical department, the privy State and law minister, Baron of Danckelmann: in 1764, the church and school