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COMPUTED EXPRESSLY FOR THIS WORK,
BY SAMUEL H. WRIGHT, A. M., M. D., PENN-YAN, N. Y.
ERAS CORRESPONDING WITH 1869.
The year 1869 constitutes the
93d of the Independence of the United States, until July 4th.
1873d of the birth of Christ, our present Era having begun 4 years after His birth. 1238th of the Persian Era, which began June 19th, N. S., 632 A. D.
1286th of the Hegira, and begins April 13th, 1869.
1317th of the Armenian Ecclesiastical Year.
1585th of the Era of Diocletian, or Era of Martyrs.
1907th of the Spanish Era, or Era of the Cæsars.
1914th of the Julian Era, or since the reformation of the Calendar of Numa Pompilius. 2181st of the Grecian Era of the Seleucides.
2816th of the Babylonish Era of Nabonassar, which began Feb. 26th, 3967, J. P
2622d of the old Roman Era, A. U. C., according to Varro.
2645th of the Olympiads of Greece, or the 1st year of the 662d Olympiad, beginning in July. 3884th of the Era of Abraham, used by Eusebius.
4217th of the Deluge, according to Usher, and the English Bible.
4971st of the Cali Yuga, or Hindoo, and Indian Era.
4506th of the Chinese Calendar, beginning Feb. 11th, 1869, and the 6th in a cycle of 60 years. 5629th of the Creation, according to the Minor Era of the Jews. It ends September 5th. 6228th of the Greater Rabbinical Era of the Jews.
6097th of the World, according to Eusebius.
5813th of the World, according to Scaliger.
5873d of the World, according to Usher and the English Bible.
7361st of the World, according to the Antiochian and Abyssinian Eras.
7371st of the World, according to the Alexandrian Era.
7377-78th of the Era of Constantinople, used by the Byzantine historians.
This last is the same as the Septuagint version of the Bible, and it is the most reliable authority known. It dates the creation on the 1st of the Jewish month Tisri, 5508 B. C., or 1377 years ago. There are about a hundred and forty eras respecting the age of the world, some claiming it to be millions of years old, but without authentic written records.
JEWISH CALENDAR FOR 1869.
The Jewish year 5629, of 12 months, or 355 days and 51 Jewish Sabbaths, (Saturdays), began Sept. 17th, 1868, and ends Sept. 5th, 1869. The year 5630, of 13 months, is an embolismic year, and the 6th of the CCXCVIIth cycle, containing 385 days, and 55 Jewish Sabbaths, beginning Sept. 6th, 1869, and ending Sept. 25th, 1870.
MOHAMMEDAN CALENDAR FOR 1869.
year 1285, of 354 days, began April 24th, 1868, and ends April 12th, 1869. The year 1286, of 355 days, begins April 13th, 1869, and ends April 2d, 1870.
THE FOUR SEASONS, OR NATURAL DIVISIONS OF THE YEAR.
THE RISING AND SETTING OF MERCURY,
when near its greatest elongation from the Sun, for Washington. At the times given below, it will probably be visible.
MERCURY SETS, EVENING.
MERCURY RISES, MORNING.
sets. May. sets. Sept. sets. March. rises. July. rises. Nov.
Mercury is brightest when at an elongation of about 22° 19′, which occurs about three days before its greatest elongation east, and three days after its greatest elongation west, and is always between the greatest elongation and superior conjunction. Venus is brightest between inferior conjunction and greatest elongation, and when its elongation is about 39° 44′.
ECLIPSES FOR 1869.
There will be four Eclipses this year, two of the Sun and two of the Moon, as follows:
I. A partial eclipse of the Moon, January 27th, in the evening, visible. Size, 0.458 of the diameter, or 5.496 digits, on the northern limb. See table of Lunar Eclipse, page 14, for the time.
The first contact occurs at a point 50" from the north point towards the east, and the last contact 31° from the north point towards the west. The north point of the Moon is determined by an imaginary line drawn from the Moon's centre toward the north pole, or North Star, and not toward the north point of the horizon. When the Moon is at A the Eclipse is largest and on the northern limb.
II. An annular eclipse of the Sun, February 11th, invisible in North America. Visible in the southern part of South America, south of 20° latitude, and in the southern part of Africa.
This Eclipse will be partial in the lower part of South America, and Southern Africa. The line of the Central Eclipse travels in the Ocean, and ends on the coast of Madagascar. The Eclipse begins in Lat. 35° 39' S., Lon. 3° 12.3′ W., and ends in Lat. 9° 47.4 S., Lon. 256° 27.3′ W.
The central phase begins in Lat. 50° 8.8 S., Lon. 29° 55.3′ W., and ends in Lat. 24° 41.3' S., Lon. 232 39.7′ W. of Washington. It occurs at noon, in Lat. 54° 6.5' S., and in Lon. 301° 32′ W. of Washington.
III. A partial eclipse of the Moon, July 23d, invisible in America. Visible in Eastern Asia and Australia. Size, 0.566 of the diameter, or 6.792 digits on the southern limb.
IV. A TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE SUN, August 7th, in the afternoon, visible either as a total, or a large partial eclipse, throughout Eastern Asia, and all of North America, and the West Indies. This will be the most interesting eclipse that has occurred, or will occur, in the United States for many years.
The eclipse first begins on the Earth at sun-rise in the Pacific Ocean, east of Japan, in Lat. 36 53.3 N., Lon. 188° 37.4′ W. of Washington. It becomes total first upon the Earth, in Siberia, at sun-rise, in Lat. 52° 41.9 N., Lon. 165° 26.4' W. of Washington. The eclipse is
total at noon in Alaska, Lat. 61 46.9 N., Lon. 68° 4.6′ West. The line of the total eclipse now runs south-easterly, grazing the coast near Sitka, thence running off into British America, and entering the United States near the origin of Milk River, Lon. 30° W. Thence through the South-west corner of Minnesota, and diagonally through Iowa, crossing the Mississippi River near Burlington, Iowa; thence through Illinois, just north of Springfield, and crossing the Ohio River near Louisville, Ky. Thence through the south-west corner of West Virginia, and through North Carolina, just south of Raleigh, and thence to Newbern, and entering the Atlantic, just north of Beaufort, N. C., and ending at sun-set, in the ocean, in Lat. 31° 15.2 N., and Lon. 9° 36.6' East.
THE GREAT SOLAR ECLIPSE OF AUGUST 7TH.
In all the dark part of the engraving the Eclipse will be visible and partial, except along the heavy black line, where it will be total.
Along the line described above, the eclipse will be total, and at all other places in the United States it will be partial. The partial eclipse ends on the Earth at sun-set, in Lat. 14° 48′ 54′′ N., Lon. 13° 10′ W., being near the City of Guatemala. Along the Atlantic coast in the United States, the eclipse ends at about sun-set. For the times of the phases of this eclipse, see the following table. For its general outline, see the engraving.
This eclipse occurred last in 1851, July 28th, and the total phase was visible in the arctic regions of America, and in Sweden, Norway and Russia.