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Frazer's Magazine, The Critic
French Criminal Trials-Edinburgh Review, 247
Genius and Writings of Bunyan-See Bunyan.
Gordon, Gen., Career in Russia— Quarterly
Gracchi, the--Beniley's Miscellany,
Glance at the Zoological Gardens,
Great Battles of the World—Dublin University
214 Hamilton, Sir Wm. (by De Quincey,)— Hogg's
: 368 Harem, Visit to, at Tunis-Sharpe's Magazine, 49
Heine, his Works and Times—— Tait's Magazine, 481
Helps, Mr., Essays of—Blackwood's Magazine, 502
I. J. K.
Japanese Expedition-Sharpe's Magazine, 420
Incendiary, the Chambers's Journal.
Impostore, the Three Dauphins-See Dauphin.
247 Lives of John Stunning and the Duke of Smith
London Book-Trade, Westminster Review, 188
500 Last Revel, the-Chambers's Edinburgh Jour-
Literature of the Northern Nations, British
La Plata and Rosas–See Rosas.
Literary Miscellanies, 141, 285, 429.
Life of Marshal Soult-See Soult.
“ Descartes, -See Descartes.
" Frederic the Great-See Frederic.
Edgar A. Poe-See Poe.
Mallet du Pan-See Mallet.
425 “ Schwarzenberg-See Schwarzenberg.
Life of Moir-See Delta.
Reminiscences of a Mam of the World - Bentley's
Roger, Sir, De Coverly- Quarterly Review, . 76
Recollections of Moore--Dublin University
Russia, Gen. Gordon's Career in-See Gordon.
Rosas, Don Manuel de-Bentley's Miscellany, 352
Recollections of a Police Officer. See Mono-
Representative Men-Eclectic Review,
Religious Poets of the Eighteenth and Nine.
teenth Centuries-- Hogg's Instructor,
Rosas and La Plata—Dublin University Maga-
Rochester's, Lord, Poems,
Switzerland, Cretins of,
Statesmanship, British-North British Review, 323
Schwarzenberg, Felix-Tait's Magazine, 372
Somerset and Overbury Tragedy-Chambers's
U. V. W.
Visit to a Harem at Tunis–Sharpe's Maga-
Unsuccessful Great Men—The Gracchi-Bent-
Visit to the Court of Queen Adelaide, 348
115 Vacant Chair in Edinburgh-Frazer's Maga-
120 University Education, English and American
Visible Heavens, the-- Eclectic Review, 433
Works of Heinrich Heine--Tait's Magazine, 492
X. Y. Z.
368 Zoological Gardens, Glance at-Bentley's
The three greatest natural geniuses of Britain, and fallacy liable to the exposure and revershitherto, have been a player, a tinker, and a al of the Almighty himself. gauger, Shakspeare, Bunyan and Burns. It
Shakspeare might have been a chimneyis marvellous to think of the Divinæ particula sweep instead of a stage-player; Burns might aura passing by palaces and courts as in scorn, have been a hind instead of a farmer holding and shedding its selectest influences on heads his own plough; and Bunyan a camp-suttler, not only uncrowned, but actually loaded by a instead of a soldier in the parliamentary army. penumbra of contempt, and the "foregone It had been the same to the great breath, conclusion" of three of the most unpoetical which, in poetry as in religion, seems to of professions. Marvellous, and yet not, search about, to wait long, and to “ return perhaps, to remain for ever unparalleled ; for according to its circuits,” in order, by choswould our readers believe, that the three ing the weak and the base things, yea, and most rising poets of our day are a brewer, a the very nonentities of this world, to bring wine merchant, and a seller of shawls ? to nought the things that are, and to conVerb. sal. sap.
found the things that are mighty. The walls Facts like these prove unquestionably, that of the seventh heaven of invention are not poetry is a gift, not an art; that poeta nas- to be scaled by mere ambition, or art; incitur non fit; that genius, like the will of spiration, if genuine, descends from above, that Being of whose breath it is a minor in- and in descending, must, like the lightning, spiration, is sovereign, and like the wind, be permitted its own proud and imperial bloweth where it listeth; and that to feel choice. contempt for any lawful trade is a vulgarism Let, then, the stage-player, the tinker,
and the gauger, appear for a moment togeth* The Works of John Bunyan, with
an Introduction to each Treatise, Notes, and a Sketch of his and Spaniard looking man, with tall forehead,
er upon our stage. The first is a swarthy Offer, Esq. Vols
. I and II, royal 8vo. Glasgow: sharp sidelong eyes, dark hair curling over Blackie and Son,
his lips and chin, and firm deep out nostri). VOL. XXVI. NO. J.
The second has a fresh complexion, auburn | storm and splendor. Burns, after many a locks, round brow, hair on his upper lip after vain attempt to rally against the misfortunes the old English fashion, and sparkling glow- and sins of his life and temperament, fell ing eyes, not the least like those of a dreamer, down at last their proud recalcitrating victim, but resembling rather the eyes of “some dying and making but dubious signs; while hot amourist” as John Woodvil hath it. The John Bunyan, strong in supernal might, victhird has a broad low brow palpitating with torious over his tendencies, having bound thought and suffering, eyes, shivering in his very madness in chains, and turned his their great round orbs with emotion, like the tears and tortures into the elements of hope star Venus in the orange west, nostril slightly and triumph, crossed the black river, sing. curved upward, dusky skin, black masses of ing in concert with the shining ones, and hair, and dimpled, undecisive chin and cheek. passed into eternity, perfect through sufferAll three have imagination as their leading ing, and resembling rather one of its own faculty, but that of the player is wide as the native children than a poor burdened sinner Globe; that of the tinker is intense, almost from the City of Destruction. Philosophers to lunacy; and that of the gauger is narrow might speculate long and vainly on the causes and vivid as a stream of forked lightning of those very different destinies. Our theory All three have strong intellect, but the in- is the simple Christian one:—God endowed tellect of the one is capacious, that of the the three with almost commensurate powers, other casuistic, and that of the third clear. but one only, through patient struggle and All are partially educated, but Shakspeare's solemn search, reached the blessed hope and culture is that of the society of his age, new life of Christianity. And we come to Bunyan's that of solitary reading, and Burns' the farther analysis and illustration of of a compound of both. All are men of Bunyan's genius, with this exulting thought “one Book," Shakspeare's being the universe, we are not about to speak of a ray which Bunyan's the Bible, and Burns' the ballad has wandered, or even of a magnificent world poetry of Scotland. All are men of intensely unfinished, unnamed, unbaptised of God, but ardent temperament, which in Shakspeare is of a star once astray, but which returned subdued by the width of the mind in which and received a place in the great galaxy of the furnace glows, which in Bunyan becomes the worshipping and boly heavens. a purged flame, but which in poor Burns It is curious to mark the slow and gradual bursts out of all restraint into a destructive progress of this man's fame, when compared conflagration. In the works of all, inateriem with the rapid growth of his reputation. It superat opus, the genius of Shakspeare flaming was to some extent the same with Shakspeare out of mean structures of farce and tragi- and Burns. William Shakspeare was very comedy, Bunyan's power overflowing the popular in his lifetime, for the sake of the banks of narrow controversial treatises, and humor and geniality of his plays, but it took the great soul of Burns o'er-informing the a century or two for the world to see that he tenement of fugitive poems, jeux d'esprits, was the greatest poet that ever lived. Burns' satires, and semi-scandalous ballads. All wild and witty and pathetic poems pervaded sprang from the people, but while Shakspeare all Scotland like the winds of April, as swift and Burns belonged to its upper stratum, and as soft; put forty years had to pass ere Bunyan appeared amid its lowest dregs, like Carlyle ventured to pronounce him the first a new creation amid the slush of chaos. All man, in genius, his country had ever prohad something of a religious tendency, but duced. Bunyan's first part of the “ Pilgrim" while in Shakspeare it takes a vague diffusive was speedily translated into other languages, form, and in Burns never amounts to much as well as widely circulated in his own; but more than what he himself calls an idiot nearly two hundred years revolved ere any piety," in Bunyan it becomes a deep burning critic was hardy enough to call it a work of principle of thought and action, at once genius. Previously to this it was named and swallowing up and sanctifying his native praised with misgiving, and in cold and timid genius.
terms. “ Wonderful book for a tinker; clever The fate of the three was curious and allegory; pity it is so Calvinistic; considercharacteristic. Shakspeare, the sublime stage able dramatic power in it; an excellent book dlayer, outliving his early self, with those for the vulgar.” Such were some of the vsterious errors which are partially revealed morceaux of criticism with which the eight's sonnets, subsided into a decent, retired, eenth century bestrewed it. Dr. Johnson, 'ulgent gentleman, like a dull, sleepy, to be sure, praised it for its invention and the
"vening following a day of blended l conduct of its story, but laid too much stress upon the mere popularity it had acquired ; | he saw visions as well as dreamed dreams, and and though he compared its opening passage that this perilous faculty did not unhinge his to the first lines of Dante, he seemed igno- mind, owing to the strength of his bodily rant of the author's other works, and pro- constitution, the simplicity of his habits, and bably regarded the “ Pilgrim's Progress" as that vigorous intellect which burned yet was a kind of lusus nature- an exception and not consumed amid the blaze of bis imaginnot an expression of the general character of ation. But if ever a man since the prophets the author's mind. Scott says of it, in rather of Israel deserved, in a lower sense, the name a disparaging tone, that "it rarely fails to of “ seer,” it was John Bunyan. It was as make an impression upon children and per- if his brain throbbed and thought in his eye, sons of the lower rank of life.” Campbell every motion of which seemed "scintillating compares Bunyan to Spenser, but it is with soul" If this objectiveness might be termed a patronizing air, and he seems to start back, diseased, it was the divine disease of Dante, affrighted, at the sound himself hath made." of Spenser, and of Michael Angelo—a disCowper, indeed, long before, had sung the ease perfectly compatible with strength of " Ingenious Dreamer," in worthy strains ; judgment, and even with severity of purpose but it required the tongue of Coleridge, the--but the infection of which has, unfortupens of Macaulay, and Montgomery, and ately, not been perpetuated, for the two, the pencils of Martin, Melville, and David who in modern times most resembled him in Scott, not to speak of the excellent lives by this quality, wanting Bunyan's ballast, bePhilip, Southey, and others, fairly to elevate came morbid, if not mad. We refer to Blake him to that position, as an unconscious artist, and Shelley. In Bungan, at the period at whence it were hopeless now to dislodge him, least when he wrote his works, it was a power and before which the intellectual and the healthy as the vision of the eagle, and yet Christian world universally and emulously peculiar and inimitable as the eyeless intuibend. We are not sure but the history of all lions of clairvoyance—that blind goddess works of profound genius and permanent who is reported to see so far. influence is precisely similar. They are not, In close connexion with, and dependence in general, as Wordsworth thinks, ignored on, this peculiar faculty, is his child-like or despised at first, but consisting, as all simplicity, or unconsciousness of self. This great productions must, of the splendid and is, we think, always connected with real sight. the deep, the bright foam above and the Who is proud of the landscape which he bestrong billow below, their brilliance attracts holds, however pleased he may be with the in their own age, while their profounder spectacle? To one who actually sees, there qualities fascinate the future. It was so with is nothing for it but a cry—a Eureka~if he Homer, with Æschylus, with Sophocles, does not first fall down as a dead man. He with Lucretius, with Dante, with Spenser, may, indeed, afterwards begin to speculate with Milton, with Dryden, with Cowper, on the power and perspicacity of his eye; with Byron, with Wordsworth himself. 'Ali but he will have little leisure and less inclinthese obtained reputation in their lifetimes, ation to pursue this, if visions after visions, for properties in their writings of interest, new and varied, continue to press forward in or elegance, or oddity, or splendor, which panoramic vividness and succession upon his were not their rarest or most characteristic, soul. As to “dare, and to dare, and to dare," and all afterwards grew up to that fame, was Danton's method for a revolutionist, so which now “waits like a menial" on their to “see, and to see, and to see,” till the eye immortal names. To this there are except- be shut in death, or rather opened on eternal ions, but we believe it to be the rule, and a realities, is the method and the history of a rule, moreover, in strict accordance with the poet. principles which prevail through the universe. Nay, the fact that these sights are frequentWe see long before we can weigh the star. ly terrific and bewildering, is itself enough to
In analyzing the mind of Bunyan, the first check, if not to crush, the vanity of vision, quality which strikes us is the thorough And how often must the dreamer, as he equality and almost identity of the subject- awakes, like Jacob, exclaim—"How dreadful ive and the objective. Not only are thought is this place;” and not always, like Jacob, be and imagery one, but imagery and reality able to add—“It is none other than the gate seem one also. He does not think, but im- of heaven !" Perhaps rather he has been led agine-not imagine, but see. We have no past the mouth of the pit, and his cry has doubt whatever, that many of his pictures, been not that of exultation, but of anguish like Blake's, stood out from the eye; that I and despair.