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CHAPTER VII.

Departure from Alexinitz—Description of a Turkish guard-house —Rencounter with the recruits of the Nizam-Embarrassments of a traveller in Turkey—Advantages of being a linguist—Frank Bimbashi—His romantic history—Arrival at Nissa—The great antiquity of that town—Mosques at Nissa— Their administration—Turks and Rayahs - | 2 |

CHAPTER VIII.

Description of Nissa—Some account of its inhabitants—Characteristics of the Turks and the Rayahs—Nissa as a military position—Its fortifications and fortress—Visit to the castle of human skulls—Sketch of the Bulgarian insurrection of 1841 - - - - - - 134

CHAPTER IX.

Visit to the Pacha of Nissa—The missing Englishman—Italian doctor—Hospitality of the Pacha—Arnout guard—Crossing the Balkan—Traces of ancient roads—Aspect of the country —Splendid view—Ruins of an old Hungarian castle—Karaoul —Arrival at Orkup—Sketch of the town and inhabitants— Advantages of an Imperial firman — An agreeable surprize - - - - - - 154

CHAPTER X.

Departure from Orkup—Valley of the Toplitza—A colony of Arnouts—Sketches of the inhabitants—Novel mode of crossing a river—Thunder-storm—Perilous travelling—Scene at a mountain han–Hanji cookery—Aspect of the country—An eventful forest—Bivouac.—How to procure a supper and cook it—A characteristic sketch of national prejudice . 168 CHAPTER XI.

Travelling in Upper Moesia—Sketches of the country—Ancient roads and bridges—Valley of the Morava–Characteristics of the inhabitants—Their social state—System of self-government —Their hospitality—Reforms of the Sultan—Fanaticism of the Turks and Rayahs—Influence of the Christian clergy— Village entertainment - - - - 185

CHAPTER XII.

Spirit of the Greek Church—Superstition—Clergy—Religious festivals—Singular customs of the people—Traditions—Rivalry between the Greek and the Latin Church - 204

CHAPTER XIII.

Early history and government of the Greek Church—The reforming Kral of Servia—Peter of Russia—Wenality of the Greek clergy—Their revenues—How derived—Abuses of the Church—Education—Character of the Turks—Greeks and Slavonians—General observations . - - 225

CHAPTER XIV.

Taxes—How levied in Turkey—Rayah grievances—Reforms of the late Sultan Mahmoud—Their consequences—Present condition of Turkey . - - - - 248

CHAPTER XV.

Political state of Turkey—General observations - 265 CHAPTER XVI.

Arrival at Vrania—Visit to the Pacha of Vrania—Entertainment —Arnouts—Military expedition to Bosnia–Crossing the mountains in Upper Moesia–Turkish bivouac.—Arrival at Pristina—Plain of Cossova–Insurrection in Bosnia and Albania—Mausoleum of Sultan Amurath—Reschid Pacha— Veli Bey—Bivouac-Arnout tents—Violent tempest—Ruined castle of the Krals of Servia–Ascent of the Rogosma Planina —Splendid prospect - - - - 274

CHAPTER XVII.

Route between Novi-bazar and Bosna-Serai—Mountains and defiles of Bosnia—Natural fortifications—Arrival at BosmaSerai—The representative system in Bosnia—Municipal rights of the citizens—Feudalism and Democracy—Fanaticism— Bosnian renegades—Causes which led to their conversion— Enlightened policy of the early Sultans of Turkey–Turkish reform—Its effects in Bosnia—Political state of Bosnia— English Vice-Consul—His expulsion by the Turks—Impolicy of placing foreigners in diplomatic appointments—Austrian Consul—Commerce and political agents—Historical sketches of Bosnia—Insurrection in Bosnia–Injustice of the Ottoman Porte—Horrible sufferings of the Slavonian-Mussulmans in the Stari Vlah—Milosh, Prince of Servia . - 294

CHAPTER XVIII.

Insurrection of the Slavonian-Mussulmans in Bosnia—Religious sectarianism in Bosnia—How useful to the Sultan as an instrument of government—Prince Milosh of Servia–Sultan Mahmoud and his reforms—Effects of his death in Bosnia— Vehighi, Vizier of Bosnia—Sketch of the Haiducs and the Ouskoks in Bosnia and Herzegowina—Contrast between the race of Othman and the Slavo-Mussulmans of Bosnia—Battle between the combined forces of the Nizam and the Christians against the non-reforming Mussulmans of Bosnia—Victory of the Vizier Vehighi—Plunder of Bosna-Serai–Disgrace and captivity of the Vizier—Perfidious policy of the Ottoman Government—Critical state of Bosnia—Geographical position —General view of the country—Its mountains, rivers and forests—Productions—Austrian influence in Bosnia—Bosnia in a military point of view—How situated with regard to Austria . - - - - - 3|8

CHAPTER XIX.

Character of the inhabitants of Bosnia—Social institutions— Self-government of the people—Its beneficial tendency—Native bards—Music—Superstitions—Similarity between the Slavonians of European Turkey and those of Hungary and Austria—Moral conduct of the people—Marriage ceremony —Mode of burial — Service of the Koran — Customs and manners—Medical science—Prevalent diseases—The hans in Bosnia—Mode of living—Cookery — State of agriculture— Forests—Mineral treasures in Bosnia—Iron works—Mineral

springs - - - - - - 3 12

CHAPTER XX.

Return to Novi-bazar—Description of that town—Its importance as a military position—Attempt of Tzerni George, of Servia, to obtain possession—Departure from Novi-bazar—Mountain districts of Upper Moesia and Upper Albania—Inhabitants —Willages—Forests—Climate—Contrast between the Servians and the Arnouts of Albania—Dangerous travelling—Description of the country—The chamois and wild goat—Singular

species of the tame goat — Arrival at Gousnee – Revolt of the mountaineers in 1847–Predatory warfare between the mountaineers of Tchernegora and the Arnouts of Upper Albania—Their hospitality, and chivalrous behaviour towards the stranger and women . - - - 366

CHAPTER XXI.

The importance of Tchernegora as a military position—Its

natural defences—Historical sketch of Tchermegora—Extraordinary bravery of the mountaineers—Their wars with the Turks—How they recovered their independence—The Vladika Petrovich—Perfidy of the Pacha of Scutari—Massacre of the Turks—Peter the Great of Russia—His alliance with Tchernegora—Victories of the Tchernegori over Marshal Marmont and the French—Their wars with the Austrians—Form of government in Tchernegora—Religion, customs and manners of the people - - - - - 386

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