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all its grandeur; vast mountains, here covered to the summit with fine forest trees, there bare and rugged, reared their lofty pinnacles, now veiled with the dewy mist of early dawn. Our pathway lay through the lovely valley of the Morava, glowing with luxuriance: the tiny villages of the Rayah tribes, their flocks and herds peacefully grazing on every shelving bank, and a numerous population engaged in their agricultural pursuits, appeared as happy as if their mountain home had never suffered from the ravages of the marauder. Such was the interesting picture that met our view till we arrived at Vrania, the seat of government of a civil and military Pacha. Vrania, lying at the foot of a fine range of hills, covered with vineyards, tobacco, maize, and corn fields, with the pretty kiosk of the Pacha (its extensive verandah, painted red and white), its numerous mosques, with their graceful minarets, looked picturesque and attractive as we saw it from the mountain plateau; it has also the advantage of being bathed by the Morava, which here forms a considerable curve, and fertilizes an extensive valley. Vrania, the Tranupara of the ancients, contains from six to seven thousand inhabitants. The remains of a Christian church is attached to the Bishop's residence; both are nearly in ruins, having been plundered and burnt during the late insurrection of the Mussulman rebels of Bosnia and Albania. That part of the town occupied by the Arnouts has several fine fountains, and altogether appears in a more flourishing condition than the Rayah quarter, which still bears the mark of the desolating visit of the marauders. The town at this time was completely filled with armed men, Beys and Spahis, with their clans, who were preparing to take the field, the Pacha having received intelligence from Bosnia and Albania that the Mussulman insurgents of certain districts in these provinces were again in arms, and intended trying their fortune in another campaign against the Government. With some difficulty we made our way through the throng of fierce warriors to the Pacha's kiosk; and as may be supposed, the appearance of a Frank excited no inconsiderable degree of attention, and my pandour was questioned on all sides as to the country of the traveller. Now Jocko, the pandour, with whom I had become a great favourite, chose to paint his Effendi in very bright colours, and it was speedily known to the most distant groups that an Inglez was actually among them; consequently by the time we arrived at the kiosk, the spacious At-meidan in front was completely filled with the multitude whom curiosity had drawn together. The noise and bustle of the people beneath attracted the notice of the Pacha, and a large circle of Beys, Spahis, civil and military officers assembled in council on the extensive platform that covered the verandah, who
the way, and I was ushered up a flight of steps into the presence of the Turkish dignitaries. If England requires a proof of the high respect entertained towards her by the Turkish authorities, and likewise by the people, even in this remote town, far distant from every communication with the great world, it was sufficiently evidenced by the friendly hospitality with which I was received by the Pacha and his officers, and the demonstrations of welcome so warmly given by the people. This is certainly a proof that the Osmanli gratefully acknowledge whatever political services we may have formerly rendered them, and are fully sensible of the value of so powerful an ally. I was invited by Hussein Pacha, of Vrania, to a sumptuous entertainment, where I met his brother, Veli Bey, who spoke a little bad Italian; we had also Soliman Bey, Hussein Bey, Verzad Bey, and several others who held some civil or military employ in the town and the neighbouring districts Hussein Pacha, and his brother Veli, wrote in my pocket-book a few sentences complimentary to myself, and expressive of their high esteem for my country; and in return, I wrote in their albums a few lines recording my good wishes for the Sultan, and the prosperity of the empire, and my obligation to my hosts for the courtesy they had rendered me. This was to be kept as a souvenir of the visit of the first Englishman they had ever seen in Vrania.
In consequence of the Pacha's kiosk being completely filled with his friends, I was billetted for the night upon a very worthy man, the Greek Bishop of Vrania; who provided me with a tolerable bed on a divan, and notwithstanding I was a compulsory guest, he received me with great kindness. I was sorry to see that the church was completely destroyed, and only two or three rooms of the Bishop's residence had escaped the devastation. This sacrilege took place about two years ago, and was perpetrated by a host of the fanatic followers of a mad Dervish, who styled himself Padishah of Roumelia ; after levying contributions on the entire country to within a few days journey of Constantinople, he was taken prisoner, and his army dispersed by Omar Pacha ; who, on this occasion, it is said, displayed a great deal of duplicity towards the fanatic Dervish and his principal chieftains.
I passed my time far more agreeably at the ruined residence of the Bishop, than in the gay kiosk of the Pacha; having met there an Italian, Signor Dimitry, who filled the post of surgeon in one of the Turkish regiments stationed at Vrania. I enjoyed his society not a little, for the traveller who wanders over these provinces when he occasionally meets a native of civilized Europe, with whom he can exchange ideas, values the privilege in proportion to its rarity.
The Mahometans of these provinces, principally of
hearted people, and overwhelm you with civility when performing the offices of hospitality, but they are utterly ignorant of the great world. There is scarcely one, whether Vizier, Pacha, or Bey, nay, even among the better educated, the Moullah and the Cadi, who does not entertain the most extravagant notions of England's wealth and power. The wonders of the Arabian fairy tales are as nothing in their estimation, compared with what we have the power to effect by means of machinery: transporting armies, and levelling mountains, they believe to be our everyday exploits; in short, that we only require a lever sufficiently strong to be able to overturn the world ! Poor France they regard as one of our vassals, much given to rebel against our authority The Nemshee (Austrians) are designated as a swine-eating, beer-swilling nation, who fight and man their ships by proxy' deputing for this purpose the Slavonians and Hungarians, who they hold, especially the latter, in great respect, as a valiant people. As to Prussia, Spain, Holland, Italy, and the remaining countries of Europe, their geographical knowledge is, we must confess, extremely limited. When I fully explained to my friends our immense territorial possessions in India, our colonies in every part of the world, the millions upon millions of human beings who acknowledged the sway of England, they in turn expatiated with great self-complacency upon the vast domains of the Padishah of all Padishahs the