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secure foundation, among other reforms, he must waive his title as sole lord of the soil, and create an independent aristocracy; this can only be done by separate allotments of land to the most deserving among his subjects, without respect to creed or race, and by establishing the law of primogeniture, which, by giving a man an hereditary interest in the country, renders its prosperity identical with his own; he is also elevated above the temptation of enriching himself by unfair means, not only by his independent position, but the dread of entailing disgrace upon his name and family. We have sufficient evidence in the demoralization of the Turkish empire, that the system of governing by patronage is not adapted to the advancement of a country; for while other states with less resources have increased in strength and power, and their inhabitants in civilization and enlightenment; we see here a chaos of misrule, and a people destitute of education, energy and intelligence, who, accustomed as a privileged class to exist on the industry of the other, have gradually sunk into apathy and indolence. In fact the imperial form of government in Turkey is nothing else than the patriarchal in its fullest development, as originally established by Othman, which form, though well adapted to society in its early stages, is totally unfitted for a large community, or for man when highly

civilized. It may seem a very plausible thing for a

ruler in whom is vested the supreme territorial command, to delegate a portion of the land to the most meritorious among his subjects, in trust, if we may so speak, for the remainder of the community, by which a provision is secured for all ; and if human nature were not liable to be tempted by the suggestions of avarice and rapacity, then the division of the land among the few for the benefit of the many, might tend to the general welfare. As it is, we have human nature modified by Mahometan morality, and the result has been, that the Pacha or the Spahi imposes heavy taxes on the Rayah; and in order to meet these, and at the same time secure some profit to himself, large demands are made on the industry of the people. Again, independent of the mischiefs likely to arise from the imperfect morality of the agents, how could an efficient system of control be established over the numerous dependencies of a vast empire 2 considerable responsibility must necessarily be delegated to the different Pachas, and, as may be supposed, this, under the weak government of the Sultan, was often abused to purposes of tyranny and oppression, of spoliation and wrong. It must be confessed the regeneration of the Turkish empire, composed as it is of so many conflicting elements and hostile interests, is a most herculean undertaking, and the difficulties might deter the most vigorous and enlightened reformer from making the attempt. The introduction of the wisest and most effective measures of reform will, we fear, fail of success, unless aided with the assistance of men endowed with more energy and intelligence than the inexperienced, indolent Osmanli. In addition to his ignorance and exclusiveness, there is a gaucherie about him and what he does, a haughtiness in his manner, and a firm reliance on his own superiority and reasoning powers, which renders it almost impossible to convince him he is in the wrong. Russia, we know, owes her enlightenment and civilization to her encouragement of foreign talent, particularly that of the Germans; but this mode of civilizing Turkey is altogether impossible, so long as that absurd law of the Koran remains in force, which denies political rights to any but a member of the Mahometan creed. This has the effect of preventing a host of clever, intelligent strangers, who have no hope of improving their condition in countries where the market is already overstocked with talent, from exchanging their listless state of existence, and taking service in a land that offers them an opportunity of employing their varied accomplishments. They might become most efficient naval, military and civil officers, and by their example infuse a spirit of activity into the apathetic, indolent Turk, and imperceptibly spread knowledge among a people by no means destitute of ability. Again, by encouraging emigration to a country fertile and salubrious, with fine

seas and noble rivers, and which offers many advantages for the employment of capital and lucrative commerce, Turkey might become as much to be admired for her political institutions as she now is for her natural resources and geographical position.

VOL. I.

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CHAPTER XVI.

Arrival at Vrania—Visit to the Pacha of Vrania—Entertainment —Arnouts—Military expedition to Bosnia—Crossing the mountains in Upper Moesia–Turkish bivouac—Arrival at Pristina—Plain of Cossova–Insurrection in Bosnia and Albania—Mausoleum of Sultan Amurath—Reschid Pacha— Veli Bey—Bivouac.—Arnout tents—Violent tempest—Ruined castle of the Krals of Servia—Ascent of the Rogosna Planina —Splendid prospect.

AFTER having so long followed the tortuous course of Turkish policy and Rayah grievances, pryed into the secrets of the administration, and discussed its reforms and errors, we will once more mount our steeds, and dash over mountain and valley, through the rugged defile and across the foaming torrent, confining our remarks to descriptions of wayside travelling, pictures of men and manners, and such details as our route may supply.

On leaving Leskovatz, Upper Moesia is visible in

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