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to enforce its reforms, and the other as obstinately opposing any change whatever. In these contests the agriculturist is preyed upon by the armies of each party, and often deprived of everything save his hut, his furniture, and his implements of husbandry. In the districts of Ichtiman, Kostendji, in Upper Moesia, and on the frontiers of Tchernegora, where the Haiduc, the enemy of the Turk, still maintains his rule in the mountains, and exercises a sort of superstitious influence over the mind of the Mussulman oppressor, the Rayah inhabitants of many a fertile valley, protected by their free brethren, the children of the mist, enjoy, and have enjoyed for a long series of years, a total exemption from the harassing tyranny endured by their less fortunate brethren of the low lands. The KodjiBachi, the Rayah chief of these districts, pays the tithes of his commune to the Spahi, the government taxes to the Pacha of the department, and thus, never annoyed even by the sight of a Turk, peaceful and happy they glide through existence in their own sequestered mountain home. In these districts we also find the greatest number of ancient convents with churches attached, and schools for the education of the people. From what we have seen and heard during our tour in Upper Moesia, Bosnia, and Albania, the discontent of the Rayahs, and the disturbances of the Mussulmans, appear increasing instead of diminishing, and might be attended with fatal consequences to the Sultan's government in these provinces, should he be forced into a war with any of his powerful neighbours, who cannot but be aware of the fact, and would not fail to take advantage of it should a declaration of hostilities be resolved on. Hitherto the Turkish Government has had a most efficient ally in the religious prejudices of the inhabitants of these provinces, who, although of the same race, and speaking the same language, have ever been, owing to the difference in their creed, the most inveterate enemies. Without altogether pledging myself for the truth of the statement, I was repeatedly informed that offers were made by the principal insurgent chieftains of these provinces to return to the religion of their fathers, if the Christians would rise en masse and assist them in expelling the Osmanli; this is rendered by no means improbable, from the circumstance that they never were thoroughly converted to Islamism, and might perhaps sacrifice their faith in order to preserve their hereditary fiefdoms, and gratify their thirst for vengeance. To effect a union between the Christians and Mussulmans we know was the aim of the rebel-chief Julika, in the Albanian Insurrection of 1847. To make our readers more intimately acquainted with the causes which made the valiant Mussulmans of Bosnia and Albania such inveterate enemies of Osmanli rule, we must take a retrospective glance of the reforms begun by the late Sultan, and

continued by his successor Abdul-Meschid.

About the commencement of the present century, the Turkish empire was threatened by two great evils. On the one side, by a military despotism, whose law was force; and on the other, by the discontent of a numerous people driven to desperation. The gallant Christians of Servia had already flown to arms, and Greek Heteria was busily preparing for an outbreak that must have shaken the empire to its foundation. At such a crisis, the late Sultan Mahmoud had no choice, but to crush the one and conciliate the other, and he resolved to overthrow the military despotism. In coming to this decision, we may presume he was actuated by a desire of giving peace to his country and security to his throne; and his first step in reform was the well-known massacre of the Janissaries, but as these troops were invariably chosen from the robust Mussulmans of Bosnia and Albania—there was not a single family in these provinces who had not to deplore the loss of some relative—consequently, a hatred, the most deadly, has been engendered against the rule of the Osmanli Sultan, and which is certain to be perpetuated by a people whose law is blood for blood.

The destruction of this powerful military body was succeeded by an entire re-organization of the military forces of the empire, the introduction of European usages, military tactics, costume and the conscription. These reforms, so repugnant to Mussulman feelings

VOL. I. S

and prejudices, everywhere enforced at the point of the bayonet, provoked a succession of sanguinary insurrections, which by obliging the Sultan to employ his forces in chastising his rebellious subjects, left his frontier open to invasion; especially as he could no longer depend for support upon the valiant Beys and Spahis of Bosnia and Albania, who in cases of extreme danger had so often saved the Turkish empire. Three years after the destruction of the Janissaries, politic Russia, who never sets her armies in motion, nor undertakes an enterprize without being certain of success, took advantage of the weakness of the Sultan to declare war, and entered the Turkish territories. In vain the bewildered Sultan caused the sacred banner to be unfurled, in vain he called the whole Mussulman population to arms; he had no other troops than his undisciplined recruits, the Nizam, whose defeat was certain ; and yet the fortunate General who headed the Russian expedition, found himself dignified with the title of Balkansky, to perpetuate the memorable exploit of marching over the Balkan | A singular combination of circumstances made Russia, on two occasions, the saviour of the Turkish empire; when her armies had crossed the Balkan, the insurgents of Bosnia, taking advantage of that event, rose en masse, and having deposed their Seraskier, Vizir Abdourahim, took possession of the passes of the Balkan, and intrenched themselves in the strong town of Philippopoli for the purpose of cutting off the retreat of the Russians. With this object in view, and relying on the activity of Moustapha Pacha of Scutari, who, at the head of thirty-five thousand Albanian warriors, was to have taken possession of the capital, they intended, after deposing the Giaour Sultan, to unite with all the malcontent Mahometans of these provinces, and fall on the Russians. General Geismar, who had orders to be on the look-out for the rebel Pacha, most fortunately met him as he was endeavouring, by a circuitous route, to avoid the position of the Russian army, when after a slight engagement, he was compelled to fall back upon Philippopoli. The sudden termination of hostilities, and peace with Russia, deranged the plans of the rebel chieftains, who, after ravaging the greater part of Roumelia, retired to their mountain fastnesses to brood over their disappointment, and plot another insurrection; for Mussulman vengeance was not satisfied, the monarch who had deprived them of their just rights must fall. This time, their hope of success was centered in a chieftain of their own race, Mehemet Ali, Pacha of Egypt, who was invited over to place himself at the head of the movement, and assume the sovereignty of the

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