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whole male population, from seven to sixty years of age, with the exception of the clergy, and those who are incapacitated by physical infirmity from earning a subsistence. It would, however, be more oppressively felt if it were not for the admirable system of federalism among the Rayahs, to which we have previously alluded, and by which each tribe, according to its means, contributes to the necessities of the community; hence it is not individually felt, and from long usage is borne without much complaining. The djaal (war-tax), which is levied during war, without limiting its amount, is the most oppressive tax to which they have to submit, and gives rise to much extortion on the part of the authorities of the provinces. The tehibouque-tax in some instances is paid to the Sultan, and in others becomes the perquisite of a pacha, or some high dignitary in office; it often amounts to a fifth, and in some instances to a tenth, of the produce of the land—this tax, being irregular, is frequently made a pretext for much oppression. There is also the gasdalik, to which we have before alluded, then comes the nousoul and the soursat, which compels the Rayah to furnish provisions and horses during the march of an army; he is, besides, liable to the beglouk, which gives power to the authorities to employ him and his horses in the execution of any of the public works of the State, for from twenty to thirty days in the year. The beglouk often becomes the fruitful source of the

most vexatious annoyances. Whatever occupation the Rayah may be pursuing, it must be abandoned at the command of the authorities, when they think fit to employ him and his horses in the service of the State; but when any great officer of the Crown announces a visit to the provinces, then all the available labour of the country is called into requisition to clear the path-ways, cleanse the streets, paint and whitewash the konak of the Pacha for his reception; in short, to prepare an imposing exterior for the inspection of the man in authority: above all, should the Sultan be induced to visit any of the provinces, and proposes to travel in a carriage, then, indeed, every man, woman and child, not excepting the stranger, is pressed into the service of the Government. We witnessed a corvée of this description, on a large scale, in 1837; and also, what a Turk can achieve when once roused to action; having accompanied the cortège of the late Sultan Mahmoud, on his famous visit to the fortresses on the Lower Danube. In a few weeks there was a tolerable road laid down the whole way from Stamboul, across the Balkan, to Schoumla; bridges were built, pavilions erected where His Majesty might pass the night, or stop to take refreshment; but alas ! the roads have disappeared under the rank herbage that covers them, while the elements, in league with the torrents, have swept away the bridges; and the only memorial we now see existing of the Sultan's tour, consists of one or two pavilions, which have been converted into hans for the reception of the traveller. Notwithstanding these vexations, and that some of the taxes are irregularly levied, and that we occasionally meet with cases of imposition and extortion on the part of the authorities, together with the custom of here and there farming out the taxes to some greedy Jew or Armenian, we must attribute the discontent of the people not to excessive taxation, but to the defective system employed in the administration, when we take into consideration the comparative wealth and comfort which the industry of the Rayah has created for himself, provisions are everywhere cheap and abundant, and nowhere do we see the squalid misery so frequently found among the dense population of Western Europe. The clergy of the Mahometan Church, and the civil and military officers of the state, are exempt from taxation; but the remainder of the Mussulman population are subject to the same system of taxation as the Rayah, with the exception of the capitation-tax, and liable to the same annoyances of irregular taxes; and though they are in a great measure screened from the gasdalik, the beglouk, the nousoul, and the soursat, by their co-religionists in power, they are not usually prosperous, which is entirely owing to their indolence; and when we do meet with a Turkish village, we are immediately reminded of the fact by the slovenly habits of the people, and the want of skill displayed in the cultivation of their fields. The Turkish Government, during the reign of the late Sultan Mahmoud, and that of the present Prince, has done much towards ameliorating the condition of the Rayah, by abolishing several military pachaliks and spahiliks, which by long prescriptive right had arrogated an authority in some degree independent of the sovereign, and highly obnoxious to the Rayah. In carrying this measure into effect, the Porte, always arbitrary, was in many cases unjust, seeing that it deprived certain families of a privilege which they had enjoyed unquestioned for centuries, and in some instances secured to them by treaties since the Turkish conquest. This, however, has been the means of introducing here and there a new race of glebe landlords, who, employed as civil or military officers, usually reside in towns, and seldom or never visit the land whence they derive their revenues, save at harvest time, and even then the visit of inspection is often delegated to some Jew or Armenian. In certain districts where the authority of the Sultan is maintained, and the glebe landlord exercises his newly-acquired rights with moderation and justice, the system proves extremely advantageous to the Rayah; since the one, as a member of the privileged class, has it in his power to protect the other from the spoliation

of a Pacha, or the extortion of a fiscal agent; being aware of the fact, that the value of his own tithes must increase with the prosperity of the Rayah; thus protected by the state and the tithe landlord, he enjoys an immunity from oppression, and a degree of tranquillity nearly equal to that of the husbandman who holds his land subject to a division of the profits with a landlord. The position of the Rayah, however, is very different in the disturbed districts of Upper Moesia, Bosnia, and Albania; here, when the crops are fit for the sickle, the adherents of the ejected Bey or Spahi descend from their fastnesses, in the mountains, and in a few hours strip the land of what they consider their hereditary rights, and of which they had been unjustly deprived; the consequence is, that the entire Rayah population of several communes have been obliged to seek lands in some district that offered a hope of living unmolested. During my excursions in Bosnia and Albania, I frequently met with cavalcades of these tribes on their way to the low lands of Macedonia and Bulgaria, carrying with them their families, their implements of husbandry, their flocks and herds, even to the household dog and cat. Again, I have passed through more than one commune in these unlucky provinces where the inhabitants were in the deepest distress, in consequence of the eternal broils between the Mussulman population and the government; the one endeavouring

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