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than our pxrception of the progression of motion will permit. The more distinctly we perceive the progress of the body moved in the line described, the flower its motion appears ; the nearer we are losing that perception, the motion appears the swister; and when actually lost the translation of the body seems not progressive, but instantaneous.' This the Doctor illustrates by a familiar example from the progress of sound, which is certainly known not to be instantaneous, and yet seems such in a person's speaking at a distance in a large room ; the reason of which is, that sound moving above 50 feet in the 20th part of a minute, that division of time is too small for our senses to distinguish, or imagination to represent. And, from the fame reason, if the interval between the exertion of our will, and the execution of it, by the influx of the animal spirits into the muscles of voluntary motion, be fo fhort as not to be measurable by our senses and imagination, the effect of our will shall appear to be instantaneous, though it is really otherwise.

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ART. V. A Review of the fiery Eruption, which defeated

the Emperor Julian's Attempt to rebuild the Temple of Jerufalem : In which Mr. Warburton's Arguments are confidered. 8vo. Pr. 25. Cooper, Ontroversies, as they are generally conducted, seldom

afford much entertainment or instruction to candid and confiderate readers. The contending parties appear too often more solicitous for victory than truth, and disgust the moderate and sensible part of their readers by leaving the point in dispute, (the only thing wherein the public is concerned) and running into personal reflections and abuse. The author of the performance now before us is not altogether free from this general charge against controversial writers; though some may be inclined to think, that if a little abusive (martness is on any occasion to be excused, it ought to be in attacking Mr. Warburton, who has fewn so much of it in his writings.

Our author treats Mr. Warburton's Julian as an idle tale, a prettily fancied fable, an airy castle upon which, to use his own expression,he plays all kinds of battery, and tries both reason and ridicule to drive the Projector out of it, and oblige him to give it up as indefenfible.' In his introduction, he handles Mr. W. with some severity for the manner in which he has treated the Fathers, and

charges

charges him with being an enemy to them, under the guise of friendship : he takes care to informi us in the clole of it, that he hopes the public will fome time or other fee the cause of these ancient worthies better defended, by a fincere well-wisher to christianity in general, as well as to the church of England in particular. After this, he shews the method wherein Mr. W. has executed his plan, in order to enable his readers to see their way more clearly, and go through the whole with more satisfaction. He likewise' throws together the parts of Mr. W's argument, that we may judge the better of the nature and real strength of it; and as he has expressed it, it is as follows.

Judaism was so peculiarly framed, that its institution could be abolished by the destruction of Jerusalem, and was intended in its End to be totally and finally abolished upon the introduction and establidhment of christianity.

Now the destruction of the temple by Titus was brought about under the particular direction of Providence, and as Judaism was then fully and compleatly abolished, fo Chriftianity had likewise at that time its full and compleat establishment

· Consequently, the conclusion appears to be unavoidable, that this destruction of the temple by Titus was not only a total but a final one.

« Whence it follows from this course of God's difpenfations, that the temple of Jerusalem shall never be rebuilt for the purpose of Jewish worship.'

Our author proceeds to Thew, that this doctrine is, utterly inconsistent with the truth of the scriptures both of the Old and New Testament, where, he says, we are constantly taught to believe, that this important revolution from Judai;in to christianity was totally effected not only at a different time but by means quite contrary to the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem. He endeavours to make it appear by a variety of texts, that both the law and the prophets,' i. e. the whole religion of the Jewish dispensation, did actually terminate and was abolished at the coming of John Baptist, and that the christian religion did then succeed in its place.

Having proved, that the religion of the Jews was perfectly abolished, and the design of God thereby to introduce christianity at the same time compleated before the destruction of the temple, he goes on to fhew, that this important revolution was brought about by such means,

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as were not only very different from, but utterly incompatible with that vengeful destruction.

Towards the close of our author's performance, he informs us, that he had now and then amused himself with essaying a search into the labyrinth of Mr. Warburton's thoughts upon this Subject, to find out how and by what steps he was led into the unlucky mistake, that the Jewish religion was framed with a particular view of building chriftianity upon the ruins of the temple. And as suspense, says he, is the most uneasy state of the mind, and moreover is aggravated in such cases as these by the sense of a defeat, therefore in these kinds of Aights especially, some hypothesis is always framed for the mind to rest upon. Forced by this weakness, I sat down contented with the following conclusion, which though it may very likely not prove to be the true folution of this infuperable difficulty ; yet the reader will, I hope, see reason enough why I should be induced to acquiesce in it.'

We shall present our readers with the solution given to this insuperable difficulty, as our author is pleased to call it, as a small specimen of his manner of writing. First then, says he, it was easy to observe *, that this opinion concerning the perpetuity of the Jewish igsuwoos had been efpoused, and confidently affirmed by several of the ancient fathers of the christian church, and even by the Jews themselves. The fingular indignation shewn in executing this vengeance gave this notion its principal rooting. In this fituation of mind it was natural for the fathers both to search and to find in the prophets farther and fuller satisfaction in the point. Accordingly. Dr. Hammond observes, that all this (belief) seems to have foundation in the express words of Daniel +, He shall make it defolate until the consummation; which words are expresly brought by our author for this very purpose I. But his delicacy not rightly liking the ground on which this interpretation of that pro phecy was built, set his wits to work to provide another foundation, which lying deeper, and under the first thould give the building all that strength and firmness which it wanted. In making this inquiry, it was obvious to remark, that the Jewish Temple-worship was framed exprefly with

* Vide Hammond, in Rom. X. 16. et Bafnage Hist. de Juifs, 1. 1. + Dan. ix. 27.

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a particular view to the * preservation of their religion : Hence it was easy to collect, that this Temple-worship was framed with a particular view to the destruction of that religion. These things will appear to be naturally connected, when we consider the all-comprehenfive mind of the infinitely-skilful architect (who must neceffarily have a complete view of his design from one end to the other) together with the peculiar fingularity of the whole constitution of Judaifm.

Thus far we see the work advanced without any strain upon the inventive faculty. But another difficulty was yet behind, how to find out a way of connecting the necessary preservation of christianity with that destruction of Judaifm: A difficulty so great, that I am apt to think the, de-, sign would have dropt here, had not that quickening shame which we all feel on any occasion of having our wits baffled, now proved an irresistable impulse to risque every thing rather than submit to the reproach.

• In this extremity therefore we are not to wonder if we find an unexpected condescension shewn to the Mathématicians. The poet tells us, that in extreme cases, fas est et ab hofte doceri. Now it had happened very luckily for the purpofe, that the great modern Father of the mathematics had invented a new and curious way of improving that science by a fi&tion ; according to which quantities are fupposed to be generated by the continual Aux or motion of others. In the application of this method it became ne-. cessary to consider these quantities, sometimes in a nascent, and at other times, in an evanescent state, by which ingenious contrivance they could be made, either continually to tend to and at last absolutely to become nothing, or vice verfâ, according to the intention and occasions of the Artist. Now by extending this noble invention to the two religions, it evidently appeared, that, from the time of the firit coming of Christ, Judaism entered into its eva-. nescent ftate, as on the other hand Christianity did into a: nascent state, by which means both being put into a proper flux, one was seen continually decaying, and the other continually. improving, till at last by the destruction of the Temple Judaism actually vanished and became nothing, and the christian religion then burfted out a perfectly generated entity. This it can't be denied was a

+ Levit. xvii.

lucky

lucky hit; and there was this farther advantage attending it, that as the great author of the mathematical method of fluxions had for very good reasons ftudiously avoided giving any definition of the precise magnitude of those moments, by whose help he discovers the exact magnitude of the generated quantities, so our author, by the fame rule of application, and under the influence of the same authority, was fairly excused from defining that precise degree of perfection and imperfection in which the two religions fubfifted, during the respective evanescent and nascent state of each, by the help of which he discovered the precise time, when Judaism was perfectly abolished, and Christianity perfectly established.

But we may well suppose, that the most alluring charm in this extraordinary piece of ingenuity, was the creating of a new character by it : fór questionless he may now be justly stiled the great founder and inventor of the fuxionary method of theology. I am the more inclined to give into this opinion, that the thought of giving an air of probability to his scheme was taken from the mathematicians, as we see these gentlemen made the constant butts of his wit upon every occasion that offers throughout this treatise, for it is well known to be no uncommon practice among very ingenious wits to abuse those moft to whom they are moj obliged.

• Thus we are arrived at the finishing stroke of the whole fabric : in which however the greatest difficulty of all is still seen standing and unremoved. For all that has been hitherto produced reaches no farther than to a total destruction of the temple, whereas it was a final one only that could serve his purpose. What was now to be done ? to remove the obstacle was not in the compass of man's wit: but having advanced with so much fuccess to the concluding point, all talk of receding was given to the winds ; and if the mountain could not be cleared away, yet a proper pair of wings would enable him to fly over it. For this purpose, big as it is, yet no notice is taken of it, that so under the cover of that filence the change might not be discerned by the reader, when he saw it roundly asserted to be evident, that a repugnancy in the coexistence of Ju-, daism and Christianity would require God's interpofition to prevent the restoration of the temple, or, which is the same thing, require the final destruction of the temple ; whereas, on the contrary, it is notoriously evident, that

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