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perspiration, which is chiefly done through the leaves ; for we may observe, that these not only serve to bless the eyes with their verdure, the nose with their charming favours, and for many medicinal and nutritive uses, according to their natures ; but are also emunétories, by which those juices, which have no kindred particles in the tree or plant, are carried off. And it is evident, that when the sun's genial influence begins to rarify the fluids, which, during the inclement winter's cold, had been rendered fuggish, that then new leaves are put forth from their several organizations, to serve as well for excretory glands, for the welfare of the tree or plant, as for the other occasions mentioned. For we see, when by the approach of winter no more fluids rise into vegetables, there can be no perspiration, and confequently no use for leaves any longer in the greatest part of them; wherefore they fall off, and are not succeeded by others, till the vegetable begins to receive fresh nourishment, and has occafion therefore of excretory glands, to carry off superAuities. How extremely this imitates the constitution of animal bodies? What do the fuperfluous juices, which are daily carried off by perspiration from animal bodies, consist of, but of such particles as are heterogeneous to whatever are their native constituent parts; or, in other words, which have no kindred particles in the animal? And what can produce greater evils in either animals The more animals and vegetables are nourished, the more they perspire ; because, the greater quantity of the general mass is conveyed to either, there will be the more hetero. geneous matter to be carried off, fince all the food, of every kind, that is taken into an animal, and the nutritious juices that supply the vegetable body, consist of a great number and variety of other particles, besides those that are natural to them.'

He now mentions some experiments, to confirm this doctrine of innate juices, and then proceeds to take a short view of the animal Áuid, and its secretions in the body. And in this likewise, says he, the fame scene of order, uniformity, and analogy will present itself in as lively colours: but, in order the more clearly to explain it, we must premise a word or two concerning the animal ovum. I have before defined it an egg, containing an organization, capable of growing into no other than the same species of animal that produced it; and confidered, that the integuments of this organization are the membranes to which the funis umbilicalis ar



placenta are fixed ; and that, therefore, the little placenta. is on the out-side of this ovum, which has absorbent veins to receive nourishment, and convey it to the organization of the fætus by the funis : it must also be observed, that every vessel

, gland, &c. are already formed, however they may, from their minuteness, escape our fight; and that each individual gland is furnished with its own innate juice, deposited there, as I have faid of the vegetable organizations, when they were formed.

Now, as soon as the impregnated animal ovum passes from the ovarium into the uterus, its natural matrix, the absorbent venulæ or radicula of the placenta, receive the general nourishment, and convey it to the little organization of the fetus. Here, as is said of the general Auid of vegetables, the mother's mass of blood must be considered as the general animal Auid, containing all the particles of nourishment necessary for the fætus, and also such as are similar to all the several innate juices of the organization ; and that, when this general Auid is carried to the foetus, it is discharged into the veins, and passes through the heart into the arteries, and is dispersed to every part of the orgarization ; and, as it passes to the several parts to be nourished, every part receives, from its own kindred particles out of the mass, what is naturally suitable to its own innate juice, and the rest is driven on to their several places. Thus the liver, having its innate juice, the bile, when the general mass of blood passes over the ducts and passages leading into its fubftance, none is admitted to enter but the bilious parts of the mass, which alone are capable of being attracted by their kindred particles : and so of the pancreas, and a 'l other glands of the body.'

In the fifth chapter, our author treats of the subordinate organizations of different animals: of the polypus; of the indivisibility and immortality of the animating principle ; and of man's peculiar advantages beyond those of other animals. As his explanation of the manner in which each piece of a divided polypus becomes another perfect animal of the same species, is very curious, we shall close our account of his performance, with laying it before our readers.

“If we consider this creature maturely, says he, I be, lieve, we shall hardly find any difference between it and those other parts of the creation just mentioned, either as to what regards the care of the Almighty in its preservation, or the analogy and uniformity of their construction and


organization. Here are indeed two ways by which this animal is propagated : the first is, by the extrusion of the foetus from the fides of the parent; and the other is, by cuttings of the animal itself. My business here is not to enquire whether there is any coitus between them, nor do I think it at all necessary to my prefent purpose ; for the facts before us will be fufficient to found any opinion upon, that may seem best to illustrate the subject, which I am at present endeavouring to explain ; nor do I think there is any need to consider, in this place, what particular management causes them to become more prolific than ordinary, at some particular times : for all which, I refer the reader to the observations of these gentlemen, (Martin Folkes, esq; and mr. Henry Baker) who made experiments upon them from time to time.

• It is not clear then, in all respects, that a fufficient number of perfect organizations are placed every where in this creature, to answer all the ends of the wife CREATOR, for the preservation and continuation of this species of animal, as well as of others capable of the same manner of propagation, by being cut in pieces? What, but such a mechanism as this, could answer those ends ? and why Thould that analogy and uniformity cease here, which are every where else fo manifestly carried on in the animal and vegetable creation ?

Let us, however, intimately view this animal in its progress, together with a young willow; and then the analogy, I am contending for, will be more clearly understood : for example, the young willow is an entire organized body in itself, capable of growing larger till it is come to its perfect growth, by means of the vegetative principle : the po. bypus is also a perfect organized body of itself, and capable of being extended and growing larger, till it is come to its perfect growth, and of feeding and loco-motion, by means of its animuting principle. The willow, as it grows, is gradually sending of new branches, which are its feetuses, proceeding from the organizations I have mentioned before, each of which being capable of having its other secondary organizations, to be produced in due cime : the polypus, in like manner, is gradually sending off its fetuses, which allo, no doubt, proceed from fecondary organizations, placed by providence in its fides for that purpose, .each foetus being, in like manner, capable of having its other secondary organizations, to be produced in due time. The willow, when cut in pieces and planted, each piece, proVOL. VI.



vided it contains any of these organizations, will be explicated into a 'tree, like its perfect parent, and in its progress extrude its fætuses, &c. as above: the polypus also, when cut in pieces, each piece having its organizations, one of them will first take place, explicate itself, and in its progress send off its foetuses also in due time. Thus may a tree or plant be propagated to produce innumerable trees or plants : and thus may a polypus be the parent of innumerable polypi. So that cutting a polypus in pieces, is but anticipating the propagation of those very organizations, in the pieces, which would, if let alone for a while, themselves issue forth of the sides of the parent in due time: and this is the case of a twig or branch, having a certain number of ore ganizations, which, if let alone, would extrude them of themselves, though not in so short a time, as if cut off and planted.

· The polypus would seem a very infignificant creature to those whose views of nature's works are not extensive enough, and who cannot spare time to discern with due attention and admiration, the beauties and perfections of every part of the creation : but this great provision of secondary organizations fhews they are not fo inconfiderable in the


of their CREATOR, as to some men who may imagine them not worth notice. For, if we only observe their extreme tenderness, which exposes them to be wounded, nay torn to pieces, by any hard body, though never so finall, carried down the streams, or moved in the ponds, in which they dwell, we may easily fee the providential reason for placing organizations every where, for their restoration and further propagation : for, perhaps, there is no other animal of so tender a texture, and consequently lo easily destroyed, having neither fagacity to avoid danger, nor strength to resist or bear the least injury. Indeed, the fame power is also apparent in some kinds of worms, and in all the kinds of the star-fish, which has been proved too by experiments, and can be so only for the same reason, their being very liable to danger and destruction.'

Having finished his observations on the animal and vegetable creation, our author now rises to the contemplation of man; and, in the remaining part of his performance, confiders the peculiar advantages which providence has bestowed

upon him.


ART. XLV. ELFRIDA. A dramatic poem. Written on

the model of the antient Greek tragedy. By mr. Mason. First edit.


2 s. 6d. Second edit. 8vo. Is. 6 d. Knapton,

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E have perused this work with uncommon plea

sure. The ingenious author had before, in his excellent monody to the memory of mr. Pope, and in his Ifis, given us ample proofs of his happy genius for plaintive poetry; and, from the specimen now before us, we dare almost venture to predict, that the author of Elfrida may one day be esteemed the first tragic writer of the present age, which this nation hath produced.

Elfrida was not intended for the stage. Mr. Mafon did not chufe to fink his plan to that level to which it must have been lower'd, in order to secure its success before an English audience; who would scarcely have relished its want of incidents, and of the usual variety of characters: deficiencies which are amply compensated for, to the judicious reader, by the introduction of the chorus.

The real story of Elfrida may be found at large in Rapin * : from whose account our author has departed in only his one imarerial circumstance; that, whereas the historian

upposes Elfrida to have concurred in the catastrophe of her husband, the poet makes her a perfect pattern of conjugal tenderness and fidelity.

With refect to the critical rules of the ancients, mr. Mafon has strictly observed the three grand unities, and his poem has thereby the advantage of the ’niceft regularity, added to the peculiar graces and ornaments of the author's imagination an example which may fuffice to "obviate the current opinion, that a strict adherence to these unities, restrains the genius of the poet' Vide the author's second'introductory letter. Of these letters we shall here give some extracts, from which the reader will be able to form a very tolerable idea of the poem they are prefixed to. They are five in number ; addressed to a friend, and chiefly intended to answer such objections as were, or might be, made to the author's design of writing after the antient model.

In the first letter he observes, that he did not intend an exact copy of the antient drama, his design being much less

Reign of EDGAR the Peaceable.

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