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pear before us in every seed, which is large enough to be viewed clearly, it would amount to almost a madness to deny their existence in the most minute, only because we may not have the power to see them; especially too fince in every part of the course of their growth, fructification, &c. as well as propagation, there appears to be no difference between them and those whose organizations are visible. There are multitudes of feeds which produce very large plants, and yet, from their minuteness, appear only like duft, as those of the vanelloes; and a vast number which almost escape our sight, without the help of a good microscope, as the ferns; and yet these have their beauteous peculiar forms and marks, and, without the least doubt, their organizations, as well as their other natural substances.
· Now the question is, from what are these organizations produced ? And in this lies the whole mystery, which, when made plain to every understanding, will remove those clouds that hitherto have obscured the knowledge, we ought to have had of this great phenomenon long ago ; and render all fornier conjectures, from the beginning to this day trivial and weak; and also shew, that this part of the works of the great God, how marvellous foever, are to be understood, and are easy and simple to those who can endeavour to explore them with minds free from corruption and prejudice; viewing things as they really are, and not obscuring them with vain conjectures and hypotheses, which lead to an infinity of errors, and thence to the utmost impiety; for these things are well within the sphere of our understanding: thus far we are permitted to go, and these are the means by which we come to the knowledge of the true God and maker of all things.
• But, to begin the explanation of our own thoughts about its that is, to know how every animal brings forth fresh animals, and every tree or plant brings forth trees or plants after their kinds; we will take into our view a tree and an animal, and consider them alternately through every stage, from their eggs to their utmost growth; and, in spight of obstinacy itself, we shall see exactly the same plan pursued by nature, in the production and progress of both.
· Let us then behold a young tree, and observe how it pushes forth its leaves and flowers; it is, while young, to be accounted but imperfect; and is only completed, when it has extruded an entire set of boughs and branches ; after which it may grow larger, tho' not more complete. One part is explicated regularly after another, from the first shoot till it comes to perfection; which we shall further explain
hereafter; and when it has grown thus far, it is then, and not before, capable of producing feeds, containing the rudiments and substances of other trees like itself. The fibres of its general organization are ordained to grow into little nodes or implications, fome to form leaves, some the calyx, some the petals, fome the pistil and utriculus, some again the little ova or seeds ; each growing from its own pedicle, even the most minute as well as the greatest, and in whatsoever number contained in the uterus of the tree or plant; and for the male parts, other fibres are terminated into stamina, and from these again other fibres are terminated into apices; and, again from these, others terminate into the minute grains commonly called the farina fæcundans ; each little grain growing upon its own pedicle, no otherwise than we see the leaves of trees or their fruits growing, and in due time falling off, that the uses for which they were first designed should be fulfilled.
Exactly in this manner, we see an animal, which, while it is young, is still imperfect, approaching more and more to a degree of perfection till it is entirely explicated, and grown complete in every organ; each organ, whether internal or external, being but the continuation or termination of the general organization, according to the necessity and use of each; and thus, after its completion, it may grow larger, tho' not more perfect. And, when it has proceeded in its growth thus far, each female is then, and not before, capable of producing its ova or seeds from the ovaria, each arising from, and being a continuation of, the general organization, growing upon its own pedicle, in order to drop off in due time, to answer the ends for which it was made; and each male, at this state of perfection, and not before, being capable of producing from itself the fæcundating matter necessary for the propagation of other animals o! its own kind.
The doctor, in this place, offers fome reasons why animals have not a power in themselves, of propagating their own species, as some of the vegetables have; and then proceeds to fhew how perfect trees or plants are caused to produce others of their kind, and how perfect animals are caused to produce their natural offspring.
Let us then again, says he, take a view of a tree or plant grown up so perfectly, as to begin putting forth its parts for fructification : let us now observe the apices, crowning the stamina, loaden with the globules of the farina, the pulpy contents of each globule being the vehicle to an ex
alted Auid, which we shall here call the impregnating effluvium; which globule is deftined to convey it from its native place to one of the papilla of the pistil. Let us confider the utriculus now, and not before, filled with green, soft and imperfect seeds, just in a condition to receive the impregnation from the effluvium of the globule of the farina ; which, if they were at this time more hard and perfect, they would be utterly incapable of, and come to nothing; containing their Áuids, which afterwards become a hard parenchyma to each, and the little organizations grow. ing, as we have said just now, and bearing but a small proportion of the whole seed, and so blended and inveloped in these substances, as by no means to be yet investigated. This, perhaps, might have given occasion to that ingenious and indefatigable cbserver mr. Turbervil Needham to conclude that no germ was ever to be found in the uterus, till after the globule had impregnated it, and to some others; from whence this gentleman (to whom the world is much obliged for his discovery of the action of these little grains of the farina foecundans, and which has added great Itrength to the system I am endeavouring to support) thought that the pulpy substance of the globule, which I say contains the foecundating effluvium produced the germ, and that it was not in the ovum or feed. This would indeed seem plausible, with respect to the analogy between animals and vegetables, if we could in any wise imagine the spermatic animals were the origines of the former ; but as we shall Thew, hereafter, they cannot be so, we must take the liberty of looking upon what these little grains contain to be no other than a pulpy substance, containing an aura or effluvium, which consists of such particles as are capable of fertilizing or fæcundating the little organizations, now susceptible of it, or, in other words, of adding to the organization its vegetive principle.
If we have an eye to the condition of the seeds in the uterus, at the very time that the apices
time that the apices of the same flower are loaden with the farina, it will be a means of absolutely shewing that the little organization is not, nor cannot be transmitted from the farina of these male parts, but is intrinsically in each seed in the uterus, growing regularly and gradually, as well as every other part, from the same
general organization ; for at this time, all the parts of the uterus and seeds are green and spungy ; capable of being only irrorated or bedewed by a very fubtile effiuvium, to which alone they are pervious; and not in the lealt to a denser
fuid, nor indeed to any organization, tho' never lo small having no cavity that might in any wise receive any foreign body, because the native organizations, together with all the substances naturally belonging to them are now, as a mass, filled with a green juice ready to be impregnated by the ejuvia, from the matter of the globules of farina, every fed being as it were in embrio at this time; and it is always a contiderable time after the farina has done its office, and the apices have all fallen off, that every seed comes to be discerned as a distinct body, supported by its own pedicle,, and growing hard and compact in its receptacle,
• Let us again only consider, that the whole uterus, at the time of impregnation (in some plants) is not within a hundreth part as large as when the seeds come to perfection, and that their growth afterwards is very great, We may truly affirm that the poppy-head, which is a large body, when filled with its number of seeds, and dry, makes but a small show in the center of the flower, when it is sure rounded by its flamina and their apices, which is the only time of their impregnation. Let us alk whether such numbers of feeds were adventitious from without, all ranged in their beautiful order? Are the feeds of beans, pease, and all other siliquose plants adventitious bodies to the uterus of the flower, or do not the pods grow by their pedicles from the tree or plant; and do not the seeds in them grow from their pedicles, as well as the little organizations in those very feeds, which actually grow and receive nourishment from their pedicles also ? And, in a word, is not this a more certain and secure method of propagation, than to commit these things to the chance of being formed, as several authors would have the world believe ; or, that the germ should be an adventitious body, arriving at the ovarium, when it is in no wise fit to receive such a body, nor any other substance but an efluvium capable of penetrating the whole substance, and consequently of meeting and impregnating the organization now ready for it.
But the manner of the impregnation of the original organization of either animal or vegetable, that is, how they are affected by the several effluvia from the male feminal substances, must ever remain mysterious and unknown.'
Our author, in order to the illustration of his subject, introduces, in this place, a short accouut of the means made use of to propagate the dates among the Ægyptians, Persians, Arabians, and other eastern nations ; and then goes on in the following manner, • The analogy then,
jaja he, will run thus : In vegetables the male parts of the flower must necessarily fæcundate the female parts, in order to propagate the successive tree or plant; otherwise it is well known nothing is produced. So also in animals, the male must necessarily foecundate the female, in order to propagate the successive animal, otherwise nothing is propagated. In vegetables the farina is carried to the pistil of the flower lodged in the papillæ leading to the uterus, where the tender seeds are now ready to be affected; they pass down the tubes towards the seeds, till the narrowness of the tubes hinders their moving further ; where they lie till the access of proper moisture causes them to burst and eject, with some force, their foecundating matter upon the ovarium, and thereby qualify the seeds or ova to grow to further perfection from its effluvium. So, in animals, the penis of the male conveys into the vagina of the female the spermatic matter, which is a glutinous Auid, and is the vehicle to the subtile effluvium which penetrates every part, until it reaches and bedews such ova as are mature enough for foecundation, most commonly one, sometimes two, and rarely more. After this is done, the gross injected matter is again rejected upon the first turn or other action of the female ; and, thus, as the seminal matter in animals must necessarily be ejected by the action of muscles, so the seminal matter in vegetables is injected by means of a springy texture in each grain
farina, to be put in motion upon the first access of moisture, whereby the subtiler part bedews the ovarium, and foecundates the seeds. In vegetables, as soon as the fucundation is over, the feeds foon grow to their full perfection, all the male parts of the flower dry and wither away,
the uterus becomes full of perfect feeds, all lying in their proper niduses; and, when arrived to their full limited size, growing hard ; the seeds at length drop from their pedicles, and lie concealed in the different places allotted them, in the pod or fruit; which pod, upon due maturity drops too from its place, and is then capable of answering all the purposes for which it was intended, and for further propagation in due time. In animals, soon after the foecundation is consummated, the little ovum, in the viviparous kinds, grows turgid, breaks from its hold, and is removed to the uterus through the fallopian tube, where it receives proper nourishment, till, growing ripe, it, in like manner, at length drops off from its place, and is capable of answering all the purposes for which it was intended, and for further propagation in due time; and, in the oviparous kinds, the little ovum, now foe