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For A PRI L, 1752.


ART. xxix. The history of the Portuguese, during the reign

of Emmanuel, &c. in 2 vol. 8vo.


Aving already given an account of the first of these

volumes *, which contains the discovery of the

East Indies by the Portuguese, and their exploits there, till Albuquerque's vice-royalty, we fall now give a brief abstract of what followed upon the promotion of this great man; previously observing, that the nature of our work will not permit us to take any notice of Emmanuels transactions in Europe, nor of the war carried on against the Moors in Africa : for these, as well as a more full and cir, cumstantial account of what palled in the East Indies, we mult refer to the history itself.

Albuquerque's first expedition was against the Zamorin of Calicut, whose palace without the city he burnt, but was obliged to retreat precipitately, after being dangerously wounded, and losing many of his bravest followers, among whom was admiral Coutign, a nobleman of great merit.

His next expedition was against Goa, a city situated on the point of an island, called Ticuarin, and formed by a river running into the sea in two different branches : This island is about twenty three miles in compass, and maintains a much greatur number of people than could be imagined from its extent, being covered with fruitful trees, and abounding in all sorts of corn. The city was fortified, and furnished with abundance of warlike engines ; it is a bout an hundred miles from Cochin,

In our Review for lart Monthe
Vol. VI.



Albuquerque having a fleet of twenty-three men of war well manned, beside fourteen auxiliary ones belonging to Timoia, who had taken part with the Portuguese, soon made himself master of Goa; in which he found a great number of cannon, surprising heaps of bullets, and an immense quantity of powder and other warlike stores. In their fhip-dock there were about forty men of war, besides fixteen pinnaces, and many other vessels. A' considerable number of fine horses from Persia and Arabia was likewise found in the stables of Zabaim, who was prince of this island, and the territories bordering on it upon the continent.

Here Albuquerque took up his winter quarters. He eased the citizens of one third of the tribute they used to pay to Zabaim, fortified the city, and equipped the vessels in the harbour fit for service. He likewise fortified the entrances into the ifland, settled the revenues, and prepared to oppose Zabaim, who was raising an army to invade the island in the spring. It was reported that Zabaim had above forty thousand soldiers under his command, and a fine train of artillery ; so that the Portuguese were for abandoning the island, but Albuquerque thought it shameful to do so, before he had tried whether it could be defended. Accordingly he made a brave defence, but was at last obliged to evacuate the city and fort of Goa, after having shipped all the cannon, and a fufficient quantity of ammunition and provisions. This happened in May 1510, a year remarkable for the death of the King of Cochin, who had espoused the Portuguese interest, with great sincerity, and given them the first settlement in the Indies.

In the month of November Albuquerque retook Goa, after a very obstinate and bloody defence, wherein the enemy lost three thousand men and the Portuguese only forty: This done, the viceroy's next care was to settle the government of the city, and send out ships of war to protect the Portuguese merchant-men, as well as their allies, and to intercept all vessels trading to Calicut.

As the character and conduct of Albuquerque differed widely from that of his predeceffor Almeed, it may not be improper to observe, after our author, wherein this difference consisted, · Both were certainly men endowed with true greatness of soul, and amazing courage ; both pursued the fame noble ends; both had at heart the glory of their religion, and the honour of their royal master; and for this purpose, either would have facrificed his life with the utmost chearfulness. But they differed from each other in this re

fpect :

spect : Almeed thought it extremely unsafe to aim at storming cities; since by dividing their strength this would certainly weaken the Portuguese; it was therefore his opinion, that our people ought to keep at sea; for if they had the fuperiority there, they would have all India under their command. The sea was Almeed's only concern, and if there was only one fafe station where the ships might winter, this alone he thought would be sufficient; for he thought it impossible that such reinforcements could be sent every year from Portugal, as were necessary to garrison the forts. And he concluded it to be almost a crime for any one to venture upon a scheme in this manner, to divide the Portuguese;s who, when united in one body, would always strike terror into their enemies.

Albuquerque had more unbounded hopes ; he not only had an eye to their present fecurity, but also planned in his mind the foundation of a grand and lasting empire in the east. Nor did he think the sending every year large quan. tities of spices to Portugal, was an affair lo worthy of his attention, as that of enlarging and fixing the sovereignty of Emmanuel. And as they could not have supplies but at so great a distance, he therefore resolved to plant colonies of the Portuguese in many parts of India, that in process of time they might be able to levy armies in that country. He thought a dominion at sea alone would be very insufficient, for one storm might destroy their whole force; whereas if they were masters by land, this would likewise secure their power at sea ; for.if any misfortune should happen to their fleet, they would then be enabled to repair it, and would quickly recover their naval strength: That it would also be extremely dangerous for the feet to be shut up in one ftation in a country, where perhaps the soil being barren, was unable to support an army in winter quarters. Those perSons, therefore, who thought Cochin or Cananor the only forts then belonging to the Portuguese in these parts, would be fufficient for them amidst such a number of enemies, fo bent on their destruction, seemed to him to have very

little regard to futurity; since one ftation, though never so strong, would avail little, unless they could send supplies from many quarters. The taking possession therefore of many places was, in his opinion, not to weaken, but enlarge the nam val power : for, if they had many stations and retreats, the feet would then go to sea with less danger, and they would have a greater quantity of materials for building or reitting

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their fhips. In short, as Albuquerque had in his view the perpetual poffeffion of India, he therefore resolved to procure wives for the Portuguese, in order to raise an offspring, that by this means they might in time have such a resource in India, as not to depend entirely on the supplies sent from Portugal, who (or rather which) in the course of such long and dangerous voyages, were often cut off by distempers, or swallowed up in the waves.

• The wisdom and foresight of this great man was cera tainly extremely serviceable to the Portuguese; the happy effects of which appeared many years after his death. For when Solyman the Grand Turk sent the governor of Egypt with a formidable fleet to drive the Portuguese from India, he besieged the citadel of Dio; and notwithstanding he met with a very warm reception, and was vigorously opposed by our people, yet he continued the fiege many days, with great vigour ; nor would he have desisted from the attempt fo soon, had he not been informed, that a powerful squadron was coming from Goa. Nor would the king of Cambaya, who, at another time, with an army of Turks, besieged the same place for six months, have been so easily overthrown by John de Castro, then viceroy of India, had it not been owing to the numerous and timely supplies fent from Goa; for this colony became in time fo great and numerous, that it could raise armies, and send forth fleets. This arose entirely from the prudent management of Album querque, who took so much pains to raise fuch a foundation as could not be easily shaken. He took, feve. Tal women captives in India : These he treated with the highest respect; and having initiated them in the Christian religion, he gave them in marriage to his foldiers, to whom he allowed settlements in the island of Goa, and endeavoured to make these marriages happy by all manner of favour and encouragement.

He was no less assiduous in strengthening the fortifications, and settling every thing which might tend to the order and establishment of the government. In a word, his fáme spread far and near; so that embassadors came to him from most of the princes in India. Some brought their tribute, others came to fue for peace and friendship, and all of * them professed their attachment to Emmanuel. Albuquerque detained them some time at Goa; for he was willing they should behold the fortifications of the city, the formidable fleet, and all his grand structures, that being struck with the magnificence of his works, they might remain faithful to


Emmanuel. They beheld Albuquerque with a kind of veneration,; some admiring his majestic dignity, whilst others were no less taken with his civility and politę behaviour. This resort of embassadors, and concourse of persons of disa tinction, formed an appearance of a court at Goa, equal to that of the greatest monarch.

Zabaim Idalcam, indeed, formed many schemes for retaking the island, and even attempted to invade it with a considerable army; but was repulsed with loss and Thame.'

If the reduction and settlement of Goa are proofs of Albuquerque's valour and prudence ; if his reception of the Indian embassadors, shews his policy and princely spirit ; the following instance of severity equally displays his ability as a viceroy, and how well he knew to support his authority. Diego Mendez Vasconcelo, who had the command of four men of war, no sooner came to an anchor in the port of Goa, than he delivered Albuquerque a letter from Emmanuel ; wherein his majesty ordered the viceroy to give Vasconcelo all the assistance in his power to enable him to pursue his voyage to Malacca. A general council was immediately held, and it was the opinion of every one, that nothing was to be preferred to the war of Goa, and that Vasconcelo ought to be present at an affair of so much importances to which this admiral consented. When Goa was taken, and every thing fully settled, Vasconcelo waited on Albuquerque, and after recounting his late services, desired he would order a fleet to be got ready, that, according to his instructions, he might fail for Malacca. Albuquerque endeavoured, by all possible means, to dissuade him from this expedition; telling him, it was not only dangerous, but little advantage could be reaped from it. Besides, that he himself intended to fail against the Sultan's feet, and it would be extremely dangerous, at the same time, to venture upon two such bold undertakings : Nor could he furnish him with a fufficient number of ihips to carry on the expedition against Malacca, He therefore earnestly entreated and conjured Vasconcelo to fail along with him, and as soon as the war was finished he might return to Portugal with such marks of honour and distinction, as his high merit deserved.

Vasconcelo received this answer with the highest indig. nation, complaining that he was imposed on in the groffest manner. However, since he met with so bad a requital of his services, he declared he would ftill go to Malacca, notwithstanding all their opposition. Albuquerque finding him not to be worked on by entreaty, thought to deter him by

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menaces ;

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