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haftily into the seat, and making a motion with her other. hand toward the house, the chairmen took her up again, and carried her to the hall door,

"I had been used to genteel figures among the female world, but heaven! what was the astonishment of our sober family, to see enter upon them, as just risen from her bed, a lady in her pete en l' air and Nippers. They were getting up all at once, but she told them she begged the might not disturb them: that fhe only came to enquire the character of a servant, and would wait till they had dined before she gave them any trouble about it. This was a piece of politeness that cost her very dear, as the fight and vapours of such viands as these coarse eaters fat down to, was a new kind of mortification to a person of her turn and delicacy; and perhaps not less troublesome or offensive than the complication of stinks at the door, though more unavoidable. It was politeness to feem entertained independently of them, not to take them off from their dinner. The lady took up a treatise of Italian book-keeping that lay in the window, and kept her eye on it with as much seeming attention as if it had been the history of Tom Jones. The young lady at the table had by this means an opportunity of viewing her, and she did not lose it. What was her amazement to fee in the place of her dowdy cap and ribbands, a head of fine flaxen hair, combed in an elegant irregularity to the face, behind braided into a ramillie, and turned up under a gauze cap, not much larger than a crown-piece. Nature had denied this ornament of the female sex height, but she had made amends for that deficiency by a symme. try of form not to be equalled, and the taste of the lady and of her tradeswomen together, had found the way to shew those elegancies in a more advantageous manner than they ever will be seen in any body else: the sleeves of her fack were made so nicely to fit her arms, that the fine turn of them was visible through : stockings, the filk of which was hardly thicker than a cobweb, fell to close about the elegantest legs in the world, that the very veins might be traced under them, and the snowy colour of the skin underneath gave a whiteness to them, that every woman of her acquaintance had turned off her hosier for not communicating to hers her complexion would have laid her under the cenfure of painting, had it not been finer than that artifice can bestow ; and her blue eyes mould have made those of the immortal Pallis grey in the comparison. The young lady of the house fuppressed her passions a long time, but at length envy and

despair

despair burst out together into tears. The dinner and the naughty girl were removed: the family faced about to their visiter, and the, with the jauntiest air in the world, throwing her head back in her chair, and tosling one of her legs upon an adjoining one, began to alk some questions relating to her business there, of the lady of the house : that fage matron was rising as the spoke, a stare of wonder and a lifting up of both her expanded hands stood in the place of an answer : she turned her back and walked out of the door.

· The visiter's look testified her surprize; but the good man explained the incident by telling the lady with much honest confufion, that he believed her putting up her foot in that manner, had occafioned his wife's going out of the room: this was no unfavourable incident for me, as it left my character in hands that I knew would do it more justice than the lady who had just gone off would have done. O I am very much concerned, fir, says the lady, I forgot you in the city are all prudes : but this is a custom in- France ; the best women there I assure

you,
will tie

up

their garters in an assembly; but, fir, I want to know how your late fervant behaved with you. My worthy, my honest, and good master, who sincerely loved me, and who believed I deserved all the friendly things he could say of me, said every thing that he thought I deserved; he expatiated on my honesty, my fidelity, my sobriety, and indeed on every vir. tue that ought to recommend a man to society : the lady heard him with some impatience, and at length replied, * All this, fir, is very well, but it is not the thing I want to know : can he bear a flambeau genteelly before a lady's chair? does he understand rapping fashionably at a door! and can he deliver a How d’ye sensibly, and save one the trouble of writing of cards?' The good man stared : he .confessed these were qualities he had never occasion to experience in me: that I had many a time transacted affairs of four or five thousand pounds for him, and that he never had scrupled to trust twice that sum in bank notes in my custody, but that' as to cards and how d'ye's, he did not know what they were, and for a flambeau he never saw one in his life. The lady was taking her leave with begging my master's pardon for the trouble she had given him, and saying I might do very well for another place, but that I was not that sort of fellow she wanted; but the good man recollected in time, that I had a recommendation which would answer all the lady's purposes, though such a one as he could give me was not calculated to do so.

was

It was now that my written character, the overflowings of lady Calm's generosity, became of use to me. I called in, and no sooner produced it, than the lady, looking me full in the face, exclaimed, Angels! how have you metamorphosed yourself! is it you! O, I need not ask any farther questions. I know lady Calm's hand very well, and I remember

you

there, the best servant in the world. I'm very glad I have met with you. You may come to me this evening.' Our readers, we doubt not, will agree

with

us, that in the foregoing extracts, there are many true, though careless and incorrect sketches of real life, and such as bespeak the author to have been acquainted with the scenes and characters he has taken upon him to paint: tho' it is ridiculous to fuppose a London merchant, who had never seen a flambeau.

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ART. XVIII.
The Theory of the Moon made perfect

, so far at least as to determine the Longitude both at sea and land, within the limits required by act of Parliament. To which is added, the Use which may be made of Comets. By Samuel Hardy. 8vo. Is. Cooper. INCE the passing of the bill for a reward for the dir

covery of the longitude, several methods have been proposed, which are demonstrably true, and have often been put in practice with good success.

The best means our seamen have at present for correcting their journals, is the latitude of the place the ship is in, deduced from observations made of the altitudes of the sun and fixed stars; and which is of vast assistance to them; and could the difference of longitude be determined to the fame degree of exactness as the latitude, the art of navigation would be rendered complete. To supply this defect is the intention of the treatise we are now to consider ; but first it may not be amiss to point out some of the principal methods which have been already proposed, and the impediments which render them not so practical, as those for discovering the latitude,

The difference of longitude between any two places, is equal to the arch of the equator intercepted between the two meridians pasting through the two places; and is analogous to the quantity of time, that the sun requires to move from one meridian to the other; or, in the language of Copernicus, that is elapsed between the application of the meridian of one of the places to the fun, and the meridian

of

of the other; for fince the fun performs his revolution in the space of twenty-four hours, or which is the same, since the revolution of the earth about her axis, is performed in the same time ; it follows, that every hour there paffes over the meridian one twenty-fourth part of 360 degrees, or of the whole circumference of the equator, equal to 15 degrees, in two hours one twelfth part, or 30 degrees, and in any greater or lesser space of time a proportional greater or lesser part of the equator. Whence it follows, that if the difference of longitude, or arch of the equator intercepted between the meridians passing through any two places be known, the difference of the times of the day in those two places is known also, and consequently, the hour in one place being known, the hour in the other is known also; and vice versa, if the difference between the times at any two places be known, the difference of longitude between those two places, is known also, hy reducing the difference of the times into degrees and minutes, allowing 15 degrees to an hour, &c.

From what has been said, it follows, that if by any contrivance whatsoever, the hour of the day, at the same point of absolute time in two different places can be obtained, the difference of longitude between those two places is known also, and by comparing the times together, it is easy to pronounce which place lies to the eastward or westward of the other.

Wherefore, if two or more persons can view the same appearance at two or more places, and pronounce the time at each place when such appearance was visible, or if the time when any notable appearance shall happen at any place be calculated, and the time when that appearance was visible at any other place was observed, these times compared together will give the difference of meridians, or difference of longitude between the two places. Hence an excellent method has been proposed, which is by means of the eclipses of Jupiter's fatellites.

Fupiter has four satellites or moon's constantly attending him, and always observe the same laws in moving round him. Now, as neither Jupiter nor any of his attendants

any native light of their own, but, shine with a borrowed light from the sun, each satellite in every revolution about Jupiter, suffers two eclipses, one at its entrance into the shadow, the other at the entrance of its pallage behind his body; consequently, at each revolution of the fatellite, there are four remarkable appearances, one at

the

have

the entrance into the shadow, and one at the emerfion out of it; one at the entrance behind the body, and another at the coming out; but of these the two former are chiefly regarded by astronomers, because the swift motion of the fatellites plunge them fo quick into the shadow of Jupiter, that it is no difficult matter to pronounce, by the help of any telefcope by which they may be feen, the exact time of their immersion and emerfion.

Now as these happen at the same moment of time, and as the motions of the fatellites are sufficiently known, there is nothing wanting but a catalogue of the eclipses to be published for the meridian of any one place, and the observations made in different places, compared with the times fet down in the catalogue, will give the difference of longitude between the place of obfervation, and the place for which the catalogue was published,

When we consider the great number of these eclipses which happen every year, there being more visible in one year, than there are days in it, and consequently, but few nights when Jupiter can be seen, which is nearly eleven months of the year, but that an eclipse of one or other happens, and sometimes two or three in a night; the eafiness with which they may be made ; their requiring only a telescope of eight or ten feet in length; it is surprizing that our seamen have so long neglected them, especially with regard to finding the longitude of the feveral ports they fail

Another method of discovering the longitude is by the help of pendulum clocks and watches, whofe structure have been greatly improved by their inventor M. Huygens, and published in the Philofophical Transactions, No. 47. where the ingenious author has shewn in what manner these machines are to be used in finding the longitude at sea, with directions for adjusting and keeping a journal by them. But the best machine of this kind, and which muft certainly prove of use in discovering the longitude, is that lately invented by the ingenious Mr. Harrison.

The chief objection against machines of this kind, is the effects which heat and cold have on the springs and pendulums; there having been several contrivances for hanging them so as not to be affected by the motion of the fhip; but these effects are fo regular, that, doubtless they may be eafily accounted for.

Having given this short account of some of the principalmethods that have been proposed, we shall now consider the me.

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to.

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