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must therefore be afflicting to Englishmen in every part of the world, and the fact is that the real state of this country is unknown to the emigrant, the foreigner, and even to a great mass of our own coutrymen. It isto bę regreted, a great part of the intelligent English press is at this moment lending its powerful aid in putting forth exaggerated accounts of •Improvements in trade, &c. &c.'. They are gross falsclioods, and such statements convince us that these cditors know as much of the real distresses of the manufacturing population of this country, as Capt. Basil Ilall has displayed in l.is work, which he calls. Trav. els through North America.' Let the editors of the leading London daily papers go throug! Lancashire, Yorkshire, Warwickshire, Cheshire, Nottingham, and other manufacturing counties, not mulile themselves up in the inside of a stage coach and run a hundred miles at a time without stopping; but go through every county, every town, every village, every manufactory, every prison, every poor house, every cottage, every hovel, where human beinys dwell; let them for one day partake of the food, the clothing and lodging of these poor wretches. Yes, let them feel for one week the beggary and starvation which they endure in this country of freedom, and then let us see what they will say from personal experience. Why, in every manufacturing county in England at this moment the greatest distress prevails. We quote the following account of a meeting which took place a few days since at Huddersfield, Yorkshire,
"We protest we never read any thing half so harrowing as are the plain unadorned facts of this meeting. The facts are narrated by eye-witnesses, the numbers of the starving are accurately stated, their mode of struggling for a subsistence is simply described, the quality of the fare they live upon, the rags they are compelled to hide from the light of day, the schools & the exercises of religion they are prevented from attending from a want of clothing, are all depicted in a circumstantial manner.
One of the members of the operatives' committee informed
the meeting that he and another person were deputed to inves tigate the circumstances of eleven hundred families in the neighborhood of Iluddersfield. Il reports that of this vast nymber they could not reckon more than two hundred families any thing like halfen ployed, The çther nine hundred families were in a situation, he said, that he could not bear to rellectupon,
He entered some houses where the unhappy inmates seemned anxious to be released from their sufferings hy ddeath! the countenances of others told him they were dying from the want of food! in other houses there was a sick husband, a distracted wife or hungry children crying for bread without food, fire or clothing. Some families had sold what little furniture they were possessed of, and in a word, they had no bed, no fire, na food, nor had they even scarcely clothing to cover their naked, ness. Some of the men had become so feeble from the wagt of support, that they could scarcely attend their work. For a family to go without food for twenty four or thirty six hours, was no uncommon circumstance, as they had nothing to depend upon but the cold hand of charity, Some said they were tired of living, and but for their chiļdren they should not care howy soon their miserable existence was terminated. These were the people whose generous minds and industrious habits were once the envy and admiration of surrounding nations, and who now appear to be fast verging toward a state of barbarism,
Another who had been similarly employad in a different district, gives a similar account. In numerous instances, says this mån, the credit of the operative was gone-their apparel was worn out--they were without hope, without fire, without clothing and without food. In short, he adds, poverty reigned through their comfortleardwellings in siļent triumph, the indie cạtions of beggary and misery were truly appalling, and the ravages of misery and wetchedges were stamped in visible characters. A third member of the committee stated that in the dise. trict he had investigated, distress, or rather misery, had made as rapid stridęs as įn those places already describede?
A foufth individual entered into the statistics of the trade, in order to show the prevailing rate of wages in Huddersfield and its vicinity. He presented a table of the undernamed towns containing the individuals and the rate of wages they earn per day.
"In Lepton there are 1084 individuals whose wage's avarage båt 24d per day'; in Honely, 1821 average 21d; in Cumerworth and Shelby, 1740 average 2+d; in Kirkheaton, 874 average 211; in Dalton, 892 average 24d; in Albondbury and Clayton, 2191 average 24d; in Shelmanthrope, 1214 averaĝe 24d; in Kirkheaton, 1056 average 21d; in Lindly, 831 average 2+d; in Cowcliff and Hillhouse, 439 average 21d; in Lockwood, 470 average 21d; and in Rástrick, 594 average 3d; making a total of 13,226 individuals whose wages average but 2 d per day!!!
“Here is a picture replete with topics and incidents which will no doubt excite the mirth and ridicule of those scribes who are hired to distort facts and conceal the truth.”
The following touching account of the state of the laboring population of England, is copied from a pamphlet recently published in London, entitled Extracts from is Thoughts and Suggestions on the Present Distresses of the Country," by Peter Macqueen, M. P-National Gazelle.
“The consequences of such low rate of remuneration, and the dependence on a provision ånwillingly wrung from the proprietor by the parish oficers, is also manifested in the increase of, crime; for self respect, a due sense of shame, and regard for character, being destroyed, the great moral barrier to vice is broken down. The first principle of nature, self préservation is but ton frequently called into action, and an unfortunate wretch with his children, crying for bread, is prepared for the violation of the law, rëgardless of the extent of crime, to which he may be urged. This consideration leads me to a subject which it is impossible to separate from the present miseryof the people-namely, the state of our criminal laws and the effect of
our present mode of punishment. I have made it a practice of late years to attend our prisons at certain periods, and have generally examined the prisoners a short time previous to the assizes; and I will add some facts which forcibly struck me in the course of this experience. In January, 1829, there were 96 prisoners for trial in Bedford gaol of whom 75 were able bodied men, in the prime of life, and chiefly of general good character, who were driven to crime by sheer want, and who would have been valuable subjects, had they been placed in a situation where, by the exercise of their health and strength, they could have earned a subsistence. There were in this number 18 poachers awaiting trial, for the capital offence of using arms in self-defence when attacked by game keepers: of these 18 men, one only was not a parish pauper, and he was the agent of the London poulterers, who, passing under the apparent vocation of rat-catcher, paid these poor creatures more in one night than they could obtain from the overseer for a week's labor. I conversed with each of these men singly, and made minutes of their mode of life. The two first I will mention, are the two brothers, the Lilleys, in custody under a charge of firing on and wounding a keeper, who endeavored to apprehend them whilst poaching. They were two remarkably fine young men, and very respectably connected. The elder 28 years of age, married, with two small children. When I enquired how he could lend himself to such a wretched course oflife, the poor fellow replied, "Sir, I had a pregnant wife, with one infant at her knee, and another at her breast: I was anxious to obtain work. I offered myself in all directions, but without success; if I went to a distance, I was told to go back to my parish, and when I did so, I was allowed—what? Why, for myself, my babes, and a wife in a condition; requiring more than common support, and unable to labor, I was allowed 7 shillings a week for all; for which I was expected to work on the roads from light to dark, and to pay three guineas a year for the hovel which sheltered us. The other brother aged 22; unmarried, received 6 pence a day.
These two men were hanged at the Spring Assizes. Of the others, ten were single men; their ages varying from 17 to 27. Many had never been in gaol before, & were considered of good character. Six of these were on the roads at 6 pence per day. Two could not obtain even this pittance. One had been refused relief on the ground that he had shortly previous obtained a profitable piece of job-work, & one existed on 1s.6d during the fortnight before he joined the gang in question. Offive married men, two with wife and children, received 7 shillings; two with wife and one child, six shillings; and one with wife and four small children, 11 shillings.
6 At this period, in the house of correction 'were 32 poachers under summary conviction. Of these, 17 were destitute of all employment, and as being single men, were resused by their overseers, on the ground of means of employment; eight were parish paupers, of whom three were receiving opence per day; one lad of 16 years of age, 3t pence per day; another of 17. 24 pence, and three of eighteen years old, 5 pence each per day. Of the seven in regular work, three married men with families, got 9 shilings per week; two other married men with smaller families, 8 shillings; one single man, aged 20,4 shillings; and one only of the whole body of 32 was receiving wage's at all approaching to fair remuneration; he (a married man without family) obtaining 9 shillings per welk. Here we find men whom we are bound to suppose honest in principle, and against whom no impeachment can stand but want of fair employment, existing on a pittance perfectly incompetent to provide lodging, food, clothing, suel, and washing, the average : rate being, £7 10 shillings per head per annum. In Hanslope parish, the average price for four years for fifty-one able bodied nen, supported by.rates, £8 5s. 8d. per head.” . .
Yes, and ninety-nine hundredths of the crimes committed in any country, is caused by the grinding oppression and demoralizing example of aristocracy-civil, military, and ecclesiastic...
From the moment any church is established by human law