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before had this very rational appre- always honoured them, Mr. O'Brien,” hension crossed his mind.

continued he; "it went to my old His love, he confessed, was as strong mother's heart to part with me the last as ever, but he said it was undefinably time. She did every thing but comchanged in its character—it had as mand me to stay, and I might have sumed more of reality and less of that gratified her ; and I pleased myself ; mysterious indefiniteness which had and she cried sore when I left her.” been, perhaps, its charm. It seemed, Well, Arthur," said I, “if this be he said, as if its object had been sud- the only thing in which you have not denly removed from that holy and done honor to your parents, I trust enchanted bower, in which the magic God will forgive it, and grant you of his imagination had securely en- length of days.” shrined her, and was now in the world " Amen,” he responded, in a tone of of sense, exposed to all the dangers mingled confidence and fear. and subject to all the caprices of ordi We parted ; and as I heard the nary women.

heavy slam of his garret door as I He now mourned over the hope- hurried down the stairs, its sound fell lessness of his passion. I endeavoured upon my ear with a strangely dismal to inspire him with hope. “ Ah!” he and melancholy foreboding. It was answered me, “in what reasonable now quite dark; I wrapped my cloak time can I hope to attain a station in tight about me and sallied out across which I might hope for her hand- the courts. I looked back, and saw years must pass away-years to me the glimmering of the candle from of solitude and anguish—and will she Arthur's attic window cast a faint and wait for a lover of whom she has never solitary ray upon the darkness that heard, and whom, if she did hear of, wrapped the rest of the buildings. she would despise-ah!

Next morning rose gay and joyous

upon the world, and I turned back “bene nummatum decorat Suadela Venusque.”

to town to enjoy a fortnight's ramble Some rich and heartless fool will pur- among the far-famed beauties of Kilchase her with his wealth to misery." Jarney. At the end of that time I He smote his forehead with his returned to town, and but a few hours clenched fist, and muttered “PUR had elapsed before I sought out Arthur CHASE HER,” or three times, Johns, bitterly.

I found his room shut up, and from This was a conversation that there his opposite neighbour, who had rewas but little use in pursuing. He turned to College in my absence, I was the victim of a passion, the learned a story that even now I can strangest that ever preyed upon the hardly bear to tell. Poor Arthur had heart of man--and what to say, I been seized with a brain fever-he had knew not. I urged him strongly to been some days ill before any body change his mind and accompany our knew it—and one day he was found in party to Killarney on the next day, the agonies of delirium by one of the few but he was inexorable. He said, when students who were then inmates of the I was about to leave him, that he had College, wandering about the courts, a presentiment we might never meet his head streaming with blood, and his again. This was very strange, for he face and linen disfigured with its stains. generally spoke in a tone that I con He was taken by this student upon a sidered almost presumptuous of the jainting-car to Sir Patrick Dunn's hoscertainty of bis reaching a good old pital, where he still remained. age. I remarked to him the change. To the hospital I rushed, almost “ I will tell you why,” said he. You distracted with grief and alarm. I remember the first commandment with found one of the surgeons, wbo told promise --- · Honour thy father and that

poor

Arthur's death was hourly thy mother, that thy days be long.' I expected. He said that it seemed å thought I surely had honoured mine, case in which proper treatment at first and that my days would be long." might have subdued the complaint,

“ And why not depend upon the “ But,” added he, “when he came here, same promise now ?”

mismanagement had put it beyond our * Because I am not sure that I have reach.” I was admitted to his bedside.

two

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me

He lay in one of the wards of the Round his neck I found a key carehospital, in a clean but lowly bed. He fully fastened. I took it off, and having did not know me ; his eyes were roll- obtained admission to his rooms, I proing heavily in a deadly stupor, and his ceeded to secure the little effects he lips moved occasionally as if attempt- had. Every thing was just as he had ing to mutter something ; but they left it. His dictionary was still open gave utterance to nothing but the most where he had been searching for the indistinct sounds. For about four hours meaning of a word ; his Bille, too, I sat beside him, determined to see the never had been closed since last be last of him. It was just as the twilight read it. But, gracious God! I felt was fading away in the darkness that my heart faint, and a deadly sickness his pulse ceased for ever to beat ; and come over me as I discovered but too one long, gasping sob exhaled his last positive proof of the horrid truth of breath.

the nurse-tender's tale. But I will not I could hardly believe that he was shock my readers by describing that, gone—that this was the end of him of the recollection of which, even now, whom so many fond and proud hopes makes the blood curdle at my heart. hail been entertained. I am not soft The key which I had taken from his hearted; I have seen death in many a neck I found to open a little cabinet that shape, and I am stern enough to gaze stood on a table near his bed. Inside on it unmoved; but when I looked it I found a piece of mechanism which upon him in that bed, a lifeless and a I still have in my possession-a little mangled corpse, and thought of all he coffin, most beautifully formed, of mawas and of all he might have been, and hogany, and lined with scarlet cloth. of what the surgeon had told me, that On opening it I found a heart of the care at first might have saved him, I same material, broken into two, and thought my heart would have broken. branded on it with fire, the word

I say, his mangled corpse-for-how “Matilda.” shall I tell the most horrid part of this A few months after this I was again dismal tragedy! He had, it seems, on a visit at Dr. Wail's. Poor old sent for an apothecary on finding him- Mr. and Mrs. Johns -- they seemed self unwell. The wretch whom he

many, many years older than when I sent for ordered him a blister for his had seen them last. I could not have head, and paid him no more attention ; believed how quickly sorrow does the thinking, I suppose, from the appear work of time. ance of his garret, that he was not I had many opportunities of meeting likely to make much by attending him. with Miss and the more closely He sent the blister, and his college I watched her the more mysterious did woman, bis only attendant, applied it Arthur's passion appear. There was to his unshaved head and left him. nothing extraordinary about her ; she The pain tormented him, and in a fit of seemed to me a pretty, unaffected, delirium he tore away the blister and and innocent-hearted girl ; she spoke parts of the scalp together, and with of Arthur as a person whom she ihe blood trickling over his face he hardly knew, but expressed great comwandered out into the courts. My miseration for his bereaved parents. readers know the rest.

Alas! she knew not ; and if it could These dreadful particulars I learned mar an hour of her light-hearted hapfrom the nurse-tender. She told me piness, I trust that she may never that in the fits of his delirium he had know the heart that burned-that broke often called on me, and that sometimes for her. It is not probable that she he would fancy himself talking to a ever will; it is more than probable, if beautiful young lady, and then again she does, that it will cost ber but a he would think he was contending passing pang. She has since married, with a she devil. And this was the end and with her husband gone out to of one who might have been an honor India. to society and to his country!

CAUSES OF THE FAILURE OF THE REFORMATION IN IRELAND.

No. II.

There never was a people more de- but we still see the heaving of the long voured by civil strife and more ha- swell and the rolling of the troubled rassed by foreign power than the people wave; years have rolled by, and we of Ireland. Previous to the conquest, fear some few more must vanish with their history seems for centuries to be them before the passions of the people but a record of crime, without one will cease to heave to and fro beneath gleam to shed a halo around the name the breath of agitation. of any one individual in the long cata There was no period in the history logue of kings and chieftains. We have of Ireland replete with more fair prosthe strongest testimony of the fearful pects for civilization and religion, than lengths into which they were drawn by the period of the great plantation of the fury of contending factions, who Ulster. It promised to introduce civiliseemed as ambitious of rivalling each zation; it promised to establish the other in atrocity as in power, till the principles of the reformation — the whole island became one mighty theatre former upon the ruins of native barfor the fearful drama of intestine dis. barism, the latter upon the decay of cord ; it swept through the land like the Roman church. Both these purthe spirit of the burricane, blighting poses of true philanthropy it partially and wasting in its course, till at last accomplished — the former far more one of those feuds—contemptible but extensively than the latter—and our for their multitudinous consequences present inquiry is as to the causes of led to the arrival of a few bold adven- its failure in not having more widely turers from the shores of England. extended the influence of ProtestantSubsequent to the conquest that ensued ism among the native population ; for -for those raving patriots who deny a we conceive that there is an innate conquest of Ireland, may as well deny power—an expansiveness, as some have the conquest of America—the same called it, in the principles of the Reforspirit of discord and civil strife, the mation calculated to force their way to same genius that had walked before the hearts and understandings of manthrough the land in garments rolled in kind. blood, still lived among her people, The important truth is continually and made those who were devouring forced upon the mind, while perusing each other only the more facile prey to the records of Ireland, that the cause the stranger ; at the same time, as of the failure of the Reformation arose might be expected from the fierce spirit out of the political and social state of that ruled all the conquests of those the country, which, from the struggles dark ages, those who won by the sword of contending factions—from the conwere resolved to maintain by the sword; tinued excitement in which they lived so that every atrocity which the fury of — from the reiterated rebellions into faction could perpetrate, and every which they were seduced—from their crime which the gauntletted hand deep and degrading ignorance-and could work, fell upon the hosom of this from the wild and barbarous state of doomed and bleeding land.

the natives in general, was both unfitted It could not be that true reli- for the reception of true religion and gion could live in a land so circum- incapacitated from right judgment restanced. It could not be that her specting it. Besides all these eleinents, gentle voice could be heard amidst there were others peculiarly connected such a storm of contending passions; with the settlement of Ulster that and though they began to subside in assisted in defeating, to a certain exafter times, yet their effects still re tent, the great purposes for wbich it was mained, and even yet remain to a originally designed, and in them, as certain extent to our own times. It is elsewhere, we can at once perceive, like the ocean over which the storm that the unfortunate circumstances of has raged; it may have passed away, the country, which make it ever the

victim of agitation, are, as they have effort on the part of the English gobeen, the causes of the failure of the vernment. It appeared to them, as it Reformation in Ireland.

appears to us, absolutely necessary to The state of the province of Ulster wean them from their wild and unsetprevious to this settlement, was such tled habit of life to a state of cultured that it was soon felt by the English civilization, and to tame into tranquillity government to be the most difficult of and submission tu equitable laws, a management. Its chiefs were of ancient people who had lived hitherto withlineage, and had powerful influence out almost any law but the will of the over the provincial clans; and being chiefs, and who were easily led into men of incontrollable ambition and the rebellious designs of every disafwarlike propensities, they were enabled fected chief. The whole history of to harass the government and defy Ulster, previous to the plantation of the power of England in the field ; that province, is a saddening witness of its general population were in a state a state of wild barbarism-wandering of the wildest barbarism, addicted to and predatory habits—ferocious and predatory warfare, and delighting in bloody feuds-rebellious outbreaks and deeds of blood ; its surface was covered horrible atrocities that demanded somewith extensive woods and morasses, thing more effective than the ordinary without the remotest traces of tillage, methods of reducing such a population except in a few isolated districts. The to “civility and religion,” as the writers whole province was in a state that rena of that day express it. The following dered it exceedingly difficult of go- extract from a proelamation issued by vernment, and its remoteness greatly James the First, will illustrate this: added to that difficulty ; indeed there

“ We do hereby profess, on the word scarcely appears to have been a single of a king, that there never was any year that was not marked either by shadow of molestation, nor purpose of some dreadful conflictor massacre proceeding in any degree against them among the native chiefs and their for matters concerning religion. Such clans, or by some fierce rebellion being their condition and profession as to against the authority of England ; nor think murder no crime, marriage of no did there yet appear any mode of use, nor any man worthy to be esteemed civilizing and quieting that extensive valiant that did not glory in rapine and province, except by crushing the power oppression, that we should have thought and influence of those native chiefs it an unreasonable thing to trouble them who, acting on the love of predatory for any different point of religion, before warfare universal among the peasantry, any man could perceive by their converwere enabled to gather around their sation that they made truly conscience of standard, at any moment, a multitude any religion." of retainers to make their incursions This proclamation shows that the against the English ; and besides this, object of government was not merely there was a love of whatever was of the forcing any particular point of conlong standing, an inveterate attachment troverted religion upon the population, to old customs and habits of life, deeply but the reducing them from their wild seated in the disposition of the natives, habits to a state of settled civilization so that no means had ever yet been reducing them from their Scythian devised capable of weaning them from custom of wandering from district to their wild' mode of life, which, at the district, to a state of settled and civilsame time that it retarded the progress ized life, and weaning them from fierce of civilization and national improve- and barbarous habits of lawless rebelment, left them a more easy prey to lion and intestine feud to a tranquil the delusions practised on them byibe submission to the laws of England. chiefs, who ever sought to excite them The language of this royal paper is to disaffection and stimulate them to the stronger, when it is recollected that rebellion.

it chiefly refers to the leaders of the This inveteracy in ancient customs, northerns, who had just fled the propeculiar always to uncivilized people, vince; and when such a description and paralleled only among the savage was applicable to the chiefs of Ulster, of the desert or the wandering Indian we may easily infer the fearful state of of the forest, demanded soine great the mere peasantry. They lived in the

most wild and wandering state, dis- establish the new population, not by tracted into petty factions that com- removing, or in any wise oppressing mitted atrocities upon each other at the native population, but by locating which humanity shudders, and always among them the settlers from Eugland under the odious influence of a number and Scotland. The motives and feelof chieftains, who imposed their arbi- ings that influenced the government in trary exactions and capricious wills this noble and, as the result has proved, as law upon their own factions, and most wise and politic measure, were sought even to impose them in a mi- pure and disinterested ; they were so lar manner upon others; and the result far renoved from any thing like a was, that neither peace, nor security, nor spirit of oppression against the people, prosperity could ever be established in that we do believe, we are verily conthe province, until the whole system of vinced, that the chief and prevailing the country was remodelled by effec- motive was a disinterested 'desire to tually crushing the influence of these confer the greatest blessing that they chiefs, and teaching the peasantry to could bestow upon them, namely, the know the sweets of tranquillity, the order and industry of civilized life, and comforts of security, the protection of a taste for all the improvements in law, and the advantage of prosperity: habit and life which belong to civilized

It was in order to accomplish this, society. The following extract from which was plainly for the advantage of Leland, will fully justify this lanthe native population, and also for the

guage : important purpose of establishing a

“ The passion for plantation which steady and loyal population in the James indulged, was actuated by the heart of that disaffected province, that fairest and most captivating motives. He the crown .first undertook the planta- considered himself as the destined retion of Ulster. It was no part of the former and civilizer of a rude people, and design to oppress or remove the native was impatient for the glory of teaching a population, but to plant among the whole nation the valuable arts of lite, of immense unpeopled and uncultivated improving their lands, of extending their tracts with which the province abound- commerce, and refining their mannersed, a more loyal and civilized class, of establishing a population in Ireland who, by their orderly and industrious composed of loyal and industrious inhabits, would practically teach to the habitants, who by mixing with the old natives the advantages of order and natives should entice them from their industry. The thinness and scattered barbarism, and thus of converting the state of the native population rendered wildness and distraction of the country this a matter of no great difficulty, into one fair scene of order, peace and especially as at least three-fourths--we prosperity.” speak far within the truth--of the en

We may add another extract from tire province were wholly unculti- the same writer :vated' even in the rude fashion of the country, but were left covered with

“ The repeated efforts of the native

Irish to harass and distress the governnatural forests or extensive bogs and morasses, not in the smallest degreement, which they could have no rational more improved than the back woods expectations of subduing, only served to

confirm their subjection. By their conof our American colonies.

spiracies and rebellions a vast tract of An opportunity-just such an one

land escheated to the crown in six as could be desired, and yet could northern counties, Tyrconnel, (now scarcely be hoped for—was afforded, called Donegal,) Tyrone, Derry, Ferby the Rights of Tyrone, Tyrconnel, managh, Cavan and Armagh, amounting and other northern rebels, who, on to about five hundred thousand acres--a finding that their secret treasons were tract of country covered with woods, discovered, and fearful of the conse where robbers and rebels found a secure quences, fled to the continent. These shelter, desolated by war and famine, and chiefs were the proprietors of the destined to lie waste without the delibegreater portion of the soil of the pro rate and vigorous interposition of the vince which thus became forfeited to English government. James, who afthe crown ; and it was upon these for- fected to derive his glory from the acts of feitures that the crown proposed to peace, resolved to dispose of these lands

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