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for it. The acknowledged evil in Ire Roads and Inland Navigation. Alland is, that the population has increased though these may be carried on at the beyond the demand for labour, and public expense, and by public assessthat the excess is rapidly hurried by ment, the execution is intrusted to consequent idleness and starvation private contractors. The late alterainto the class of those who are incapa tion in the grand jury laws has, indeed, ble of labour-but few who know this remedied some few of the defects con. country will doubt that there is room sequent upon the ignorance and malfor the employment of even a greater versations of contractors ; but the con. number of inhabitants in profitable la- dition of those employed upon this bour. But the strongest argument work remains the same. The contract against the supplying, even if it were is got under a system of mutual possible for the government to do so, under-bidding, and of course the great this surplus of population with mate. object of the contractor is to get the rials to work upon, is the expectation
work done at a minimum of expense ; that where ten were employed, they the wages given are generally even would increase and multiply until
, per below the rates of this country, and haps, forty or fifty were produced as the roads are often the last resource of candidates for employment, and so an struggling industry. Where there is a indefinite ircrease to population, and great competition for labour another evil consequent miserv, be fostered by the ensues ; the landlord gives his interest very laws in tended to diminish it. This in getting road-work together with his argument proceeds upon the principle, land, thus receiving for it higher than that poverty is the only check to popu- the market value, and actually selling lation. But if we find, on referring to his interest to the poor, and at their statistical returns, that, in fact, those expense diverting into his own pocket countries and those districts in our own the funds of the public. Now, if the country that are poorest, are also those public work was done under governwhere the most rapid increase of popu- ment surveillance, insuring to the lalation takes place—if we analyse upon bourer a remunerating price for his this fact, and trace the reason of it to labour—that is, 'sufficient for him to the unwillingness in any one who has support his family and have something a station in life, an habitual enjoyment to lay by—this would fix the standard
of comfort, to hazard, by a blind rush- of wages in the country; and if care • ing into expense which he has no cer was taken to arrange it so that the
tainty of being able to bear, and to the wages might be in proportion to the proverbial recklessness of those who work done, a motive and character have nothing to lose, we shall pro- would be given to industry, the advanbably arrive at the conclusion, that the tages of which are really under the prefirst step towards chiecking population sent system of day labour almost unought to be the bettering the condition known. The works not hitherto unof the inferior classes. Where the dertaken by the public, but which might landlord will do this he can do it ; probably be undertaken with advantage, where he will not, the government can are such as roads in extensive unpeopled not make him do so. They cannot in- districts susceptible of cultivation, as terfere with his rights in property, but Cunnemara, Erris, and the mountainous they can set him an example, and until parts of Donegal, Cork, and Kerrythe face of the country is greatly extensive drainages affecting districts changed, the government hus a pros- which are in the hands of different pect of work enough for many gene- proprietors -- the lowering of flood rations of the present, or even an in- waters, such as the Shannon, &c., creased surplus of population. There and converting others to the purare certaij works which are now, and poses of inland carriage. If such from their nature can only be under. works could be carried on under taken by the public—there are others the direction of scientific engineers, which have not as yet, but might pro- with the suggestions and concurrent bably in future be so carried on with assistance of local committees, probaa prospect of advantage to the country. bly the riches and resources of the To begin with those, in the execution of country would be greatly increased, which the public is already engaged much actual pauperism absorbed, and
1835.] Chapters of College Romance.- Chapter III.- The Sizar. 31 much future pauperism checked ;* while who are deeply interested in the quesa stimulus to private exertion would be tion. When the evidence, takeii by found in the example of public im- the commissioners, is laid before the provement, and a much higher tone public, the cost of such undertakings given to the character of the labouring may be accurately calculated. These peasant. The source of funds for the observations have been only directed carrying on of these objects might be to guide the thoughts of the public into either incorporated, or move parallel some defined channel, and to establish, and upon similar principles with those if possible, some certain principles suggested for the support of the help- upon which future calculations may be less poor
With these suggestions it made. may be well now to stop. They are
C. given for the consideration of those
* This is a subject upon which precedents would be highly instructive. There are at present from 500 to 1000 labourers in daily employment upon the government roads in Poblle O'Keefe. The person who is employed under Mr. Griffith to superintend this great body of labourers, stated to the writer of this note, that he had employed even a greater number upon the government roads in Tipperary for ten years, and that by the time the roads were finished, the hands were so completely absorbed in the cultivation of reclaimed land, that he thinks it would now be difficult to get a work of this kind executed in the vicinity, and that he has no doubt of the same result being produced at Pobble O'Keefe. Mr. Griffith's very interesting report upon the establishment of King William's Town, and the civilization which followed the opening of new roads into the surrounding district, ought to be read by every one who is interested in the improvement of the country.
CHAPTERS OF COLLEGE ROMANCE, BY E. S., O'BRIEN, ESQ. A.M.-CHAPTER III.
THE SIZAR-ARTHUR JOHNS.
Haud facile emergunt quorum virtutibus obstat
Res angusta domi. READER! When I commenced this lived to see the same hearts that smiled series of tales of true, and yet what and laughed, torn, and withered, and many have called strange, romance, blighted—and the bosoms in which, but I said that I would endeavour to di a little while ago, they beat with gladversify my pages like the chequered ness, laid in the cold, and dark, and scenes of life, with alternations of sad- cheerless grave ; and when I look ness and of mirth. And such was my back, all the recollection of wliat intention. I had noted in these tab. once they were are around that grave lets from which I draw my memoranda, like festoons of flowers, mocking by many incidents at which I once had their gaiety the dreariness of death. laughed, as well as many at which I might Had I written my chapters as the events have wept. But years have passed which I remember occurred, I might away since they were realities, and then have given to them a more joyous now they have mingled with the sha- tinge ; and still, when I look back to dowy and the dreamy past, and all the lives of those who were my compathat once was bright of colouring, or nions, and fancy all is dark and gloomy joyous in hue, is overcas", by the som in their history, I cannot but remember bre sadness of the dreary recollections that when that history was fact, I did of sorrow and guilt. I have walked not think so—and then I endeavoured with the young, and I have seen them to recall the scenes at which I laughed gay and thoughtless, and their merri with them, and the occasions of our ment seemed glad ; but, alas ! I have merriment—but no! even these scem
dismal now, and the mist of bygone sizar, as if that appendage rendered years hangs heavy even on that which his name an unfitting subject for rowas most cheerful to behold. Thus I mance. It proves but that he was poor, have stood at the base of the mountain, and that he was talented--and though and I have looked upon its glens and these be both damning--equally damnits crags and its ravines--and the ver- ing disqualifications for becoming the dant heath covered its sides, and the favourite of the frivolous and the gay wild deer bounded there, and seemed circles of unmeaning fashion, yet surely joyous in its native breeze-and the poverty cannot check the enthusiastic shepherd's cot was laughing in its shel. impulse of the human heart, or dry up tered nook-and the grotesque cliff the springs of human feeling, and'it is peered in some fantastic shape above with ihese, reader, that Romance has to it--and the painter might have pour. do—but we shall see. If my friend was trayed upon his canvass many forms of poor, there was nothing dishonourable life and joy. But I went a little away, in his poverty-he was not one of the and I looked back from afar upon the great ones of the earth—he was of hills, and I could see no more forms or humble, very humble origin, but this features of joy-no cottage glittering did not disgrace him ; he never was in the sunbeam-no deer bounding, full ashamed of it when living, and now of life ; all was lost in the sombre out- that his ashes are cold in that grave line of the dark mountain-all was faded where the poor man and the rich man into the indistinctness of the dim, and repose alike, I surely do not dishonor distant, and melancholy blue.
bis memory in recording it. Then, reader! if you be one of those He was gifted with rare and great who love those gay pictures that dis- endowments that singularly burst from tort the miseries of life into merriment all the difficulties that were cast around more hideous than the deepest scenes him by the humbleness of his birth. of sorrow and woe, I fear that in my Of his early days—I mean those which chapters you will find but little to gra- preceded bis entrance into the Univertify your taste. I tell you, frankly, I sity, for, alas ! he never lived to numhave nothing that is gay to set before, ber any but his early days—I knew you: I do not desire to make you but little ; nothing, indeed, but what laugh. Is there not enough in what is I learned from himself. Born of poor forced upon you every day to excite but respectable parents, he was in. your laughter? Go and laugh at the tended for a mechanical trade. For politician labouring and disquieting nearly two years he actually worked at himself in vain-go and laugh at that humble occupation which yet the dulness seated in high places, and stu- Saviour of the world did not disdain to pidity blundering successfully into the engage in. The association is recalled distinction that should belong to intel- to my mind by a remark which I often lect. There are unconscious harle- heard poor Arthur makc. He told me quins enough in that world which it has that he used to feel, when standing bebeen said long ago is but a stage.-- side his carpenter's bench, that it was Laugh, then, if you will, at all that an honor to him to be permitted to passes before you ; at the crowd bowo follow that occupation which his Reing down in unmeaning adoration deemer had followed in the days when to some knave who calls himself a pa- he was obedient to his father. He said triot ; at the great man who struggles that he often cherished the hope that for his own aggrandizement, and calls he had something within him fitted it principle-laugh ať all the follies of for far different pursuits ; " but when, mankind; but blame me not if I cannot he used to say, “my proud spirit wanjoin you, and when you have laughed dered to ambitious speculations that your fill, turn to my page-it may be, made me sometimes despise my calling that there is something in life at which I thought of who was the carpenter o even you might be induced to sigh. Nazareth, and I used to put away from
I have headed my chapter“ The Sizar." me vain thoughts." That word is an expressive one--let no That he did not, however, votary of fashion throw down, with su
repress all hopes of raising him percilious contempt, the page on which the station of a mechanic it is recorded, that Arthur Johns was a from the fact, that in the
he returned home from his day's work, his own most urgent request, an he taught himself the rudiments of rangement was entered into, by which Latin. Without help or encourage- he was to repay the money that Dr. ment from any one, he for some time Wail had given him on going to Dubprosecuted his studies with the most in- lin, by giving daily instructions to the dustrious diligence in those hours younger children at the parsonage. Dr. which, after his day's confinement, were Wail, however, insisted on such terms almost necessary for amusement. He that three months' tuition not only resaid himself. that the only motive of paid what he had advanced, but left which he was conscious, was a thirst him a few guineas to bear the expenses for information; but as my narrative of his journey to Dublin at the first ex. progresses, my reader will, perhaps, amination. agree with me, that a vague and unde At this examination he was again fined hope mingled with this feeling, eminently successful. He obtained the and urged hiin, perhaps unconsciously, classical premium, with the most flatterto exertion, of wlich an object that ing encomiums from his examiner, and he then scarcely acknowledged to him- returned again to his humble home as self was the aiin.
unassuming as ever, to prosecute his FortunatelyI used the word mecha- studies after this fresh encouragement nically-it might have been better other with renewed ardour. wise; I might rather say unfortunately It was at this period that I first behe soon met with friends who did every came acquainted with him.
I had met thing that benevolence and prudence one of Dr. Wail's sons in college, and could suggest to second his exertions, having had an opportunity of showing and direct his efforts. The clergyman him some trifling civility, I received of his parish was one to whom bis a most kind and pressing invitation to parishioners looked up as to a father, the parsonage. I availed myself of it and one who looked upon all his pa at a time when many things had inclined rishioners as his family. Dr. Wail to put me out of temper with the having accidentally become acquainted world and myself ; and when I thought, with young Johns' proficiency in Latin, and thought rightly, that I would not sent for him to the parsonage, and ex be the worse of the calm of spirit amined him as to what progress he had which with me is always a certain conmade. Being struck equally by his sequence of being an inmate of a good talents and his demeanour, he took a man's house. deep interest in the lad; he lent him From the first moment that I saw books, and directed and assisted his Arthur Johns, I felt an indescribable studies, and when he considered him and indefinable interest in him. I had fit for the University, the generous not been long at the parsonage until I man defrayed the expenses of bis en: heard his name and so much of his histrance.
tory as I have detailed. The circumAt the University be did not disap- stances under which our first meeting point the expectations which his bene- took place, were calculated to make an factor had formed. At the largest en- impression at least upon my mind. I trance which had occurred for some time had been taking an evening stroll with he bore away first place, and returned young Wail. Passing through the fields, home the pride of his parents and the we overtook a plain looking young man, wonder of the village. The most flat- decently attired in rather a worn suit tering anticipations were formed of his of black, occupied in disengaging a cow future greatness-his father and mother from the stake to which she had been thought that no one like him ever had “ tethered," or tied. Wail pointed him been heard of, and all the neighbours out to me, and told me that this was used to wonder how the carpenter's young Johns. “ Every evening,” said lad, whom they had seen working so he," he comes here to drive home his steady and so quiet, could have “beaten father's cow ; he is not spoiled by his all the gentlemen's sons in the colle college honours : he is just as humble at the learning.”
and unassuming as ever. Arthur's high spirit could not bear to We entered into conversation with be under pecuniary obligations, even to him, and even in the few minutes that the pastor, whom he revered ; and at he talked with us, I could not belp
being struck by the simplicity and left them in the end of April, and I was quaintness of his manner, and yet the accompanied to Dublin by my young, jistness and strength of his remarks. but, even then, my dear friend, who His dress, I have already said, was came to pass his second examination plain ; he wore his hair combed down at the University. over his forehead, after the manner of At this examination he was not sucthe Methodists, in which connection cessful. This is ground upon which, his father had occasionally officiated perhaps, I had better tread lightlyas a class leader or local preacher, my former statement of what was true, a circumstance from which Arthur's of that which actually occurred at one character derived much of that stern examination, has given offence, and piety of deportment which was its chief men have said that my object was to grace. The occupation in which we depreciate the University, and indulge found him, so characteristic of that hu a malignant sneer at the expense of her mility which prevented him from being fellows. I simply told what had hapraised by his distinctions above minis- pened. The fellows of college are, I tering to his parent's comparatively need hardly say, a body of men for lowly condition, spoke more to my mind whom, as a body, I entertain the deepfor his amiability of disposition than est respect : there are many men among all the praises which I had heard la- them whose characters and whose learnvished on him at the parsonage. ing would do honor to the proudest
The more I knew of him the more I station in which intellectual distinction felt that he was no common spirit, and could place a human being ; but there I looked forward with confidence to were-I know nothing of them nowthe time when he would prove this to there were men among them whom I the world. There is something deeply despised; there were men whom I have interesting in watching the progress of seen manifest a littleness of soul, and a genius, of which the world knows not. pettiness of spirit, that no chance elevaWe experience more than a sympathy tion to a place for which they were unin the struggles of the spirit, which we fit, could redeem from the most unquafeel assured, is yet one day destined to lified contempt. I know not how matters sway the minds of men-we find a per may be now, but certainly when I knew sonal interest in the progress of those college examinations, “the race was powers in which we feel, if I may so not always to the swilt, nor the battle speak, that, like the first discoverers of to the strong,” and though in general unknown land, we have acquired a pro- the adjudication of honours was boperty, because their existence is known nourably impartial, yet where all was to few but ourselves. We have a pride left to an individual, there were excepin being the first to appreciate the in- tions to the rule—and in my intercourse tellect to which the world will one day with college, I have known more than bend, and we look forward with proud one instance in which caprice deprived, anticipation to its future triuinphs, or favouritisin defrauded, industrious as if, in some sense, they were to be merit of its just reward.
Arthur bore his disappointment with My intimacy with him soon increased the equanimity that I expected. It was into friendship. He made me the de- immediately after this examination that positary of his difficulties and anxieties, I advised him to become a candidate and sought from me that advice which for the place of sizar. Few of my readmy greater age and superior knowledge ers, perhaps, are unaware that the of the world enabled me sometimes to Dublin University, with that spirit of give him with effect. But I must not liberality which so favourably distindwell too long upon all the little inci- guishes her collegiate institutions, dents which might, perhaps, be very has allocated thirty sizarships to the uninteresting to my readers, however, support of poor students, who are unmy fond affection may magnify them able to avail themselves, in any other into importance. I remained two months way, of the advantages of an academic at the parsonage, enjoying the society education. The places are filled up as of good Dr. Wail and bis amiable fa- vacancies occur, after au examination, mily, and every day improving my at which all persons are privileged to acquaintance with Arthur Johns. I present themselves, and ihe successful