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June 20.

ries could only taunt him with being “an Hispanio- CHAP. lized Papist.” His son, Cecil Calvert, succeeded to a his honors and fortunes. For him, the heir of his fa- 1632. ther's intentions, not less than of his father's fortunes, the charter of Maryland was published and confirmed ; and he obtained the high distinction of successfully performing what the colonial companies had hardly been able to achieve. At a vast expense, he planted a colony, which for several generations descended as a patrimony to his heirs.

Virginia regarded the severing of her territory with 1633. apprehension, and before any colonists had embarked under the charter of Baltimore, her commissioners had in England remonstrated against the grant as an invasion of her commercial rights, an infringement on her domains, and a discouragement to her planters. In Strafford, Lord Baltimore found a friend,- for Strafford had been the friend of the father, :—and the remonstrance was in vain ; the privy council sustained the J proprietary charter, and, advising the parties to an amicable adjustment of all disputes, commanded a free commerce and a good correspondence between the respective colonies.

Nor was it long before gentlemen of birth and quality resolved to adventure their lives and a good part of their fortunes in the enterprise of planting a colony under so favorable a charter. Lord Baltimore, who, for some unknown reason, abandoned his purpose of conducting the emigrants in person, appointed his brother to act as his lieutenant; and, on Friday, the Nov. twenty-second of November, with a small but favoring gale, Leonard Calvert, and about two hundred people,


1 Wilson, in Kennett, iii. 705.
2 The charter asserts it.
3 Chalmers, 209.

4 Hazard, i. 337. Bozman, 381 and 265. Chalmers, 231.




chap. most of them Roman Catholic gentlemen and their serm vants, in the Ark and the Dove, a ship of large burden,

and a pinnace, set sail for the northern bank of the

Potomac. Having staid by the way in Barbadoes and 1634. St. Christopher, it was not till February of the follow24. ing year, that they arrived at Point Comfort, in Vir

ginia ; where, in obedience to the express letters of King Charles, they were welcomed by Harvey with courtesy and humanity. Clayborne also appeared, but it was as a prophet of ill omen, to terrify the company

by predicting the fixed hostility of the natives. Mar. Leaving Point Comfort, Calvert sailed into the Po

tomac;l and with the pinnace ascended the stream. A cross was planted on an island, and the country claimed for Christ and for England. At about fortyseven leagues above the mouth of the river, he found the village of Piscataqua, an Indian settlement nearly opposite Mount Vernon. The chieftain of the tribe would neither bid him go nor stay; "he might use his own discretion.” It did not seem safe for the English to plant the first settlement so high up the river ; Calvert descended the stream, examining, in his barge, the creeks and estuaries nearer the Chesapeake; he entered the river which is now called St. Mary's, and which he named St. George's; and, about four leagues from its junction with the Potomac, he anchored at the Indian town of Yoacomoco. The native inhabitants, having suffered from the superior power of the Susquehannahs, who occupied the district between the bays, had already resolved to remove into places of more security in the interior; and many of them had begun to migrate before the English arrived. To Calvert, the spot seemed convenient for a plantation ; it was easy,


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i Winthrop, i. 134.




loy presents of cloth and axes, of hoes and knives, to CHAP gain the good will of the natives, and to purchase their rights to the soil which they were preparing to aban- 1634. don. They readily gave consent that the English should immediately occupy one half of their town, and, after the harvest, should become the exclusive tenants of the whole. Mutual promises of friendship and peace were made ; so that, upon the twenty-seventh Mar.

27. day of March, the Catholics took quiet possession of the little place; and religious liberty obtained a home, its only home in the wide world, at the humble village which bore the name of St. Mary's.

Three days after the landing of Calvert, the Ark and the Dove anchored in the harbor. Sir John Harvey soon arrived on a visit ; the native chiefs, also, came to welcome or to watch the emigrants, and were so well received, that they resolved to give perpetuity to their league of amity with the English. The Indian women taught the wives of the new comers to make bread of maize ; the warriors of the tribe instructed the huntsmen how rich were the forests of America in game, and joined them in the chase. And, as the season of the year invited to the pursuits of agriculture, and the English had come into possession of ground already subdued, they were able, at once, to possess cornfields and gardens, and prepare the wealth of successful husbandry. Virginia, from its surplus produce, could furnish a temporary supply of food, and all kinds of domestic cattle. No sufferings were endured ; no fears of want were excited; the foundation of the colony of Maryland was peacefully and happily laid. Within six months, it had advanced more than Virginia had done in as many years. The proprietary continued with great liberality to provide every thing that was






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CHIAP. necessary for its comfort and protection, and spared no

costs to promote its interests; expending, in the two 1634. first years, upwards of forty thousand pounds sterling.

But far more memorable was the character of the

Maryland institutions. Every other country in the 1636 world had persecuting laws; “I will not,”—such was 639. the oath for the governor of Maryland, I will not, by

myself or any other, directly or indirectly, molest any person professing to believe in Jesus Christ, for or in respect of religion.”2 Under the mild institutions and munificence of Baltimore, the dreary wilderness soon bloomed with the swarming life and activity of prosperous settlements; the Roman Catholics, who were oppressed by the laws of England, were sure to find a peaceful asylum in the quiet harbors of the Chesapeake; and there, too, Protestants were sheltered against Protestant intolerance.

Such were the beautiful auspices under which the province of Maryland started into being; its prosperity and its peace seemed assured; the interests of its people and its proprietary were united; and, for some years, its internal peace and harmony were undisturbed. Its history is the history of benevolence, gratitude, and toleration. No domestic factions disturbed its harmony. Every thing breathed peace but Clayborne. Dangers could only grow out of external causes, and were eventually the sad consequences of

the revolution in England. 1635. Twelve months had not elapsed before the colony Feb.

of Maryland was convened for legislation. Probably
all the freemen of the province were present in a
strictly popular assembly. The laws of the session

i Chalmers, 205—208. McMahon, 196—198.
2 Chalmers, 235. McMahon, 226.

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