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fish; the forests were nimble with game; the woods chap rustled with coveys of quails and wild turkeys, while a they rung with the merry notes of the singing-birds ; and hogs, swarming like vermin, ran at large in troops. It was “the best poor man's country in the world.” “If a happy peace be settled in poor England,” it had been said, “ then they in Virginia shall be as happy a people as any under heaven.” But plenty encouraged indolence. No domestic manufactures were established ; every thing was imported from England. The chief branch of industry, for the purpose of exchanges, was tobacco-planting; and the spirit of invention was enfeebled by the uniformity of pursuit.

1 ii. Mass. Hist. Coll. ix. 116. 106. Hammond's Leah and Rachel, 9, 0, 5.




CHAP. The limits of Virginia, by its second charter, ex

a tended two hundred miles north of Old Point Com1609. fort, and therefore included all the soil which subse

quently formed the state of Maryland. It was not long before the country towards the head of the Chesapeake was explored ; settlements in Accomack were extended ; and commerce was begun with the tribes

which Smith had been the first to visit. Porey, the 1621. secretary of the colony, “ made a discovery into the

great bay," as far as the River Patuxent, which he ascended; but his voyage probably reached no farther to the north. The English settlement of a hundred men, which he is represented to have found already established,' was rather a consequence of his voyage, and seems to have been on the eastern shore, perhaps within the limits of Virginia.? The hope “ of a very good trade of furs,” animated the adventurers; and if the plantations advanced but slowly, there is yet evidence, that commerce with the Indians was earnestly pursued under the sanction of the colonial government.3

An attempt was made to obtain a monopoly of this commerce 4 by William Clayborne, whose resolute and

1 Chalmers, 206.

1635. Smith's History of Virginia, 2 Purchas, iv. 1784. Smith, ii. ii. 63 and 95. 61-61.

4 Rel. of Maryland, 1635, p. 10. 3 Relation of Maryland, 4; ed.




enterprising spirit was destined to exert a powerful CHAP. and long-continued influence. His first appearance in America was as a surveyor, sent by the London com- 1621 pany to make a map of the country. At the fall of the corporation, he had been appointed by King James a 1624 member of the council ;2 and, on the accession of Charles, was continued in office, and, in repeated com- 1625. missions, was nominated secretary of state. At the 1627 same time, he received authority from the governors 699 of Virginia to discover the source of the Bay of the Chesapeake, and, indeed, any part of that province, from the thirty-fourth to the forty-first degree of latitude. It was, therefore, natural that he should become familiar with the opportunities for traffic which the country afforded; and the jurisdiction and the settlement of Virginia seemed about to extend to the forty-first parallel of latitude, which was then the boundary of New England. Upon his favorable representation, a company was formed in England for trading with the natives; and, through the agency of 1631 Sir William Alexander, the Scottish proprietary of Me

May Nova Scotia, a royal license was issued, sanctioning the commerce, and conferring on Clayborne powers of government over the companions of his voyages. Harvey enforced the commands of his sovereign, and 1632 confirmed the license by a colonial commission. The M Dutch plantations were esteemed to border upon Virginia. After long experience as a surveyor, and after years employed in discoveries, Clayborne, now acting under the royal license, formed establishments, not only on Kent Island, in the heart of Maryland, but


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1 Hening, i. 116.
2 Hazard, i. 189.
3 Ibid. 234 and 239

4 Papers in Chalmers, 227,
5 Chalmers, 227, 228.
6 Ibid. 228, 229.





CHAP. also near the mouth of the Susquehannah. Thus the

colony of Virginia anticipated the extension of its commerce and its limits; and, as mistress of all the vast and commodious waters of the Chesapeake, and of the soil on both sides of the Potomac, indulged the hope of obtaining the most brilliant commercial success, and rising into powerful opulence, without the competition of a rival.

It was the peculiar fortune of the United States, that they were severally colonized by men, in origin, religious faith, and purposes, as various as the climes which are included within their limits. Before Virginia could complete its settlements, and confirm its claims to jurisdiction over the country north of the Potomac, a new government was erected, on a foundation as extraordinary as its results were benevolent. Sir George Calvert had early become interested in co

lonial establishments in America. A native of York1580. shire,” educated at Oxford, with a mind enlarged by

extensive travel, on his entrance into life befriended

by Sir Robert Cecil, advanced to the honors of knight1619. hood, and at length employed as one of the two secre

taries of state," he not only secured the consideration

of his patron and his sovereign, but the good opinion 1621. of the world. He was chosen by an immense major

ity to represent in parliament his native county of Yorkshire. His capacity for business, his industry, and his fidelity, are acknowledged by all historians. In an age when religious controversy still continued

1 Hazard, i. 430. Relation of 4 Stow, edition of 1631, p. Maryland, 34. Thurloe, v. 486. 1031. Hazard, i. 630. Maryland Papers, 5 Winwood, ii. 58, and iii. 318 in Chalmers, 233.

and 337. 2 Fuller's Worthies, 201.

6 Debates of 1620 and 1021, i. 3 Wood's Athena Oxonienses, 175. 512, 523.






to be active, and when the increasing divisions among chap. Protestants were spreading a general alarm, his mind a sought relief from controversy in the bosom of the Roman Catholic church; and, preferring the avowal of his opinions to the emoluments of office, he resigned 1624 his place, and openly professed his conversion. King James was never bitter against the Catholics, who respected his pretensions as a monarch ; Calvert retained his place in the privy council, and was advanced to the dignity of an Irish peerage. He had, from early life, shared in the general enthusiasm of England in favor of American plantations; he had been a member of the great company for Virginia; and, while secretary of state, he had obtained a special patent for the southern promontory of Newfoundland. How zealous he was in selecting suitable emigrants; how earnest to promote habits of domestic order and economical industry; how lavishly he expended his estate in advancing the interests of his settlement on the rugged shores of Avalon,'—is related by those who have written of his life. He desired, as a founder of a colony, not present profit, but a reasonable expectation; and, perceiving the evils of a common stock, he cherished enterprise by leaving each one to enjoy the results of his own industry. But numerous difficulties prevented success in Newfoundland : parliament had ever asserted the freedom of the fisheries, which his grants tended to impair; the soil and the climate proved less favorable than had been described in the glowing and deceptive pictures of his early agents; and the incessant danger of attacks from the French,

i Whitbourne's Newfoundland, Athene Oxonienses, i. 522, 523 ; in the Cambridge library. Also Lloyd's State Worthies, in Biog. Purchas, iv. 1882–1891; Collier Brit. article Calvert; Chalmers, 201 on Calvert; Fuller's Worthics of 2 Chalmers, 84. 100. 114, 115 Yorkshire, 201, 202; Wood's 116. 130.

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