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ally extended to the whole gulf, and to the river. Sail- CHAP. ing to the north of Anticosti, they ascended the stream a in September, as far as a pleasant harbor in the isle, 1535 since called Orleans. The natives, Indians of Algonquin descent, received them with unsuspecting hospitality Leaving his ships safely moored, Cartier, in a boat, sailed up the majestic stream to the chief Indian settlement on the island of Hochelaga. The language of its inhabitants proves them to have been of the Huron family of tribes. The town lay at the foot of a hill, which he climbed. As he reached the summit, he was moved to admiration by the prospect before him of woods, and waters, and mountains. Imagination presented it as the future emporium of inland commerce, and the metropolis of a prosperous province ; filled with bright anticipations, he called the hill Mont-Real, and time, that has transferred the name to the island, is realizing his visions. Cartier also gathered of the Indians some indistinct account of the countries now contained in the north of Vermont and New York. Rejoining his ships, the winter, rendered frightful by the ravages of the scurvy, was passed where they were anchored. At the approach of spring, a cross was solemnly erected upon land, and on it a shield was suspended, which bore the arms of France, and an inscription, declaring Francis to be the rightful king of these new-found regions. Having thus claimed pos- 1536.

session of the territory, the Breton mariner once more . · regained St. Malo.

The description which Cartier gave of the country 1536. bordering on the St. Lawrence, furnished arguments: 1540 against attempting a colony. The intense severity of

Charlevoix, i. 12. Cass, in N. A. Rev. XXIV. 421.

2 Hakluyt, iii. 272. 3 Charlevoix, N. F. i. 20.



CHAP. the climate terrified even the inhabitants of the north

of France; and no mines of silver and gold, no veins 1540. abounding in diamonds and precious stones, had been

promised by the faithful narrative of the voyage. Three or four years, therefore, elapsed, before plans of colonization were renewed. Yet imagination did not fail to anticipate the establishment of a state upon the fertile banks of a river, which surpassed all the streams of Europe in grandeur, and flowed through a country situated between nearly the same parallels as France. Soon after a short peace had terminated the third desperate struggle between Francis I. and Charles V., attention to America was again awakened ; there were not wanting men at court, who deemed it unworthy a gallant nation to abandon the enterprise ; and a nobleman of Picardy, Francis de la Roque, lord of Roberval,

a man of considerable provincial distinction, sought and 1540. obtained a commission. It was easy to confer prov Jan. inces and plant colonies upon parchment; Roberval

could congratulate himself on being the acknowledged lord of the unknown Norimbega, and viceroy, with full regal authority, over the immense territories and islands which lie near the gulf or along the river St. Lawrence. But the ambitious nobleman could not dispense with the services of the former naval commander, who possessed the confidence of the king; and Cartier also re

ceived a commission. Its terms merit consideration. 1540. He was appointed captain-general and chief pilot of Oct. the expedition ; he was directed to take with him per

sons of every trade and art; to repair to the newlydiscovered territory; and to dwell there with the na

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i Charlevoix, N. F. i. 20, 21. original accounts in L'Escarbot and The account in Charlevoix needs to Hakluyt. be corrected by the documents and



lives. But where were the honest tradesmen and in- CHAP, dustrious mechanics to be found, who would repair to a this New World? The commission gave Cartier full au- 1540. thority to ransack the prisons; to rescue the unfortunate and the criminal; and to make up the complement of his men from their number. Thieves or homicides, the spendthrift or the fraudulent bankrupt, the debtors to justice or its victims, prisoners rightfully or wrongfully detained, excepting only those arrested for treason or counterfeiting money,—these were the people by whomi the colony was, in part, to be established.

The division of authority between Cartier and Ro- 1541 berval of itself defeated the enterprise.? Roberval was ambitious of power; and Cartier desired the exclusive honor of discovery. They neither embarked in company, nor acted in concert. Cartier sailed from St. May Malo the next spring after the date of his commission; ? he arrived at the scene of his former adventures, ascended the St. Lawrence, and, near the site of Quebec, built a fort for the security of his party; 4 but no considerable advances in geographical knowledge appear to have been made. The winter passed in sullenness and gloom. In June of the following year, he and his 1542 ships stole away and returned to France, just as Roberval arrived with a considerable reinforcement. Unsustained by Cartier, Roberval accomplished no more than a verification of previous discoveries. Remaining about

1 Hazard, i. 19_21.

year; and, further, it is undisputed, 2 Hakluyt, iii. 286–297.

that Roberval did not sail till April, 3 Holmes, in Annals, i. 70, 71, 1542; and it is expressly said in the places the departure of Cartier May account of Roberval's voyage, Hak. 23, 1540. He follows, undoubtedly, iii. 295, that “ Jaques Cartier and the date in Hak. iii. 286; which is, his company" were “sent with five however, a misprint, or an error. sayles the yeere before." Belknap For, first, the patent of Cartier was makes a similar mistake, i. 178. not issued till October, 1540; next 4 Chalmers, 82, places this event the annalist can find no occupation in 1515, without reason. for Cartier in Canada for one whole





NOW Tidlice.


CHAP. a year in America, he abandoned his immense viceroy

a alty. Estates in Picardy were better than titles in 1542. Norimbega. His subjects must have been a sad com

pany; during the winter, one was hanged for theft; several were put in irons; and “ divers persons, as well women as men,” were whipped. By these means quiet was preserved. Perhaps the expedition on its return entered the Bay of Massachusetts; the French diplomatists always remembered, that Boston was built with

in the original limits of New France. 1549. The commission of Roberval was followed by no per

manent results. It is confidently said, that, at a later date, he again embarked for his viceroyalty, accompanied by a numerous train of adventurers; and, as he

was never more heard of, he may have perished at sea. 1550 Can it be a matter of surprise, that, for the next fifty 1600. years, no further discoveries were attempted by the

government of a nation, which had become involved in the final struggle of feudalism against the central

power of the monarch, of Calvinism against the ancient 1562 religion of France ? The colony of Huguenots at the 1567. South sprung from private enterprise; a government 1572. which could devise the massacre of St. Bartholomew, Aug. 24. was neither worthy nor able to found new states.

At length, under the mild and tolerant reign of Henry IV., the star of France emerged from the clouds of blood, treachery, and civil war, which had so long eclipsed her glory. The number and importance of the fishing stages had increased ; in 1578 there were one hundred and fifty French vessels at Newfoundland, and regular voyages, for traffic with the natives, began to be successfully made. One French mariner, before 1609, had made more than furty voyages to the Ameri

can coast. The purpose of founding a French empire 1598. in America was renewed, and an ample commission



was issued to the Marquis de la Roche, a nobleman of CHAP. Brittany. Yet his enterprise entirely failed. Sweeping the prisons of France, he established their tenants on the desolate Isle of Sable; and the wretched exiles sighed for their dungeons. After some years, the few survivers received a pardon. The temporary residence in America was deemed a sufficient commutation for a long imprisonment.

The prospect of gain prompted the next enterprise. A monopoly of the fur-trade, with an ample patent, was obtained by Chauvin ; and Pontgravé, a merchant of 1600. St. Malo, shared the traffic. The voyage was repeated, 1601-2 for it was lucrative. The death of Chauvin prevented his settling a colony.

A firmer hope of success was entertained, when a 1603. company of merchants of Rouen was formed by the governor of Dieppe ; and Samuel Champlain, of Brouage, an able marine officer and a man of science, was appointed to direct the expedition. By his natural disposition, " delighting marvellously in these enterprises," Champlain became the father of the French settlements in Canada. He possessed a clear and penetrating understanding, with a spirit of cautious inquiry; untiring perseverance, with great mobility; indefatigable activity, with fearless courage. The account of his first expedition gives proof of sound judgment, accurate observation, and historical fidelity. It is full of exact details on the manners of the savage tribes, not less than the geography of the country; and Quebec was already selected as the appropriate site for a fort.

Champlain returned to France just before an exclusive 1603 patent had been issued to a Calvinist, the able, patriotic, 8. and honest De Monts. The sovereignty of Acadia and its confines, from the fortieth to the forty-sixth

vol. 1. 4

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