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tney demanded a lump of gold, or a certain passage to char. the South Sea, or, a feigned humanity added, one of the lost company, sent by Sir Walter Raleigh. The charge of the voyage was two thousand pounds; unless the ships should return full freighted with commodities, corresponding in value to the costs of the adventure, the colonists were threatened, that “ they should be left in Virginia as banished men."2 Neither had ex perience taught the company to engage suitable persons for Virginia. “When you send again,” Smith was obliged to write, “I entreat you rather send but thirty carpenters, husbandmen, gardeners, fishermen, black smiths, masons, and diggers up of trees' roots, well provided, than a thousand of such as we have.

After the departure of the ships, Smith employed 1609 his authority to enforce industry. Six hours in the day were spent in work; the rest might be given to pastime. The gentlemen had been taught the use of the axe, and had become accomplished woodcutters." He who would not work, might not eat;” and Jamestown assumed the appearance of a regular place of abode. Yet so little land had been cultivated—not more than thirty or forty acres in all—that it was still necessary for Englishmen to solicit food from the indolent Indians; and Europeans, to preserve themselves from starving, were billeted among the sons of the forest. Thus the season passed away; of two hundred in the colony, not more than seven died.

The golden anticipations of the London company had not been realized. But the cause of failure appeared in the policy, which had grasped at sudden

1 Smith, i. 192, 193.

ments for the unexperienced, in ili 2 Smith's letter, in History, i. Mass. Hist. Coll. u. 10. 200, 201; aiso, Smith's advertise- 3 Smith, i. 202, 222-229,




CHAP. emoluments ;l the enthusiasm of the English seemed

exalted by the train of misfortunes; and more vast 1609. and honorable plans? were conceived, which were to

be effected by more numerous and opulent associates Not only were the limits of the colony extended, the company was enlarged by the subscriptions of many of the nobility and gentry of England, and of the tradesmen of London; and the name of the powerful Cecil, the inveterate enemy and successful rival of Raleigh, appears at the head of chose, who were to carry into execution the vast design to which Raleigh, now a close prisoner in the tower, had first awakened the attention of his countrymen. At the request of the corporation, which was become a very powerful body, without any regard to the rights or wishes of those

who had already emigrated under the sanction of May existing laws, the constitution of Virginia was radically 23. changed

The new charter4 transferred to the company the powers which had before been reserved to the king. The supreme council in England was now to be chosen by the stockholders themselves, and, in the exercise of the powers of legislation and government, was independent of the monarch. The governor in Virginia might rule the colonists with uncontrolled authority, according to the tenor of the instructions and laws established by the council, or, in want of them, according to his own good discretion, even in cases capital and criminal, not less than civil; and, in the event of mutiny or rebellion, he might declare martial law, being himself the judge of the necessity of the measure,


1 Smith, in iii. Mass. Hist. Coll. 3 Hening, i. 81–88. iii. 10–12.

4 In Hening, Stith, and Haze 2 Hakluyt's Dedication of Vir- ard, ii. ginia richly valued, v.




and the executive officer in its administration. Thus CHAP. the lives, liberty and fortune of the colonists were placed at the arbitrary will of a governor who was to be ap- 1609. pointed by a commercial corporation. As yet not one valuable civil privilege was conceded to the emigrants."

Splendid as were the auspices of the new charter, unlimited as were the powers of the patentees, the next events in the colony were still more disastrous. Lord De La Ware, distinguished for his virtues, as well as rank, received the appointment of governor and captain-general for life; an avarice which would listen to no possibility of defeat, and which already dreamed of a flourishing empire in America, surrounded him with stately officers, suited by their titles and nominal charges to the dignity of an opulent kingdom.” The condition of the public mind favored colonization ; swarms of people desired to be transported; and the adventurers, with cheerful alacrity, contributed freewill offerings. The widely-diffused enthusiasm soon enabled the company to despatch a fleet of nine vessels, containing more than five hundred emigrants. The admiral of the fleet was Newport, who, with Sir Thomas Gates and Sir George Somers, was authorized to administer the affairs of the colony till the arrival of Lord Delaware.5

The three commissioners had embarked on board the same ship. When near the coast of Virginia, a hurricane? separated the admiral from the rest of his fleet; and his vessel was stranded on the rocks of the Ber

i Chalmers, 25.

published by the Council of Vir2 Walpole's Royal and Noble ginia, in 1610, p. 59—a leading auAuthors, enlarged by Th. Park, ïi. thority. 180—183.

5 Smith, i. 233, 234; or Purchas, 3 Smith, in iii. Mass. Hist. Coll. iv. 1729. ü. 11, and Smith, ii. 106.

6 True Declaration, 19 and 21. 4 True Declaration of Virginia, 7 Archer's letter, in Purchas, iv.,

VOL. 1.

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CHAP. mudas. A small ketch perished ; and seven ships

i only arrived in Virginia. 1609. "A new dilemma ensued. The old charter was ab

rogated; and, as there was in the settlement no one who had any authority from the new patentees, anarchy seemed at hand. The emigrants of the last arrival were dissolute gallants, packed off to escape worse destinies at home, broken tradesmen, gentlemen impoverished in spirit and fortune; rakes and libertines, men more fitted to corrupt than to found a commonwealth. It was not the will of God that the new state should be formed of these materials; that such men should be the fathers of a progeny, born on the American soil, who were one day to assert American liberty by their eloquence, and defend it by their valor. Hopeless as the determination appeared, Smith resolutely maintained his authority over the unruly herd, and devised new expeditions and new settlements, to furnish them occupation and support. At last, an accidental explosion of gunpowder disabled him, by inflicting wounds which the surgical skill of Virginia could not relieve. Delegating his authority to Percy, he embarked for England. Extreme suffering from his wounds and the ingratitude of his employers were the fruits of his services. He received, for his sacrifices and his perilous exertions, not one foot of land, not the house he himself had built, not the field his own hands had planted, nor any reward but the applause of his conscience and the world. He was the Father of Virginia, the true leader who first planted the Saxon race within the borders of the United States. His CHARACTER OF JOHN SMITH. THE STARVING TIME.

1733, 1734. Secretary Strachy's account, in Purchas, iv. 1735— 1738. True Declaration of Virginia, 21-26.

1 Smith, i. 234.

2 Ibid. i. 235. Stith, 103.
3 Smith, i. 239.

4 Smith, ii. 102. Virginia's Ver. ger, in Purchas, iv. 1815


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judgment had ever been clear in the midst of general chap despondency. He united the highest spirit of adventure with consummate powers of action. His courage 1609 and self-possession accomplished what others esteemed desperate. Fruitful in expedients, he was prompt in execution. Though he had been harassed by the persecutions of malignant envy, he never revived the memory of the faults of his enemies. He was accustomed to lead, not to send his men to danger; would suffer want rather than borrow, and starve sooner than not pay. He had nothing counterfeit in his nature; but was open, honest, and sincere. He clearly discerned, that it was the true interest of England not to seek in Virginia for gold and sudden wealth, but to enforce regular industry. “Nothing,” said he, " is to be expected thence, but by labor." 2

The colonists, no longer controlled by an acknowledged authority, were soon abandoned to improvident idleness. Their ample stock of provisions was rapidly consumed ; and further supplies were refused by the Indians, whose friendship had been due to the personal influence of Smith, and who now regarded the English with a fatal contempt. Stragglers from the town were cut off; parties, which begged food in the Indian cabins, were deliberately murdered ; and plans were laid to starve and destroy the whole company. The horrors of famine ensued; while a band of about thirty, seizing on a ship, escaped to become pirates, and to plead their desperate necessity as an excuse for their crimes. Smith, at his departure, had left more than



I Smith, i. 241. It is hardly ne- 2 Answers in Smith, ii. 106. cessary to add, that much of Smith's 3 True Declaration, 35-39. Generall Historie is a compilation Compare Stith, 116, 117; Smith, of the works of others. Compare îi. 2. Belknap, i. 303, 304.

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