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CHAP. wants of Lane to the uttermost; giving him a bark of

a seventy tons, with pinnaces and small boats, and all 1586. needed provisions for the colony. Above all, he in

duced two experienced sea-captains to remain and employ themselves in the action of discovery. Every thing was furnished to complete the surveys along the coast and the rivers, and, in the last resort, if suffering became extreme, to reconvey the emigrants to England.

At this time, an unwonted storm suddenly arose, and had nearly wrecked the fleet, which lay in a most dangerous position, and which had no security but in weighing anchor and standing away from the shore. When the tempest was over, nothing could be found of the boats and the bark, which had been set apart for the colony. The humanity of Drake was not weary; he instantly devised measures for supplying the colony with the means of continuing their discoveries; but Lane shared the despondency of his men ;

and Drake yielded to their unanimous desire of perJune mission to embark in his ships for England. Thus 19.

ended the first actual settlement of the English in America. The exiles of a year had grown familiar with the favorite amusement of the lethargic Indians; and they introduced into England the general use of tobacco.

The return of Lane was a precipitate desertion; a little delay would have furnished the colony with ample supplies. A few days after its departure, a ship arrived, laden with all stores needed by the infant settlement.

1 On the settlement, see Lane in i. 37—51; Martin, 1. 12–24 ; TytHakluyt, iii. 311-322, the original ler, 56–68; Thomson, c. i. and ii., account. The reader may compare and Appendix B.; Oldys, c. 65Camden, in Kennett, ii. 509, 510; 71; Cayley, i. 46-61; Birch, Stith, 1221; Smith, i. 86–99; 582. 584. Belknap, i. 213—216; Williamson,





It had been despatched by Raleigh ; but finding “ the chap. paradise of the world” deserted, it could only return to England. Another fortnight had hardly elapsed, 1586 when Sir Richard Grenville appeared off the coast with three well-furnished ships, and renewed the vain search for the departed colony. Unwilling that the English should lose possession of the country, he left fifteen men on the Island of Roanoke, to be the guardians of English rights.?

Raleigh was not dismayed by ill success, nor borne 1587 down by losses. The enthusiasm of the people of England was diminished by the reports of the unsuccessful company of Lane; but the decisive testimony of Hariot to the excellence of the country still rendered it easy to collect a new colony for America. The wisdom of Raleigh was particularly displayed in the policy which he now adopted. He determined to plant an agricultural state; to send emigrants with wives and families, who should at once make their homes in the New World ; and, that life and property , might be secured, he granted a charter of incorporation 7. for the settlement, and established a municipal government for “ the city of Raleigh.” John White was appointed its governor ; and to him, with eleven assistants, the administration of the colony was intrusted. A fleet of transport ships was prepared at the expense of the proprietary ; - Queen Elizabeth, the godmother of Virginia,” declined contributing - to its education.” The company, as it embarked, was cheered by the April presence of women; and an ample provision of the im- 20 plements of husbandry gave a pledge for successful industry. In July, they arrived on the coast of North

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1 Hakluyt, iii. 323. Stith, 22, and roncously. Smith, i. 99, began the Belknap, i. 217, say fifty men, er- error.




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CHAP. Carolina ; they were saved from the dangers of Cape

Ill. I am Fear; and, passing Cape Hatteras, they hastened to 1587. the Isle of Roanoke, to search for the handful of men

whom Grenville had left there as a garrison. They found the tenements deserted and overgrown with weeds ; human bones lay scattered on the field; wild deer were reposing in the untenanted houses, and were feeding on the productions which a rank vegetation still forced from the gardens. The fort was in ruins. No vestige of surviving life appeared. The miserable men whom Grenville had left, had been murdered by the Indians.

The instructions of Raleigh had designated the place for the new settlement on the Bay of the Chesapeake. It marks but little union, that Fernando, the naval officer, eager to renew a profitable traffic in the West Indies, refused his assistance in exploring the coast, and White was compelled to remain on Roanoke. The fort of Governor Lane, with sundry decent dwelling-houses,” had been built at the northern extremity of the island; it was there that the foundations of the city of Raleigh were laid. The Island of Roanoke is now almost uninhabited; commerce has selected securer harbors for its pursuits; the intrepid pilot and the hardy 6 wrecker," rendered adventurously daring by their familiarity with the dangers of the coast, and in their natures wild as the storms to which their skill bids defiance, unconscious of the associations by which they are surrounded, are the only tenants of the spot where the inquisitive stranger may yet discern the ruins of the fort, round which the cottages of the new settle

ment were erected. July But disasters thickened. A tribe of savages dis

played implacable jealousy, and murdered one of the

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