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former case, their temporal interests may in some measure bę guarded by political regulations and penal restraints ; whereas in the latter, they spurn all laws, as derogatory to the divine in. fluences by which the saints are guided.
The previous Advertisement to this new edition is dated since the late riots, which were strangely suffered to triumph for several days, over every kind of civil government in the metropolis. And Mr. H. here suggests many good remarks applicable to that extraordinary occurrence.
He begins by informing his readers, that this work appeaced in 1775, under the title of Defeats of Police, &c. It was then acknowledged, by some persons of high rank, to contain many usefal hints: perhaps they may be now more generally approved of; it being found, that to appeal to a mob, is not the way of preserving the property of subjects, the fan&ity of laws, nor the lives of individuals.
It hath been a frequent complaint, that the nature of our constitution will not admit of a police; in other words, it will not admit of fuch falutary domeitio regulations, as are calculated to preserve the lives and properties of the people, from chạt violence and rapine chey are subject to, and which sometimes aim a dagger at the vitals of liberty. This complaint is the result of indolence, and the ignorance which usually accompanies it. It descends from the civil magiftrate to the parochial clergy; and obstructs the fear of God and man.
Thus we have often reasoned ourselves into a principle which establishes the worst kind of slavery: and while riches encreased the diffipation of the higher classes, and the immoral and irreligious conduct of the lower, have threatened the diffolution of bo:h civil and religious rights.
What is the natural consequence of this situation ? The most profligate will look out for an occasion of fubverting all order, and of levelling all distinctions. We have seen the most atrocious violences committed, even under a meridian sun'; encreasing under the hadow of the night, by dreadful confiagrations. The frantic humour which played havock with places of worship; broke down all the boundaries of hospi:ality to itrangers ; destroyed the houses of many peaceful fellow-fubjects; opened prisons, and destroyed them with fire; so far rooted up the foundations of government:-while magistrates, with a timidity that stains our annals, looked on with feening indifference !-A number of the most wretched, countenanced by the most ihoughtless, have done this!
• If we 'trace the cause through all i:s windings, we shall'sind it originate in the lenity of government, or the relaxation of it. Our fpirit for commerce, and our libertinism, have operated so far, as even to reduce thievery to a system; and no inconfiderable number of perfons live by Supporting thieves, drawing a maintenance from converting the pecuniary rewards for taking them, into the chief motives of their conduct ; acting, as if it were the political interest of the community to preserve the fraternity.'
True liberty, which should afford us the peaceful enjoyment of our lives, habitations, and property, can only be fecuted by
a vigorous exertion of the laws already provided, or by supplying others, suited to circumstances as they arise. For when a crew of miscreants assemble to perpetratë the most horrid outrages-to tell us, that the nature of our conftitution will not allow of effectually suppressing them by any means in our power (or even of destroying them in the very act, like so many mad dogs), because they are free-born Englishmen, is insulting us with the most cruel mockery! Experience has now discredited the position, that the civil power is in all cases equal to the support of law. If by the civil power is meant merely a barid of constables with their official staves in their hands; if they are armed, they become a military force, as effectually as a company of soldiers became peace officers, whom an honest vigilant country justice, who ought to have been a London magistrate, is said to have very seasonably converted into that character, by swearing them all in as conftables. In short, if English liberty is to tie up our hands against English insurgents, let the emergency be what it may; and if we are to pay for defenders, whom we are not to call out to defend us on extremities of this kind, the sooner such a constitution is corrected the better.
We lhall conclude this Article with some very pertinent questions stated by Mr. H. If the objects to which they refer continue to be disregarded, the country is in more danger from vipers at home, than from any enemies abroad.
. And whence arise these calamities? We may add to the causes I have mentioned, the intemperate pursuit of pleasure, and the impiety and irreligion of the times. Much intemperance, and much irreli, gion, are found in all countries; but the people in the most civilized parts of Europe being more awed by police, do not so often commit such monstrous enormities. They are in a habit of discipline : We are as undisciplined, as if we fought the ruin of liberty. If the civil magistrate does not render himself respectable by the support of his own dignity and office, he becomes contemptible. But if there is a want of a praper number of magiftrates, in subordinate classes, can the business be done? If any of them are guilty of connivance at the fupport of houses, in different parts of these vast cities, which are the ordinary rendezvous of thieves: if the most infamous and abandoned among the children of men are rendered such, in part, by their knowing where they may live and carry on their traffick: if thieves know how they shall be treated if they are taken, and that only abous one in thirteen, who may have forfeited their lives to the laws, are really put to death : if things are so, ought we to be surprized at any thing we see ? Let us reduce the enquiry to a few simple questions ; and if we can establish the facts, we may obtain justice on ourselves.
• 1. Are there not, in several parts of these vast cities, houses which are calculated for the accommodation, protection, and escape of the most abandoned part of the community, even persons known to live by thievery?
2. Are not prosecutians against the keepers of such houses generally terminated by the impofition of fines, of such a triling nature, they by no means remove the evil?
3. Are not licences, for selling liquors, often continued to perfons of this stamp, who keep alehouses, after the discovery of the most infamous practices ; as if such houses were essential to the interest of the state?
4. Are not many persons, profeffedly emploved in detecting villany, often found acting as if their maintenance depended on the support of thievery?
5. Where men of bold and daring spirits have no visible means of support, is not a constant attention to their behaviour necessary to our safety?
• 6. If we drive a robber from his strong hold, and encrease his dif. ficulties how to conceal himself from justice, will he not the sooner learn, 'that it is his interest to act honestly? The more fternly the brow of the law frowns upon the dissolute, will they not be the more intimidated in their pursuits ?
“'7. Qught not magiftrates, and persons of property, to interest themselves in procuring employment for those who are most fubject to be enthralled in vice, and evil practices against their neighbour, that they may turn to useful industry ?'
We fincerely with this worthy gentleman long life to exercise his laudable passion as a public monitor, to point out the errors of our domestic policy. We owe him sincere thanks for all his vigilant labours, though some of his proposed regulations may be found too arduous to be carried into execution.
Art. XIII. A View of Northumberland ; with an Excurfion to the
Abbey of Mailross in Scotland. By W. Hutchinson, Anno 1776. Vol. Il. 450. 15 s. Beards. Price of the 2 Vols. il. 16 s. Boards, Newcatile, printed; London, sold by Johnson. 1778.
Very short account of the first volume, with a general
character of this work, is to be seen in our Review for Nov. 1778, p. 396. Great part of this additional volume confifts of descriptions of ancient castles and abbeys, most of them now in ruins; together with relations of their history, and of memorable occurrences connected with them. Wark Castle, Ford Caftle, Norham Castle, Twizel Castle, Lindisfarn Castle and Abbey, Castles of Bamborough, Dunftanborough, Alnwick, Warkworth, Mitford, Bothall, Widdrington, Ogle, &c. as also the abbies of Huln, Alnwick, Brinkburn, Newminfter, Tynemouth, &c. Some few of these castles are yet maintained in good order and repair, particularly that of Alnwick, the noble feat of the Duke of Northumberland,
Annexed to the account which we here find of che town of Berwick, is a paper from the manuscripts of Mr. Gale, containing Conjectures on the Rise of Burroughs, from which we E 3
may extract a few lines: ' I cannot perreive, fays the Author, that the name Burrough, or Burgh, was instituted to denote any kind of eminence in the place so called, beyond others, so as to mean a fort or castle, '&c, and that it signifies no more than house, houses, or a town, a settlement where one or more families dwelt. Burrough was the habitation, and bour was the inhabitant; hence neighbour, i. e. a nigh bour, or one that lived in a burrough not far off-We appropriate the name, he says, ' to the under-ground lodgings of animals, as to the holes of foxes, rabbits, &c. from whence I infer, that when it was first applied to human habitations, it fignified the very fame, and consequently that the inhabitants of this land, when the name was given, dwelt chiefly under-ground, and lived not in houses raised from the ground, but in holes dug in it; which sense of the word seems still to obtain as to the dead, though it has lost its native idea as to the living; for hence we may
call putting a body into a hole under ground, to bury or burrough it, a barrow or burrough being a place dug for that purpose.- Our original burroughs, in the primitive fimplicity, were but as fo many human warrens, consisting of a set of under-ground caverns,'
This Writer adds many confiderations to support his ingenious conjecture; but when he says farther, It is not unlikely that the vast and various caverns underground, such as those of the Peak, &c, may not be all the works of nature, but in great measure the effects of under-ground architecture,' here we apprehend he transgresses the bounds of probability. As they look, it is added, like the palaces of some old giants, so they might be the Windfors and Hampton Courts of those times, when under-ground lodgings were in fashion. This is quite romantic !
Mr. Hutchinson is rather long in his detail of ecclefiaftical history, particularly in his account of Holy-island, or Lindisfarn, and of the several Bishops, in their order. He dwells much on the miracles of St. Cuthbert, during his life and after his death. ' He sometimes offers a hint of their being legendary tales; but in general he recounts the idle stories as if he gave them credit, and imagined they were to be regarded with religious reverence.
Alnwick Caftie, and the family of the Percys, is a subject on which our Author descants through many pages, not entirely, perhaps, without some appearance of adulation, especially when he finishes the whole, by inserting an oration spoken at Guildhall, Westminster, by the Rev. Mr. Bennett, in the year 1776, on placing the picture of Earl Percy in the councilchamber.
Soon afier a particular description of the fine seat of Seaton Delaval, and cther places belonging to the family of that name,
we are brought to Monk's stone, the remains of an old cross, which Mr. Hutchinson conjectures, and probably with justice, is no more than an ancient boundary mark, but others think differently. The following extraordinary story concerning it.. is related by Mr. Grose, and here transcribed by our Author :: • A monk of this monastery (i. e. near Tynemouth) strolling abroad, came to the house of Mr. Delaval, an ancestor of the ancient family of that name, who was then absent on a hunting party, but was expected back to dinner. Among the many dishes preparing in the kitchen, was a pig, ordered purposely for Mr. Delaval's own eating. This alone suiting the liquorish palate of the monk, and though admonished, and informed for whom it was intended, he cut off the head, reckoned by epicures the most delicious part of the animal, and putting it into a bag, made the beft of his way towards the monastery. Delaval, at his return, being informed of the transaction, which he looked on as a personal insult, and being young and fiery, 'remounted his horse, and set out in search of the offender; when overtaking him about a mile east of Preston, he fo belaboured him with his staff, called a hunting.gad, that he was hardly able to crawl to his cell. The monk dying within a year and a day, although, as the story goes, the beating was not the cause of his death, his brethren made it a handle to charge Delaval with the murder, who, before he could get absolved, was obliged to make over to the monastery, as an expiation of this deed, the manor of Ellig, in the neighbourhood of Newcastle, with several other valuable eftates; and by way of amende henorable, to set up an obelisk on the spot where he properly corrected the monk. Mr. Grose thinks the story defective, espe. cially as it was contrary to rule for a monk to be found alone fo far distant from his monastery. He supposes the person might be a lay-brother, or servant of the house. However, he adds, it fhews how dangerous it was to injure the meanest retainer to a religious house ; a peril very ludierously, though justly exprefled, in the old English adage which I have fomewhere met with : “ If perchaunce one offende a Freere's dog, freight clameth the whole brotherhood, an herefy, en beresy.!" ;
Mr. Hutchinson, in his amusing description of the ruins of the abbey and priory at, or near, Tynemouth, adds some passages from P. Monier's History of Painting, touching the original. y le of paintiogs and sculptures in the Christian churches, which, as far as we can judge, express his own sentiments on the subject. In one of these paflages it is said, Images in the Christian religion began from the time of Jesus Christ: the first that was made was by a lady, whereof there is made mention in St. Luke, chap. viii, ver. 40.' , After which follows an account of a brazen image which this fame lady.crected in the city of Ce