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from that of the universe, in various parts, and that this which every thing operates by CAUSE is BLIND.. its primitive and continual intervention.

2. That the end, or final cause, of That this UNIVERSE has no the UNIVERSE, is the happiness end or purpose: and that the of SENSIBLE BEINGS, sensible beings, which reside

in it, are the effect of the


3. That the universe is preserved That the universe is preserved and makes a perpetual progress in consequence of its WHOLE ; towards perfection, in order to that the concatenation of efanswer the purpose of the first fects in it is unknown; that intelligent cause with respect to it may fall in pieces in a mosensible beings.

ment, and destroy all the sen

fible beings which inhabit it. 4.


That sensible and intelligent distinct from the phyfical or beings are a phenomenon, MATERIAL UNIVERSE, though merely physical and material, it exhibits the effects of their operations. 5.

5. That, in this universe, IN That all things are physical TELLIGENT BEINGS, and MAV or material; and that MAN, who in particular, are the principal is merely a material or physical end of all the operations of the phenomenon, was produced FIRST CAUSE.



intention or end. 6. That Men (active in their That MEN have with each nature, and ardent inthe pursuit other no connection but that of happiness every where) have which takes place between been so formed and constituted the different parts of matter by the first cause, that by loving that all is physical concatenaeach other, they contribute to tion with them, and that they their mutual felicity.

learn to contribute somewhat to each other's happiness, only to avoid the sufferings to which they would be otherwise exposed.


* By the term fenfible beings, is here meant beings Sufceprible of kappiness and misery.



7. That men ought to obey the That men are under no law, laws, which have been clearly but that which results from and explicitly given to them by their nature - that each indithe first cause, that each indi- vidual feels this law, and convidual may not do, what his sequently ought to do and does, fancy looks upon as good in in effect, if he is not a dupe, general, and principally lo for whatever he thinks to be good him; and that explicit laws in general, but principally what tend to produce the greatest he esteems good for himself. degree of happiness among men. 8.

8. That the sanctions of these That men have nothing to Jaws are fingularly adapted to hope, , nor any thing to fear, keep each individual within the beyond the present scene, and bounds that the well-being of that therefore they do well to humanity requires, as he is re accumulate (what the vulgar ftrained and influenced by those and the civil laws call) crimes, affections of love, fear and hope, if they can thus enjoy in peace which are excited in his heart and safety the pleasures that by the idea of a wise and good are sometimes connected with legislator, from whose inspec- them. tion nothing is concealed.

9. That if Men are exposed to That men suffer by a necesfome evils, without any fault sary consequence of the WHOLĘ on their part, this instance of or aggregate of the universe, and their suffering is designed to

theretore without any hope of a promote a much greater gene. future indemnification or reral good; and they will be compence; nay, even without personally and amply indemni- any assurance that their sufferfied for this suffering, in future ings tend to the advancement scenes of their existence : of the general good ; ---that, of which confideration, even at consequence, they have no represent, diminishes their evils source left, but to learn to subby the sweet sentiments of hope mit to their lot, as to a law of in the goodness, and of resigna- fatal neceflity. tion to the will, of the FIRST CAUSE. FINAL CONSEQUENCE.

Final CONSEQUENCE. Those, who are persuaded of They, who have unhappily the preceding truths, after hav- imbibed the preceding errors, ing enjoyed the comforts of having lived without any certheir present existence, as far tainty of obtaining the advanas the imperfection of this state tages they desired, or any hope will permit, meet death without of compensation for the ills regretting the enjoyments they they suffer, meet death with a leave



leave behind them, because sorrowful sentiment of the loss they have the certain hopes of of their existence. And if an infinitely superior enjoyinents act of reflection, in this moand advantages in a

future ment of dejection, should sugscene. Thus they finish their gest to them an apprehension preparatory course with of their philosophy's being an much tranquillity as they have illusion, it is poffible that this passed through it.

late discovery may be no longer a source of consolation for them. They finish therefore their preparatory course with as much anxiety, as they shewed little about true happiness, while they

were going on towards its term. Oh! man (concludes our Author), this is thy greatest concern

examine . chufe . . canst thou hefitate?

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ART II. Nouveaux Memoirs de l'Academie des sciences et Belles-Lettres de Berlin,

année 1777,--410, printed at Berlin.

HERE are several articles of consequence in the historical

part of this volume. The confiderations of Baron Seidlitz, minister of state to the King of Prussia, on the public schools, and the possibility of rendering scholastic instruction more analogous to the duties and occupations of civil life, are sensible and judicious. The observations made by the late M. Lambert at Berlin, and by M. Pucelle, King's counsellor at Mont-Didier, of a remarkable kind of aurora borealis, feeni almost throughout Europe, February 26, 1777, are here combined by the secretary of the academy: But the most important article of this first part, is a Latin letter of Professor WALTER, one of the greatest anatomists that any age or country has produced, to the celebrated Dr. HUNTER, physician to the queen, F. R. S. and professor of anatomy at London. The subject of this anatomical epistle is, the veins of the eye in general, and particularly the deep veins of that organ, thofe of the retina, of the ciliary ligament, of the capsule of the lens, of the vitreous humour, and an account of the central artery of the retina. No anatomist, before M. WALTER, had formed a just idea of this last artery: M. Walter attributes the cause of their imperfect success to their having filled, with their injections, the arteries and the veins at the same time, and to the great facility with which the injected liquid pafies from the arteries into the veins. He followed a different, but also a most difficult and expensive method, which was that of injecting the

veins alone, in order to discover, with more accuracy, their direction and termination ; and the discoveries he made by following this method render his letter to the British anatomist fingularly interesting

This letter is followed by a Memoir concerning the aëriform substance, which issues, by emanation, from the human body, as also concerning the manner of gathering it. By the Count De Milly, colonel of dragoons, and member of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris. After having shewn the very easy process by which this substance may be gathered, this ingenious man of war enumerates the experiments which he made, in order to alcertain the reality of these emanations. His experiments satisfactorily prove, that the animal air, which issued from his body in a bath (whose temperature was 27 degrees and a half of Reaumur's thermometer, and that of the atmosphere 17) was different from the air of the atmosphere, and has properties that give it a striking resemblance to what we call fixed air. These experiments are followed by others which Count de Milly made, to ascertain the affinities or relation of the animal air which issues from the pores, to that which is emitted by respiration. This determination of the respective natures and properties of animal gas and pulmonic air will undoubtedly tend to the explication of a multitude of phenomena, concerning which there has been a diversity of opinions. From these experiments we learn, among other things, that air emitted by respiration is a mixture of fixed air diffused through a large quantity of common air, by which the former is carried off, and the pernicious effects of its accumulation are prevented. This explains the principles of suffocation, and the danger of close and crowded apartments, in which the introduction of common air being obstructed, the emanations of fixed air gain the ascendant.

The four last articles of this historical part, are SEGNER's demonstration of the general binomial theorem of Newton.A lift of the MSS. or printed works, presented to the academy in the year 1777-and the eulogies of Baron d'Esschen and the celebrated chemist Port, both late members of the academy, both eminent for their successful application to the study of nature, and the former distinguished by his capacity and talents as minister of state to the Landgrave of Hesse-Caflel during the war of 1756.

Experimental PHILOSOPHY,
I. Memoir. Concerning the Indian chefnut tree.

By M. de FRANCHEVILLE. This tree is called Hyppocastanum by the Botanists, from the property it has of curing pursiveness in horses : its fruit is tter, and the intention of this'memoir is to point out a method, hitherto unknown, of removing this bitterness, and making the trce produce as good chesnuts as those of Lyons.



The means he proposes are transplantion, and engrafting: and he circumstantially describes the manner of proceeding.

II. Memoir. Concerning the Principles of the Tourmaline. By M. GERHARD. In this excellent memoir we have, first, a series of curious observations on the Natural History of the Tourmaline, of which three distinct species are particularly described. These observations are followed by a chemical examination of this stone, in which the academician has employed the green and transparent tourmalines of Brasil. From a laborious detail of experiments, made in this examination, it appears, that the conftituent principles of the Tourmaline are, earth of allum, earth of Aint,-a small portion of calcareous earth, and a fat or oily substance. M. GERHARD proceeds afterwards to enquire into the class of stones to which the Tourmaline belongs, and he thinks it comes nearest to the basaltes, both with respect to its figure, and the principles of which it is composed; the latter being of the fame nature, and in the same proportions, with those of the Basaltes. Nevertheless, as the analogy between the principles of which precious stones, the basaltes, the tourmaline, and the zeolite, are composed, is so great, our academician thinks, that the Mineralogists will be obliged to arrange these stones in a new order, under the general title of sones fusible, by way of emi

Under this new order four kinds may be comprehended -the precious stone the tourmaline-the basaltes or schorland the zeolite. The two first are distinguished by their electrical virtues, with this difference, however, that the attractive power of the precious stone must be excited by friction, whereas the tourmaline, in order to become electrical, must be placed on hot alhes, and possesses moreover a repellent virtue. The basaltes is a fusible, but not electrical, stone, and the zeolite is fusible, sometimes electrical, and emits a confiderable portion of froth when it is in the period of fusion. Though want of space obliges us to terminate here our account of this curious and elaborate memoir, we cannot conclude it without observing, that there are two phenomena, which furnish several judicious reflections to our academician ; the first is, that the lava contains the same principles that compose the tourmaline and the basaltes, and the second (which is still more fingular and remarkable) is, that the principles of fusible stones, that have been feparated, and have afterwards been mixed again in the fame proportions in which they had been found, do not submit to fuo fion, as the stones themselves do.

III. Memoir. Experiments, relative to the celerity, with which bodies of different forms or shapes are charged with the electrical fluid, and to the proportion that there is between the quantity they abforb, and the distance they are at from an electrified body. By M. ACHARD,

IV. Memoir.

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