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* The state of the experiment is as follows:
Time of Seed per Produce per Weight per Total produce
Acre. in weight per
Bushels Buthelz Pounds Pounds
52 1898 Siberian Barley, 3 32
58 1856 Excess of measure in favour of the common barley, 4 bushels. Excess of weight in favour of the common barley, 42 pounds. * A few particularities attending the growth of Siberian barley:
'1. During the three fistt weeks after the corn came up, the Sibesian was of a much deeper green, and had a much broader blade than the common barley; afier chat cime the difference gradually diminithred.
« 2. The Siberian was in all its stages a fortnight forwarder than the common barley. It was mowed and housed accordingly.
•3. The ears of the Siberian were much forter than those of the common barley; being only from five to nine grains in length; whereas the ears of the common barley were from nine to thirteen grains in length.
* From the first particular I had raised my expectations high in re: gard to the Siberian barley, and was consequently much disappointed at the appearance of the third. I then thought that the produce would be greatly deficient; but the size of the grains in a good mea: fure prevented it.
• The conclufion which I am tempted to draw from these two circumstances is this, that the Siberian requires richer land than the common barley. In my land, there appeared to be sufficient Itrength to produce all that luxuriance of growth which seems natural to the plant while in the grass, but nos fufficient to support it in forming the
I am the more inclined to think this, having seen ears of Sibesian barley of feventeen grains in length, which is the greatest length I remember to have observed in the common barley,
• It may be remarked, that this circumitance does not seem to recommend it particularly to the county of Norfolk. On the contrary, the fecond particular greatly recommends it to that county; for it seems evident from thence, that the Siberian barley may be, and perhaps ought to be, sown a fortnight later than the common barley.
A very large portion of our barley is constantly much damaged, both as to produce in measure and weight, by being fown too late, in consequence of the neceflity we are under of preserving some of our turnips as long as possible.
* I am sufficiently aware that this experiment is not decisive; and that a single experiment, however decisive it may seem, is not properly conciosive; but I hope you will soon receive many others, and this may then contribute its mite towards forming an average, from which a just conclusion may be drawn.
I am, Genelemen, Bracon, near Norwich,
Your obedient humble servant, Feb. il, 1775.
E. HOW MAN. P.S. As it has been demonstrated before the House of Commons, that the weight of the flour of heavy wheat exceeds the weight of the
four of light wheat more than the difference between the respective: weights of the grain ; it may be safely concluded, that che same thing holds true with respect to heavy and light barley of the same kind : and with respect to the Siberian barley, it may certainly be concluded, that the weight of its four exceeds the weight of the four of common barley in a still more eminent degree; because a part of the weight of the common barley arises from a hulk, whereas the husk of the Siberian barley is left upon the ear when threshed. So that in this experiment, as the weight of the grain of the Siberian so far exceeded the weight of the grain of the common barley, as almost to compensate for the great deficiency of measure per acre, the weight of the four of the Siberian barley per acre would probably have been found equal to, if it had not exceeded, the weight of the flour of the common barley.
• As a bread-corn indeed in this county, barley seems to be out of the question; but the nourishment must be in proportion to the weight of the flour, however, used.
Two things, however, want to be ascertained by well-authenticated experiments, viz. the quality of the Siberian barley in malting; and the quality of the beer made of that male.'
Mr. Howman is certainly right in his conjecture, that Siberian barley requires richer land than the common barley. . This grain which promises to be a valuable article of culture has rarely had a fair trial ; Farmers concluding, as it takes its name from an inhospitable clime, that it will of course submit to inhospitable treatment; consequently it has been generally fown in the poorest and coldest land. Were it rightly cultivated there can be little doubt but it might become a very advantageous article of English husbandry, especially in those parts of the island where barley, which mixed with equal parts of wheat is both wholesome and palatable, is made use of for bread.
From fome attempts which we have known made to malt Siberian barley, we fear the operation (at least as it is usually conducted) will be attended with some difficulty. From the tenderness of its husk or bran it is very apt to burst before it can be sufficiently saturated with water to make it germinate.
Mr. Price of Salisbury has here thrown out some ingenious hints on the Rot in sheep; a subject which seems, notwithstanding its importance, to be very impefectly understood. Even Mr. Price, although he has given considerable attention to it, has adopted some opinions relative to this matter, which, we have reason to believe, are not generally true.
• The cause of the Rot in sheep, says Mr. Boswell, in his late use. ful and ingenious publication, * is unknown.-Mr. Arihur Young, in recapitulating all the information he could get, in his Eastern Tour, observes, that “ the accounts are so amazingly contradictory, that nothing can be gathered from them;” but concludes, that “r
every one knows that moisture is the cause.”
* On Watering Meadows. For an account of this performance, fee Review, vol. Ixii. p. 456.
In differing from an Author of Mr. Young's acknowledged merit, supported by the general opinion of mankind, I am led to examine my own sentiments with caution and distrust;-but, unless it is only meant, that moisture is generally the remote cause, it will be dificult to account for the Rot being taken on fallows in a single day, and in water meadows sometimes in half an hour, when in grounds of a different fort, although exceflively wet and flabby, theep will remain for many weeks together uninjured.
Another opinion, and which has many adherents, is, that the Rot is owing to the quick growth of grafs or herbs that grow in wet places.
• Without premifing, that all-bounteous Providence has given to every animal its peculiar talte, by which it distinguishes the food proper for its preservation and support (if not vitiated by fortuitous cir. cumstances), it seems very difficult to discover on philosophical prin. ciples, why the quick growth of grass should render it noxious,-or why any herb should at one season produce fatal effects, by the admisfion of pure water only into its component parts, which at other times is perfectly innocent, although brought to its utmost strength and maturity by the genial influence of the fun. So far from agreeing with those who attribute the Rot to quick.growing grass, which they call flashy, insipid, and destitute of falts, to me the quickness of growth is a proof of its being endued with the most active principles of vegeta. tion, and is one of the criterions of its superior excellence.-Belides, the constant practice of most farmers in the kingdom, who, with the greatest security, feed their meadows in the spring, when the grass hoots quick and is full of juices, militates directly against this opinion.
Let us now consider whether another cause may not be assigned, more reconcileable with the various accounts we receive of this disorder. If our arguments, however fpecious, are contradi&tory to known facts, instead of conducting us in the plain paths of truth, they leave us in the mazes of error and uncertainty.
• Each species of vegetables and animals has its peculiar soil, ficu. ation, and food, assigned to it. Taught by unerring in fine “ the sparrow findesh her a house, the swallow a nest, and the stork in the heavens knoweth her appointed time.” The whole feathered tribe, indeed, display a wonderful fagacity and variety in the choice and ftructure of their habitations. Nor can it be doubted that the minuteft reptile has its fixed laws, appointed by him whose “ tender mercies are over all his works."
· The numerous inhabitants of the air, earth, and waters, are strongly influenced by the feasons, and by the state of the atmosphere; and the same causes, perhaps, that rapidly call in yriads of one species into being, may frequently prove the destruction of another. Is it then improbable that some insect finds its food, and lays its eggs, on the tender fucculent grass found on particular foils (especially wet ones) which it most delights in ?-Or, that this infect hould, after a redundancy of moisture by an inftin&tive impulse, quit its dank and dreary habitation, and its fecundity be greatly increased by such fea. fons, in conjunction with the prolific warmth of the fun?
• The Aesh-fiy lay her eggs upon her food, which also serves to support her future offspring; and the common earth-worm propagates iis species above ground, when the weather is mild and moist, or the earth dewy.
The eggs, deposited on the tender germ, are conveyed with the food into the stomach and intestines of the animals, whence they are received into the lacteal vessels, carried off in the chyle, and pass into the blood; nor do they meet with any obstruction until they arrive at the capillary vessels of the liver.--Here, as the blood filtrates through the extreme branches, answering to those of the Vena Porta in the human body, the secerning vessels are too minute to admit the impregnated cva, which, adhering to the membrane, produce those animal. culæ that feed upon the liver, and destroy the sheep. They much refemble the flat-fith called plaice, are sometimes as large as a filver twopence, and are found both in the liver, and in the pipe (answering to that of the vena cava) which conveys the blood from the liver to the heart.
• If the form of this animal is unlike any thing we meet with among the insect tribe, we Mould consider that it may be fo small in its natural state as to escape our observation. -Or might not its form have changed with its fituation ?" The caterpillar undergoes several changes before it produces a batterfly.”
• The various accounts which every diligent enquirer must have met with (as well as the indefatigable Mr. Young) seem very confittent with the theory of this disorder,
If dry, limed land, in Derbyshire will rot in common with watermeadows and ftagnant marshes;-jf fame springy lands rot when others are perfectly safe ; is it owing to the circumstance of water, or that of producing the proper food or nidus of the infect? Thofe who find their after-grafs rot till the autumnal watering, and safe after. wards, might probably be of opinion, that the embryo laid there in the summer is then washed away or destroyed.
• With regard to those lands that are accounted never safe, if there is not something peculiar in the soil or fituation which allures or forces the insect to quit its abode at unusual seasons, it may be well worth enquiring, whether, from the coarseness of their nature, or for 'want of being sufficiently fed, there is not some grass in these lands always left of a fufficient length to secure the eggs of the insect above the reach of the water.
• Such who assert that flowing water alone is the cause of the Rot, can have but little acquaintance with the Somersetshire clays, and are diametrically opposite to those who find their wortt land for routing cured by watering. Ye:, may not the water which produces this effect, be impregnated with particles destructive to the infect, or to the tender germ which serves for its food or nidus?
• For solving another difficulty, that “no ewe ever rots while the has a lamb by her side,” the gentlemen of the faculty can belt inform us, whether it is not probable, that the impregnated ovum passes inca the milk, and never arrives at the liver. The same learned gentlemen may think the following question also not unworthy their consideration;
Why • Why is the Rot fatal to theep, bares, and rabbits (and sometimes to calves', when cattle of greater bulk, which probably take the same food, escape uninjured *?
• Is the digestive matter in the stomach of these different from that of the others, and such as will turn the ova into a state of corruption ; or rather, are not the secretory ducts in the liver large enough to let them pass through, and be carried on in the usual current of the blood ?
• It seems to be an acknowledged fact, that falt marshes never rot. Salt is pernicious to moit insects. They never infest gardens where sea-weed is laid t. Common salt and water is a powerful expellent of worms bred in the human body.
• I couid with the intelligent farmer would consider these truths with attention, and not neglect a remedy which is cheap and always at hand.
• Lisle, in his book of husbandry, informs us of a Farmer who cured his whole flock of the Rot, by giving each theep a handful of Spanish salt, for five or fix mornings fuccefiively. The hint was probably taken from the Spaniards, who frequently give their sheep salt to keep them healihy.
• On some farms, perhaps, the utmost caution cannot always prevent the disorder. In wet and warm seasons, the prudent Farmer will remove his sheep from the lands liable to Rot. Those who have it not in their power to do chis, I would advise to give each a spoonful of common lalt, with the fame quantity of flour, in a quarter of a pint of water, once or twice a week. When the Rot is recently taken, the same remedy given four or five mornings fucceflively, will in all probability effect a cure. The addision of the four and water will, in the opinion of the writer of this, not only abate che pungency of the falt, but dispole it to mix with the chyle in a more friendly and efficacious manner.'
Mr. Price considers it as an indubitable fact, that the insects which are fometimes found in the livers, &c. of sheep, and which he properly describes as resembling the flat-fish called plaice, are the cause of the Rot. He seems not to be aware, that these insects are found, at particular seasons, and in a greater or less degree, in the livers of almost all theep whatever. It is not improbable that, like worms in the human body, they may oftentimes encrease to fuch a degree, as to lay the foundation of disorde: s as fatai to sheep as the malady here fpoken of. But the Rot itself seems to proceed from some different cause, or from some cause to which this is only secondary. The liver of a rotten theep, at least during the earlier stages of the disorder,
Perhaps not always. We once knew an initance of a three years old filly dying with every fympom of the Rot, by being pastured, as i: was supposed, for a few days in a meadow that had been lately overflowed.
† And yet fea weeds, feeped a few days in the pureit spring-water, abound with animalcula of various species.