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are many politicians among our public-spirited countrymen, who are no students, it is for their use, as we apprehend, for there is no kind of introduction prefixed, that this detached portion of the Spirit of Laws is translated and published. Art. 15. An Address from the Committee of Association of the
County of York, to the Electors of Great Britain. To which are prefixed, the Resolutions of that Committee, at their Meetings held on the 3d and 4th of January 1781. 4to. 6d. Almon, &c.
In this serious, nervous, well-written Address, after a free, proper, and manly exposition of their views of political reformation, and their motives of pubic conduct, the Yorkshire Committee express their hope, that the other counties, cities, and boroughs, who concur in the same sentiments, will co-operate with the intended general Deputation, by appointing Deputies, with power to support, in that afli mbly [Parliament] such propositions of reform as they may respectively approve.'-! he great leading proposition here rea commended, is an Application for obtaining at least 100 additional County Members,—and fos shortening the duration of Parliaments to a term not exceeding three years.' Art. 16. A Philippic on the Opposition ; addressed to the Electors
of Great Britain. By a Freeholder of Middlesex. 8vo. Taylor in Holborne. 1781.
Confiits, chiefly, of the common, specious, declamation against the leaders of our Political Opposition ; but the Author, though not equal to a Lind *, or a Macpherson, is not one of the meanest of the present set of Minisierial Writers. Art. 17. Speech of the Earl of Buchan, 'intended to have been
delivered at the Meeting of the Peers of Scotland, for the General Election of their Representatives, October 17, 1780. In which his Lordship proposes a Plan for the better Regulation of the Peerage of Scotland. To which are added, fome Papers in Illustration of the Subject. 4to. 2 s. 6 d. Edinburgh printed. Sold by Almon in London. 1780.
The circular letter of the Earl of Buchan to the peers of Scotland, previous to the latt general election, was printed in all the public news-papers; and is here reprinted in the Dedication of this Speech to his Lord ip's brother, Counsellor Erskine. In this letter his Lordship endeavoured to inspire his brother peers with his own fenti. ments concerning the degradation of the Scottish peerage ; which being admitted into the British House of Peers only by elective representation, that representation was guided by circular representa, tions from the Secretary of State. The idea he then threw out in consequence of this' disagreeable and indecent situation in which the peers electors in Scotland are at present,' was, that an address should be presented by them to the legislative body of the three Edates in Parliament, that the fixteen representatives might hereafter be chosen by rotation.
Adminiftration hath lately sustained a great loss by the death of this very able advocate.
It is not unfrequent, that those political regulations which appear the most wife, fair, and equitable, on paper, prove the most oppofite to these specious appearances when reduced to practice; and Lord Buchan feemed aware of the objection, that by this means improper persons might be introduced into the House of Lords. Whether his reply to this anticipated objection, that the peers of Scotland are at least
upon a footing of equalily with the hereditary peers of England, as to birih and education, the two external advantages which inspire noble and liberal sentiments,' will be deemed in this inftance full and conclusive, mull be left to the confideration of that great assembly, if the question should come before them.
In this intended fpeech, his Lordship pursues the same ideas, and gives an historical view of the peerage of Scotland, from which he deduces, that'at the union of the kingdoms, in the year 1707, the number of the Scorch peers on the rolls of Parliament, amounted to 153. That number, from the circumstances above mentioned *, has diminished to 88; and upon an average, fince the Union, every two years have seen the loss of a peerage by the failure of heirs. If to this expe&ation we add the coalition of peerages by marriage, by succession of collaterals, having other peerages, the possibility of new attaioders, and the probability of many of them being united to British peerages; the number of the Scotch peerage, not having seats in the British Parliament, must, in little more than half a century, fall con Giderably short of double the number of the 16 representatives.'
To this speech are subjoined, lists of the peers of Scotland at diffe. rent periods of time, from the year 1597 ; with extracts from the orders of the British and Irish Houses of Lords, prescribing the rules for ascertaining the descepts of peers. Art. 18. The Old Funds sufficient for a New Loan: or, a Pro
posal for raising the Supplies of the current Year by lowering the Legal Interest of Money, and taxing the Funds. 8vo. White. 1781.
After tracing the gradual reduction of intereft, from ten to five per cent. and insisting on the burdens laid upon landholders, from which money-holders are exempt"; the Author thus proposes his plan of striking an average between them : 'In the present emergency, when large supplies must be saised, and most other resources are exhausted, and the land is burdened beyond an equal proportion; can it be improper to try what may be effected by a reduction of the national interest ? By way of experiment, let us suppose it reduced to four per cent. what will be the consequences ? Why, the possessors of money lent upon mortgages or bonds, who now generally receive five per cent. or near it, for intereft, will have their income diminished a fifth or fixib part; and the value of land will increase in the same proportion, but still fall a fifteenth or twentieth below its value in peace, on account of the extraordinary taxes and cesses already mentioned. On the other hand, the stocks will rise a fourth part, so that
* ' After 73 years have elapsed since the Union, the failure of 38 peerages through want of heirs, and the loss of 25 by attainders.' Alterations of succession not upon record, and the originals lost or defroyed.
the Three per cents consolidated, which are now fold at fixty or near it, will fetch feventy-five ; because, if 4!. be the interest of 100l. 31. will be the interest of 751.--In all saleable commodities, whether land, moveables, or money, whatever inequalities arise, an average in the multiplicity of transfers foon settles among them all; and while rents are so generally advancing every where, complaints of the depreciation of land, under all its burdens, appear to be ill founded. The quantity of money in circulation will, as in all other articles, regulate its price; so that when it will bear no more than four per cent. no arguments for or against the measure will either accelerate or retard it.
The Writer proceeds--' But this is an advance of capital, which the stockholders are by no means intitled to, and for which they ought therefore to make a proper compensation to the Public. Let this be done by a tax of three ihillings in the pound upon all the interest of fock. For though a tax of four shillings in the pound would be requisite to balance exacıly the fall of national interest, and the confequent rise of stock ; yet I propose to take only three shillings, as the capital of a stockholder is not fixed and permanent like that of a mortgagee; and may happen for a time to link below the level proportional to the new imposition. If any think this an unfair advantage given to stockholders, yet no ill can ensue from making the experiment for one year at this fum, and afterwards advancing to four thillings, if the focks shall appear able to pay it upon the principle of equality.'
It is upon the produce of this tax, with the advantages of money being reduced to four per cent. that the Author proposes to raise the current supplies for the year. But to make the increased price of ftock, under a reduction of legal interest, a plea for taxing the funds, is a palpable act of injuftice. The present set of stockholders, when intereit should be reduced, might certainly gain by an advance on the stock in hand, and with them the advantage would ceale ; for the first sale would settle the average price it was worth ; as the buyers at the rate of 4 per cent. would pay the full value at which stock would remain, subject to the usual fluctuations. But to impose a perpetual burden on all future llockholders, merely to reduce the profit of the firq set who fell out, is a refinement in policy the equality of which is not readily apprehended, notwithstanding the objections stated and answered by the proposer. It is to be hoped the new loan refts on a more mature system of equalization.
PO E T I C A L. Art. 19.
An Heroic Epifle to the Rev. Martin M-d-n, Author of a late Treatise on Polygamy. 410. Faulder. 1780.
This piece is written profeffedly in imitation of M'Gregor's ; and, in some parts of it, with tolerable success. The Author hath given a ludicrous turn to some of Mr. Madan's very serious pofitions; and well parodied that most pathetic exclamation, quoted in our O&ober Review, in which the reverend Polygamist pities the bondage of modern husbands in Chriflian countries, who molt grind (poor men !) in mola afinaria during life.'
Thro' Britain's realms can any wretch be found,
Ye husbands, rouse!--nor let me strive in vain
Diana” to the ground.
Then thou, great seer (with whom my verse began),
Shall speak a happy people's gratitude.' This little poem is illustrated by Notes, chiefly consisting of quotations from Thelyphthora. The Author hath selected some of the most exceptionable passages, the better to excuse his own want of decency; and seems to think-(how juftly we leave our Readers to determine)--that if a grave preacher may be indelicate in earnesi, a gay poet may be to in jeft. Art. 20. Anti-Thelyphthora. A Tale in Verse. 4to. I S.
Johnson. 1781. The heroes of this little tale are -Reader, pull off thy hat! the Rev. Martin Madan, and put on thy hat again the Monthly Reviewer! These redoubted champions enter the lifts in quality of knights; each having his mistress, but neither of them provided with an esquire to gird on his buckler, lead forih his Rosinante, or hold the stirrup. This is a sad defect in a chivalrous poem ; and the Allthor might as well have left the knight's horse, as his esquire, at home. And, moreover, we think it is a flight on 'squire Dodsley and 'íquire Griffiths to have been totally omitted in the Tale of their own knights; when it is evident that they attended them to the field, and at least held the stirrup, if they did not draw the sword.
But let us be serious--though it is imposible to help smiling at the idea of a Reviewer's becoming a knight-unless a Knight of the Post, in the present dearth of letters! We must do our Poet the justice to acknowledge, that his Tale is the offspring of an elegant fancy, and we are much obliged to him for the compliment he haih paid our theological affociate. We are linked together by very close bands, and are mutually affected by the applause or censure of any member of our corps : fo much so, that in our merry moments, when we are smoking our social pipes together in the "cload-capt" garret, we
have merrily compared ourselves to the spider, which feels in the centre the lightest touch at the extremity. The argument
of the Tale may be comprized in a few words. Mr. Madan is dubbed knight of Airy-Castle Airy del Castro), and like another Quixote contends for another Dulcinea-a meraphyficotheologico-political mistress :
• In Fairy land was born the matchless dame,
Wreaths for her brow, and girdles for her waift.' This fair, but fickle dame, who had cap:ivated and deceived many a fond and foolih admirer, at length attracted the eye and gained the heart of Sir Airy-that mirror of knighthood and saint hood too!He espouses her in his own way-in other words—à la Madan.
• Small need of pray’r-books or of priest, I ween,
Occasion prompt, and appetite so keen.'
• Fear seiz'd the trembling sex; in every grove
of honourable love.
And flutters loose, the sport of every wind !' The alarm roufed the valour of many a worthy knight, all prompt to deeds of hardihood :
"T'assert the charter of the chale and fair,
Find out the treach'rous heart, and plant a dagger there.' The hero who first enters the lists, and, by the account of our complaisant Poet, leaves little room for o:hers to display their prowess, is our Brother Reviewer
• Knight of the Silver Moon, Sir Marmadan,
This votary of chalte Diana. But we must not repeat our own praise; for, notwithstanding we have been called impudent, and saucy, and magifterial, and all that, yet we are verily so modest that we should bluth to repeat all that hath been said about us. We thall only add, that we, that is, Sir Marmadan, the Reviewer,
• Ruth'd with a whirlwind's fury on the foe,
And, Phineas like, transfix'd them at a blow.' • Transfix'd them :'-i. e. Sir Airy and Dame Hypo :-spitted like two sparrows !--By Dian's quiver--an excellent stroke!