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the relation might have been drawn up in a more regular, perspicuous, and pleasing manner.

Mr. Firmin died in the year 1697. In life he was greatly and deservedly respected, and his memory is still precious. His friendship with Dr. Fowler, Bishop of Gloucester, and Dr. Tile lotson, Archbishop of Canterbury, as well as other eminent persons of that day, would have transmitted his name, with respect, to pofterity, together with theirs : but he needed not this support; his own spirit and conduct pleaded sufficiently for him. He was religious, active, catholic, benevolent, charitable, and public-spirited in a remarkable degree. The perusal of his life is at once an entertainment and a probable means of improvement: it deserves on many accounts to be held up to notice, and affords an admirable pattern, especially for the imitation of young men.

The Editor has arranged his materials under different heads, that he might present them with greater exactness and advantage to the Reader: he has also introduced other anecdotes, connected with his subject, and accompanied all by pertinent and judicious reflections, delivered with an ingenuous frankness, He informs us, that his sentiments, particularly in regard to our blessed Saviour, are different from those espoused by Mr. Firmin; any surmise, therefore, that this republication has arisen from an attachment to Mr. Firmin's religious opinions must be groundless. This worthy man was what is generally termed a Socinian. But surely that prejudice and bigotry must be unconquerably strong, and highly criminal, which does not learn from this little volume that there may be good and excellent perfons in every denomination of Christians, even though they differ very widely in their views as to speculative points of theo logy! Excellent Mr. Firmin was; and we are persuaded that no person who reads the account here given of him can with-hold the acknowledgment. We hope too, that this públication may contribute to abate the heat of party, and promote that candour, forbearance, and charity, so essential to the spirit of the Gospel!

We shall finish this little article, by adding a few lines, with which Mr. Cornish concludes his publication. After a lively description of the heavenly fociety, he proceeds ; Such are the reflections which naturally arise to the mind on contemplating the several parts of his conduct, whose life is the subject of this book. Happy will he be, who has attempted to set before mankind so shining a pattern of disinterested benevolence, and to revive the memory

of one, in whom were united to such a remarkable degree, the most amiable and useful qualities which adorn humanity; happy will be be, if but one person be wrought on to afpire after an imitation of those various excellencies

which joined in forming the character of Mr. Thomas Firmin!

ART. VIII. The Hilory of Fpidemics. By Hippocrates. In Sever

Books. Translated into English from the Greek, with Notes and Obfervations, and a Preliminary Differtation on the Nature and Cause of

Infe&tion: By Samuel Farr, iv. D. F.R.S. 4to. Il. is. in Boards. Cadell. 1780.

HE Epidemics of Hippocrates appear to be a kind of jour



exact observer kept an account of the medical constitution of the seasons, and of the different cases which fell under his obfervan tion; the symptoms and events of which are related with great conciseness; but with very little attencion to the medical treatment of the patients. The task of translating this work, we are told, was originally undertaken by the present Translator «for his own emolument;' and when he had finished it, he was desirous to communicate it to mankind, to save them the same trouble, and perhaps too great an occupation of their time.'

was at the same time furnished with a number of commentators, and a variety of editions of the Works of Hippocrates; and therefore made the translation rather a study than a mere verbal interpretation : being willing to translate rather as a physician than as a grammarian.

Dr. Farr has not however merely confined himself to the task of translatiog his Author; as he has annexed to his translation a large body of notes and observations. Speaking of preceding translators and commentators, of whose labours however he acknowledges that he has availed himself, he takes notice of many deficiencies in all the writers that he has consulted. Some, says he, have erred in the Latin translations which they have given us, preferring elegance of language to the real interpretation, which sometimes is to be conveyed in a vulgar and barbarous expression. Others have contented themselves with a mere commentary, or enlarging the verbage of their author, rather than illuftrating his meaning by apt allufions or judicious illuitrations. Others, indeed, as Dr. Freind and Dr. Glass, &e. have gone upon a much better plan, by determining the propriety of the practice of Hippocrates, and accommodating it to experience and reason. But still their commentary is too much separated from the Author; and for want of having him always before you, the judgment of the Reader is in some measure deprived of its proper exercise. Upon these accounts, I have thought that a more connected body of notes joined immediately to a faithful translation of this useful work, would answer every purpose which might be required; would convey the fen

timents of this excellent physician, and at the same time confirm his affertions by the practice and the best theories of the moderns.'

As a specimen of this translation, we Thall transcribe the first regular case given in this work, and which occurs in the third sexion of the first book; only observing, that in this short transcript, as well as throughout the whole performance, there are negligences of style-to give them the mildest appellation which ought to have been avoided, and which might easily have been amended, even by a mere English reader. Though we agree with the Translator, in the opinion delivered in the passage above quoted from him--that elegance of language is not to be preferred to the real interpretation; we do not concur with him in his subsequent remark, that this interpretation ought ever, or at least frequently, to be conveyed in a vulgar and barbarous expression.

Philiscus, who lived near the walls, took to his bed on the firft day of his seizure with an acute fever; he was disposed to sweat, and had a very troublesome night. The next day all his fymptoms were aggravated, but after a loose ftool from a clyfter, he was relieved, and had a quiet night. On the third day in the morning, and till the evening, he appeared to be free from fever ; but about the evening the fever was very violent, attended with fweating and thirst; the tongue was dry and parched, the urine was black, he had a very diftreffing night, pept none, but was very delirious. On the next day every thing was increased, and the urine continued black. In the night he was much eafier, and the urine was of a better colour. On the fifth, about mid-day, a small quantity of pure blood was voided at the nortrils; but the urine was of various colours, having some small round globules resembling femen, Aloating about in it, but not forming any sediment at bottom. A fuppofitory being administered produced only a small quantity of wind. He had a troublesome night, with little sleep, was very talkative and delirious, the extremities were cold, nor could any heat be raised in them. He made black urine, slept a little the next day, but Joft his voice; his sweats were very cold, the extremities became Jivid, and about the middle of the day (being the sixth) he died. In this man, at the close of the fever, the respiration was like' (that of] 'a person calling back t, but seldom made, and of long duration. The spleen was elevated in a round and gibbous form. There were cold fweats to the end, and the exacerbations were on the equal days.'

From the Notes we shall select a part of what the Translator has thought fit to say on the subject of Physiognomy; on which

+ ανακαλεμενα,

he certainly lays more stress than it deserves, when he undertakes to thew, how this science may be improved, so far as to become a proper diagnostic in cases of disease.' Nothing less, surely, than his veneration for the father of physic, and that partiality which a translator or commentator naturally acquires for his author, could induce the present commentator to tell us gravely that almost all diseases are accompanied with anxiety, with pain, and with convulsion ;-and that all these considerably alter the features of the face.'

Nor can we agree with him in opinion, that it may be worth while to observe too that health is always attended with a remarkable placidity of countenance ;

and the smallest deviation from a sound state, even by fatigue or heat, gives an alteration to it, which is pofitively and diftin&tly marked.'

Of what use is it to be told afterwards, that 'dropsy, jaundice, and other disorders, which are accompanied with listlessness and inactivity, have these effects strongly marked upon the features of the face ?' Surely the first is at once more certainly marked by a prominent belly and a fluctuation, and the second, by the yellowness of the skin. Supposing for a moment the truth of an observation made by the Translator, that to different kinds of inflammation, gout, rheumatisin, colics, stone and gravel,' and other disorders attended with pain, 'a peculiar look is affixed, which sometimes will point even to the place where it is seated :' fuch an observation, allowing it, merely for argument's sake, to be just, might be of use to a painter or ftatuary, who meant to exhibit a person in a fit of the colic, &c.; but we cannot perceive any advantage that a physician can derive from it, except perhaps in the case of infants, or of dumb or infane perfons. In Thort, the little useful knowledge that the physician can acquire from phyfiognomical observations must principally be obtained from personal experience; and is of such a nature, as not easily, if at all, except in a very few instances, to be communicated by books.

We are rather apprehensive that we shall expose the venerable sage of Greece to some share of ridicule, if we select, as a second specimen of this translation, two or three passages taken from the second book, relative to this whimsical subject. • Those who have a yellow skin, and sharp noses, with small eyes, are subject to dangerous diseases. Those who have a yellow skin and flat nofes, with large eyes, are more secure. Dropsical persons have blue eyes, and are bald. A tumour of the testicle of either fide destroys a fhrill voice, and without this it cannot be altered. Large and bald persons, who are very talkative, and have thrill voices, are fafe; but such talkative and bald persons, with lyrill voices, or those who have a good deal of hair upon their bodies, are apt to be melancholic


· Those who have large heads and small eyes, and who are talkative, are prone to anger. Those who have a prospect of long life, have a great number of teeth. Talkative persons, and who talk

quickly also, are melancholy, and subject to have much bile. Those who have their eyes fixed and steady, are apt to be angry. A great head, large black eyes, a thick and flat nose, are good figns. Large eyes of a blue colour, a small head, thin neck, narrow chest, are the marks of persons of the best difpofitions. He who has a small head is never talkative, nor is he bald, unless he hath very shining eyes.'

We shall conclude our extracts from this performance by taking some notice of an observation as ftrange as any of the preceding. In a difficult pallage which occurs towards the end of the seventh book, Dr. Farr adopts the common reading of the text [πορνειη αχρωμος δυσεντεριης ακος], which he accordingly translates, Impure fornication is a cure for the dysentery.' The fingularity, as well as the grossness, and apparent immorality of the observation, have induced many critics to be of opinion that it could not proceed from Hippocrates; and that there must be an error in the text. Indeed some have questioned the authenticity of this whole book. Dr. Farr, without specifying any of the numerous criticisms to which this passage has given occafion, asks what have morals to do with the precepts of a physician? and though Hippocrates seems far from being an encourager of vice, yet at the same time he had a very high regard for the truth ;'- that it was a general rule, and which poffibly he might have found to be of use; and that he might therefore give it in its utmost latitude to those who wished to obey it. He strengthens this opinion by affirming, that in many parts of his works, and in these Epidemics, he hath advanced that a connection with the female sex is a cure for this complaint.'

M. Dacier has, in our opinion, very easily and fatisfactorily faved the moral character of Hippocrates, by the change only of a single letter in the word axpw.os, which he would read αχρωμον, and refer it to the word ακος. He observes, that it is an old or obsolete word, found only in Hippocrates and Ara temidorus; which Suidas translates, impudent, that is, unblushing, or shameless, as likewise detestable. The sense of the pal{age, thus corrected, will be, that 'fornication iş a scandalous or villainous remedy for the dysentery.'

In a Differtation prefixed to this work, Dr. Farr, availing himself of the late discoveries relative to air, inquires into the causes of epidemical disorders; particularly as they depend on the chemical qualities of the air, considered as consisting of an acid principle, combined with earth, and phlogiston. Observing, that warmth lessens the mutual attraction of these prin

ciples ;

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