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Fobbed, the civil and religious rights of a people violated. The employment he held in Asia Minor and Pamphylia, What did it produce but the ruin of those countries ? -in which houses, cities and temples were robbed by him. What was his conduct in his prætorship here at home? Let the plundered temples, and public works, neglected (that he might embezzle the money interded for carrying them on) bear witness. How did he discharge the office of a judge ? Let those who suffered by his injustice answer. But his prætorship in Sicily crowns all his works of wickedness,and finishes a lasting monument to his infainy. The mischiefs done by him in that unhappy country, during the three years of his iniquitous admipistration. are such, that many years, under the wisest and best of prætors, will not be sufficient to restore things to the condition in which he found them; for, it is notorious, that during the time of his tyranny, the Sicil. jans neither enjoyed the protection of their own original laws, of the regulations made for their benefit by the Romon Senate, upon their coming under the protection of the commonwealth, nor of the natural and unalienable rights of men.
His nod has decided all causes in Sicily for these three years : and his decisions have broke all law, all precedent, all right. The sums he has, by arbitrary taxes and upheard of impositions, extorted from the industrious poor, are not to be computed. The most faithful allies of the commonwealth have been treated as enemies. Roman citizens have, like . slaves, been put to death with tortures. The most atrocious criminals, for money, have been exempted from the deserved punishments; and men of the most unexceptionable characters,condemned and banished unheard, The harbors, though sufficiently fortified, and the gates of strony towas opened to pirates and ravagers. T'he soldiery and sailors, belonging to a province under the protection of the commonwealth, starved to death. Whole ileets, to the great detriment of the province, suffered to perish. The ancient monuments of either Sicilian or Roman greatness, the statues of heroes and princes carried uit; and the temples stripped of the images. Having, by his iniquitous sentences, filled the
prisons with the most industrious and deserving of the people, he then proceeded to order numbers of Roman citizens to be strangled in the gaols; so that the exclamation. “ I am a citizen of Rome !" which has often, in the most distant regions, and among the most barbarous people, been a protection, was of no service to them, but on the contrary, brought a speedier and more severe punishment upon thein.
I ask now Veries, what you have to advance against this charge? Will you pretend to deny it? Will you pretend that any thing false, that even any thing aggravated, is alleged against you ? Had any prince, or any state, cornmitted the saine outrage against the privilege of Rornan citizens, should we not think we had sufficient ground for declaring iminediate war against them? What puaishinent ought, thens, tu be inflicted upon a tyrannical and wicked praetor, who dared, at no greater disance than Sicily, within sight of the Italian coast, to put to the intasavus death of crucifixion, that unfortunate and innocent citizen, Publius Gavius Cosanus, only for his having asserted his privilege of citizi'nship, and declared his intention of appealing to the justice of his couniry, against a cruel oppressor, who had unjustly contined him in prison, at Syracusa, whence he had just maite his es. cape ? Toe unhappy man, arrested as he was going to embark for his native country, is brought before the wickeid praetor. With eyes darting fury, and a countenance distorted with cruelty, be orders the belpless victin of his rage to be stripped, and rods to be brought, accusing him, but without the least shadow of evidence, or even of suspicion, of having come to Sieily as a spy. It was in vain that the unhappy man cried out, “I am a R-ınan citizen ; I have server under Lucius Pretius, who is now at Panormus, and will attest my innocence." The blood thirsty praetor, deaf to ail he could urge in his owo defence, ordered the infamous punishment to be inflicted. Thus, Fathers, was an innocent Roman citizen publicly mangled with scourgiug; whilst the only words he uitered amidst his cruel sufferings, were, I ain a Roman citizen !" With these he hoped to defend himself from yoience and intamy.
But of so little
service was this privilege to him, that while he was thus asserting his citizenship, the order was given for his execution for his execution upon the cross !
O liberty 1-0 sound once delightful to every Roman ear-O sacred privilege of Roman citizenship ; once sacred !-now trampled upon !-but what then! Is it come to this ? shall an inferior magistrate, a goy. ernor, who holds his whole power of the Roman people, in a Roman province, within sight of Italy, bind, scourge, torture with fire, and red hot plates of irun, and at last put to the infamous death of the cross, a Roman citizen ? Shall neither the cries of innocence, expiring in agony, nor the tears of pitying spectators, nor the majesty of the Roman commonwealth, nor the fear of the justice of his country, restrain the licentious and wanton cruelty of a monster, who in confidence of his riehes, strikes at the root of liberty, and sets mankind at defiance ?
I conclude with expressiog my hopes, that your wisdom and justice, fathers, will not, by suffering the atrocious and unexainpled insolence of Caius Verres to escape the due punishment, leave room to apprehend thedanger of a total subversion of authority, and introduce tion of general anarchy and confusion.
II.--Cicero for Milo,
be able the more easily to determine upon this point before you, I shall beg the favor of an attentive learing, while, in a few words, I lay open the whole attair.-Clodius. being determined, when created praetor, to barrass his country with every species of oppression, and fiuding the comitia had been delayed so long the year before, that he could not hold this office inany months, all on a sudden threw up his own year, and reserved himself to the next; not from any relig. ious scruple, but that he might have, as he said himself, a full, entire year for exercising his praetorship; that is, for overturning the commonwealth. Being sensible he must be controlled and cramped in the exercise of his praetorian authority under Milo, who, he plainly saw, would be chosen cosul, by the unapimous consent of the
Roman people; he joined the candidates that opposed Milo, but in such a manner that he overruled them in every thing, had the soul management of the election, and, as he often used to boast, bore all the conitia upon his own shoulders. He assembled the tribes ; he thrust hinself into their councils ; and formed a new tribe of the most abandoned of the citizens. The more confu. sion and disturbance he made, the more, Milo prevailed. When this wretch, who was bent upon all manner of wickedness, saw that so brave a man, and his most inveterate enemy, would certainly be consul ; when he perceived this, not only by the discourses, but by the votes of the Roman people, he began to throw off all disguise, and to declare openly that Milo must be killed. He often intimated this in the Senate, and declared it expressly before the people ; insomuch that when Fa. vonius, that brave man asked him what prospect he could have of carrying on his furious designs, while Milo was alive-he replied, that in three or four days at most he should be taken out of the way; which reply Favonius. immediately communicated to Cato.
la the mean time, as soon as Clodius kuew (nor in. deed was there any dificulty to come to the intelligence.) that Milo was obliged by the 18th of January to be at Lanuvium, where he was dictator, in order to dominate a priest, a daty which the laws reodered necessary to be performed every year ; he went suddenly from Rome the day before, in order as appears by the events, to waylay Milo, on his own grounds ; and this at a time when hewas obliged to leave a tumultuous assembly which he had sumınóned that very day, where his presence was necessary to carry on his mad designs ;. a thing he never would have done, if he had not been desirous to take the advantage of that particular time and place, for perpetrating his villany. “But Milo, after having staid in the Senate that day till the house was broke up, went home changed his clothes, waited a while, as usual, till bis wife had got ready to attend him, and then set forward, about the time that Clodious, if he had proposed to come back to Rome that day, might have returned. He meets Clodius near his own estate, a little before sunset, and
is immediately attacked by a body of men, who throw their darts at him from an eminence, and kill his coachman. Upon which he threw off his cloak, leaped from his chariot and defended hiinself with great bravery. In the mean time Clodius' attendants drawing their swords, some of them ran back to the chariot, in order to attack Milo in the rear; whilst others thinking that he was already killed, fell upon his servants who were behind ; these being resolute and faithful to their master, were some of them slain ; whilst the rest, seeing a warm en. gagement near the chariot, being prevented from going to tner inaster's as-istance, heariog besides from Clow dius himself, that Milo was kilied, and believing it to be a faci, acted upon this occasion (1 :nention it not with a view to elude the accusation, but because it was the true state of the case) without the orders, without the knowledge, without the presence of their master as every man would wish his own servants should act in the like circumstances.
This, my Lords, is a faithful account of the matter of fact, the person who lay in wait was himself overcome, and force subdued by force, or rather audacious. ness chastized by true valor. I say nothing of the ad. vantage which accrues to the state in general. to yourselves in particular, and to all good med; I am content to wave the argument I might draw from hence in fa. vor of iny client, whose destiny was so peculiar, that he could not secure his own safety, without securing yours, and that of the republic at the same time. If he couid not do it lawfully, there is no room for attempting his defence. But if reason teaches the learned, necessity the barbarian, common custoin all nations in
general, and even nature itself instructs the brutes to defend their bodies, limbs and lives when attacked, by all pos. sibie mthods, you cannot pronounce this action criminal without determining at the same time, that whoever falls into the hands of a high wayınan, must of necessity perish, either of the sword or your decisions. Had Milo been of this opinion, he would certainly have chosen to have failen by the hands of Clodius, who hadmore than once before this made an atteinpt upua his