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ter surroundings, is hardly perceptible. Education has little to do with dissipation. The educated compare favorably with their fellows. (b) The effect is to see the importance of industry, and honesty in dealing. They reason upon the causes and effects on the crops, and endeavor to get homes and land. Discountenance the petty stealings from their employers, which was preached once to them as a duty, to steal from their owners as no harm. The black man or negro, in this locality, gets no help from the white man, and the only way he gets his children taught is, during the two months that the crops lay by he pays 50 cents or $1 for each pupil to a partly-educated black man, who only reads and writes poorly. (c) I have found those who were the best educated generally the most industrious, the most skillful, the most reliable, and the most economical. Such are always the most self-governed. (d) Persons who have received something of an education, no matter how limited, will be found with better surroundings, and less idle and dissipated; and for character, economy, and social influence, far superior to the untaught class. (e) Education does improve their condition, especially socially. There is very little being done for the negro here. The school meets in a building given them by northern men for a church. A white man who updertook to teach was threatened and driven away. No fund ever reaches here from the State, and I suppose the Peabody cannot help this only periodical school. The black man wants help and encouragement to learn the simple rudiments for his protection from the designing white farmers and land owners that cannot themselves read or write. The poor white is lower than the black man without education. The black man is ready and willing to help himself if he can buy the land, and has help and assurance of sympathy. Objection is had to sell the black land and give good title. (f) The effect of mental culture is generally good. As a class, they live in better houses, &c. They are not less idle and dissipated than the untaught. For character, economy, morality and social influence, they are superior to the ignorant and uptaught. Good morals and industrious habits are as essential as a good education. No amount of education can compensate for a want of these great elements of character. (g) Mental culture is generally accompanied by better morals and a better social condition than is seen in uneducated persons. (1) I have had, since the surrender, as many as 200 freedmen on my plantations, many of whom can read, and some write. There are some lazy ones, and some industrious ones among this class, and none are over-industrious.

WORKMEN.

(a) Cameron, Hugh, Lawrence, Kansas.

Coffin, Allen, printer, Washington, District of Columbia. (c) Maglathin, H. B., farmer and carpenter. (a) Myers, Isaac, (colored,) shipwright, Baltimore, Maryland. (e) Phelps, A. W., joiner and mason, New Haven, Connecticut. Í) Redstone, A. E., machinist and miner, Vallejó, California. (9) Walter, George F., harness-maker, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Question 1. Have you, as a workingman, observed a difference in the skill, aptitude, or amount of work executed by persons, arising from a difference in their education, and independent of their natural abilities ? - Answers. (a) I have observed a marked difference in the skill, aptitude, and amount of work done by men and women who were ignorant or educated, and the difference has always been in favor of the educated, other things being equal. (b) I have; and the difference is in favor of educated mechanics or laborers. (c) I have. (d) My association with skilled and unskilled, or

( educated or uneducated labor, justities me in saying the skill and amount of work of one workingman over another depends almost entirely upon his education. (e) I have noticed a difference in the worth and value of men’s labor by reason of their education. (f) With those who are educated, among mechanics, I have noticed a decidedly better execution, a greater amount accomplished, because he works more intelligently, has more confidence. (9) Yes.

Question 2. Where were your observations made ? Town? State? In what occupation were the laborers engaged ?-Answers. (a) In various towns and States, all occupations, and, particularly, in the Army. (6) Boston, Massachusetts, and Washington, District of Columbia. Printing of every description. (c) In Duxbury, Massachusetts, and chiefly in agriculture, and in sawing boards and shingles. (d) Principally Baltimore City, Maryland, among ship carpenters, calkers, house carpenters, painters, brick-masons, and common laborers. (e) In New Haven, Connecticut, among joiners and masons. (f) In Indiana and California, and elsewhere. In machine manufacturo and mining, both as machinist and miner. In every place it requires education to do mechanical labor. (9) At Cincinnati, Ohio, and among harness makers.

Question 3. Do those who can read and write, and who merely possess these rudiments of education, other things being equal, show any greater skill and fidelity as laborers, skilled or unskilled, or as artisans, than do those who are not able to read and write! And, if so, how much would such additional skill tend to increase the productiveness of their services, and, consequently their wages ?-Answers. (a) They do, and would tend to increase productiveness, &c., in the same ratio that the rudiments of an education bear to a thorough education. (b) Yes; and the laborer who can even tell what time it is by the clock is of more value than one who is dependent upon others for his knowledge of time. I have found that the more ignorant the workingmen of any locality are, the less regard have they for time. The increased productiveness of laborers who can merely read and write may be one-tenth over laborers who are ignorant of the alphabet, other things being equal. (c) Those who possess the rudiments of education are more skillful and trustworthy than those who are not able to read and write. The additional skill and fidelity tends to an increase of productiveness of fully 25 per cent. (d) My observations are that workingmen who can read and write show greater skill, perforin more work in the same length of time, command better pay than those of thé same occupation who cannot read and write. They are generally worth 25 per cent. more than their fellow uneducated workmen. The combination of trades-unions, that forces the same rate of wages for all men of a particular trade, very often deprives this class of men of their real worth, the wages being regulated, not by the qualification of workingmen, but by the supposed necessity of the members, which are rated equal. (e) I think those who read and write show greater skill and are more reliable, and, I should think, would increase their worth at least 30 per cent. (f) I can say, from my observations, that it is a benefit to both skilled and unskilled labor to have any advantage, even by knowing how to read, and does materially increase the productiveness of labor; much time is often saved upon work by men even knowing how to read and write, and often 50 per cent. is gained. (9) First clause: Yes; 20 clause : 50 per cent.

Question 4. What increase of ability would a still higher degree of education-a knowledge of the arts and sciences that underlie his occupation, such as a good, practical knowledge of arithmetic, book-keeping, algebra, drawing, &c.-give the laborer in the power of producing wealth, and how much would it increase his wages.-Answers. (a) It is difficult to give definite answers to these questions, but my opinion is that there would be 50 per cent. in favor of the man with a thorough knowledge of the arts and sciences that underlie his occupation. (b) In printing a book on the subject of geology, a corps of printers who have studied the subject and are familiar with the terms employed in that department of science, will accomplish the work in fourfifths of the time required by printers who have no knowledge of the subject. The same ratio will hold good in regard to the printing of the other sciences, or even in tho printing of a tax sale. A well-educated mechanic is worth to a community, in the

power of producing wealth, two times as much as an ignorant laborer, without knowledge of mechanics. (c) I should say, would give 20 per cent. additional power of producing wealth. (d) A good, practical knowledge of the arts and sciences that underlie the various trades and occupations would furnish instruments to the workingman to increase doubly the productiveness and quality of the material, add 50 per cent. annially to the nation's wealth, and increase his wages 25 per cent. (e) It would certainly increase his power for accumulating money, and, I should think, would increase his wages 30 per cent. (f) A still higher degree would add 100 per cent. in many cases, and would be beneficial to all, averaging, in my mind, 374 per cent. (9) 25 per cent. additional to the above, (2d clause.)

Question 5. Does this, and still further acquisitions of knowledge, increase the capacity of the workingman to meet the exigency of his labor by new methods, or in improvements in implements or machinery? And, if so, how much does this inventive skill add to the power of producing wealth ?-Answers. (a) Yes, at least one-half. (b) Yes; a knowledge of the principles of the lever, the pulley, the cam, the cog, and the ratchet, &c., adds to the value of a pressman one-third over one who simply kuows how to run a printing press, both in his ability to prevent and repair accidents to machinery. Such knowledge adds to the power of producing wealth one-third. (c) It usually does, and, in general, adds fully 40 per cent. to the power of producing wealth. (d) Having a theoretical and practical knowledge of the mode or science, he very naturally becomes inventive, both in the machinery used to produce, as well as in the extended uses of the articles produced. In comparison with the present condition of the workingmen of the United States, it will add to the power of producing wealth at least 30 per cent. (e) I should say more than half. (f) It does decidedly give the educated workman every advantage, in every possible way the question may be put. It is positively essential that the operator of machinery, in all its uses, shall have a balance of inind that the access to books only gives, before wearing out life in practice and experiment, (ignorant.) Educated men understand machinery by plans and drawings, &c. (9) Yes.

Question 6. Would a person who had been trained in the common school be generally preferred for the ordinary uses for which labor might be employed, over one who had not enjoyed that advantage ?- Answers. (a) Yes, a self-evident proposition, an axiom. (b) Yes, even by uneducated employers. (c) Yes. (d) My experience in the employment of help, both in skilled and unskilled labor, is that an educated man is preferable, certainly more profitable. (e) Yes, decidedly so. (f) Yes, all other things being equal

Question 7. Whom would an employer generally choose for positions of trust, such

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as foremen or superintendents, persons unable to read and write, or those having the rudiments of education, or those possessing a superior education, all other things, such as skill, strength, and fidelity, being equal? Answers. (a) The one having the most thorough education, unless the employer might be an exception to the rule. (b) Persons possessing superior education. (c) Those possessing superior education. (d) It is a necessary qualification that a foreman be a man of education. If he has not, it very often requires the employment of an additional clerical force. A foreman of superior education and superior skill, as a general rule, will either become partner, or accumulate means sufficient to establish business on his own account. (e) Certainly the educated. (f) A man or person without any education is almost totally unfit for the positions named above. I have seen disastrous results in several cases by a contrary experiment, or following the plan of employing those without education, even as far down as switch-tenders for railroads. (Vide recent accident on Western Pacific Road in this State.) The man could not read, and life was sacrificed, property destroyed, more than he could earn in a lifetime. (9) A person having the superior education.

Question 8. What do you regard the effect of mental culture upon the personal and social habits of workingmen! Do they, as a class, live in better houses or with better surroundings ? Are they more idle and dissipated than the untaught classes? How will they compare for character, economy, morality, and social influence among their fellows ?--Answers. (a). I regard the effect of mental culture upon the habits of workingmen as good. They may or may not live in better houses, but are generally more industrious and less dissipated than the untaught, and will compare for morality, &c., favorably. (b) Mental culture creates wants which the uneducated know nothing of; it is the supply of these wants which embellishes civilized life; hence, educated workingmen live in better houses, eat better food, and wear better clothes than their lessfavored fellows. They occupy advanced ground in regard to the virtues of life and are less addicted to the vices; hence, they become leaders among their fellows. At the late session of the National 'Labor Congress, held at Cincinnati, Ohio, August 1870, while I did not make temperance a subject of inquiry among the representative workingmen from widely-diversified industries and sections of country, yet I remember with pride that on no occasion were the deliberations of the congress disturbed by any delegate under the influence of strong drink. Many of the leading delegates I often heard refuse the false compliments of the drinking custom, and the delegates from California assured me that the men prominent in the workingmen's societies on the Pacific coast were almost entirely temperance men. (c) The effect of mental culture upon the hab

. its of workingmen is to make them more moral and refined ; they live in better houses; ·less disposed to be idle or dissipated, and compare favorably in all good influences among their fellows. (a) Socially the workingmen are divided into two classes-the educated and the uneducated. Their style and habits of domestic life differ materially. The educated have a disposition to live on wide streets, in fine houses, and make a fair external appearance. The rapid changes in the fashions of society seem to have demoralized all classes of workingmen. The wages of workingmen generally will not admit them to meet the demands of society in the fitting of the wardrobes of their families ; hence very few of either class consider the question of economy. The effect of the fashions upon the society of the working classes, if continued at its present speed, in ten years will wipe out every shade of morality. (e) As a class they are better to do in the world, and I should say not as idle or dissipated as the uneducated-stand higher in society. (f) Very superior personal appearance; social habits improved; live in better houses, fixed with more taste and beauty; more of their time is spent in adorning with taste; less dissipated than the untaught and uneducated. It is among the uneducated that we find 70 per cent. of the drunkenness and debauchery, say nothing of the great amount of degradation and crime. Nothing but a good system of education can remove these last results. (9) (1 clause.) It is an advantage. (2 clause.) Yes. (3 clause.) No. (4 clause.) Favorably.

These are the opinions, also, of the Harnessmakers' Union of Cincinnati.

OBSERVERS.

(a) Douglass, Frederick, editor and lecturer, Washington, District of Columbia. b) Thomas, Charles, Cincinnati, Ohio. (c) Trumbull, Robert J., Skipwith Landing, Mississippi.

Question 1. Have you observed a difference in the skill, aptitude, or amount of work executed by persons, arising from a difference in their education and independent of their natural abilities - Answers. (a) I have observed a difference. Educated persons, as a general rule, work with greater coolness, system, steadiness, and precision. (b) I have, and believe that education aids a man. (c) Made at skipwith's Landing, in Mississippi.

Question 2. Where were your observations made; town; State! In what occupation were the laborers engaged 1--Answers. (a) My observations have been unprofessional, and have extended over several States and to different kinds of labor, especially the coarser kinds, on the wharves and in some of the handicrafts. (b) In many towns and several States; a large variety. (c) Principally as laborers in cotton, and almost entirely negroes.

Question 3. Do those who can read and write, and who merely possess these rudiments of education, other things being equal, show any greater skill and fidelity as laborers, skilled or unskilled, or as artisans, than do those who are not able to read or write'; and, if so, how much would such additional skill tend to increase the productiveness of their services and consequently their wages ?—Answers. (a) It is impossible for me to fix the precise difference in the value to employer of the labor of eaucated persons as against that of uneducated persons, but I have no doubt that the difference is largely in favor of the labor of educated persons, while to the persons themselves the difference is vastly in favor of those who are educated. They do their work more easily, with less bodily exertion, and are generally in better condition for work. I have noticed that educated men know better how to dispose of their energies, make fewer false motions, and otherwise economize their strength. (b) The condition of laborers is governed by circumstances, of course; but, “other circumstances being equal,” the laborers who can read and write certainly have a decided advantage. (c) Among negroes there seems to be no advantage of education, as thus far it has been used, when possessed by a few individuals in the community, to acquire influence over their fellows for vicious purposes. I may also add that there is little desire among them now for education, parents preferring to use the services of their children in cultivating crops rather than sending them to school.

Question 4. What increase of ability would a still higher degree of education, a knowledge of the arts and sciences that underlie his occupation, such as a good practical knowledge of arithmetic, bookkeeping, algebra, drawing, &c., give the laborer in the power of producing wealth, and how much would it increase his wages? Answers. (a) As a matter of course, the more thought a man can bring to the aid of labor the better for himself and for his employer. He who labors by practice does well, but he who combines theory with practice does better. The more knowledge a man has the greater will be his mastery over both theory and practice. I might venture to sea with a man knowing the theory of navigation, but never with one destitute of such knowledge, though he were a good practical sailor. (b) All depends on the individual. If his organization is right, education will help him in all he undertakes; but if not, all the education you can give, if a person lacks system and energy, does not make him produce more, or of more value. (c) With a superior degree of education, doubtless there would be great improvement; but without moral culture, which is entirely wanting with the black race, but little advantage can be gained from such education as they now have or will acquire.

Question 5. Does this and still further acquisitions of knowledge increase the capacity of the workingman to meet the exigency of his labor by new methods, or in improvements in implements or machinery; and if so, how much does this inventive skill add to the power of producing wealth ?-Answers. (a) My answers to this question is more or less implied in all I have said above. Ignorance clings steadily to the old way of doing things, however clumsy or awkward; while intelligence more easily discovers a better way, and more readily adopts the new against the old. (b) Answered in the preceding question. (c) No experience in this respect.

Question 6. Would a person who had been trained in the common school be generally preferred for the ordinary uses for which labor might be employed over one who had not enjoyed that advantaget-Answers. (a) I think he would. If an educated man could find no better employment than digging a ditch, I should expect to find that work better done than by an uneducated person. (b) I think not, as a general thing. (c) Yes; provided he had industry. But our experience is, that with the negro, the

, more ignorant the better laborer.

Question 7. From observations you have made, whom do you consider best fitted for positions of trust, such as foremen or superintendents, persons unable to read and write, or those having the rudiments of education, or those possessing a superior education, all other things, such as skill, strength, and fidelity, being equal ?-Answers. (a) Everything that tends to increase the dignity and self-respect of a man tends to increase his fitness to fill important stations of trust. An educated man may, despite his education, be a rogue ; but the natural tendency of education is to make men honest and faithful in their dealings. (b) Skill, strength, and fidelity might be equal, but to do business as a superintendent, or foreman, or an agent, a person should have system and force of character; and if he has not those qualifications, superior education has an advantage. (c) The state of morality among all classes in this country is such, that fidelity is more valuable than all other acquirements.

Question 8. What do you regard the effect of mental culture upon the personal and social habits of workingmen? Do they, as a class, live in better houses or with better surroundings? Are they more idle and dissipated than the untaught classes? How will they compare for character, for economy, morality, and social influence among their fellows? - Answers. (a) In all that belongs to the social well-being of workingmen, the educated workingman has the advantage. His taste is higher and purer, his house is larger and cleaner, and the good effects of education are seen all around him. (6) I believe education elevates, and consequently carries with it a moral responsibility which untaught persons do not, as a general thing, possess. Therefore, I would say educate, educate the whole human family. (c) With respect to negroes, we have no experience, as they have no mental culture worthy of the name. Superficially educated white men are less valuable as laborers, and less responsible than negroes.

(P.cpublished from Special Report of Commissioner of Education on the Condition of Education in the

District of Columbia.]

ILLITERACY IN THE UNITED STATES.

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Notwithstanding the number and variety of schools, public and private, elementary and of higher grades, and the consequent general education of our people, there are now, as there have been, vast numbers who cannot even read and write. The census tables of 1840, 1850, and 1860 bring to light facts on this subject which ought to arrest the earnest attention of every American citizen.

The first statistics upon this subject for the United States were gathered and published in the national census of 1840. It returns 549,850 white persons over twenty years of age imable to read and write. In 1850 this number had increased to 962,898; and in 1860 it had swelled to 1,126,575. To this number should be added 91,736 free colored illiterate adults, and 1,653,800 adult slaves, now free, and we have the alarmning aggregate of 2,872,111, or nearly three millions of our adult population, reported as wholly unable to read and write.

But, as much more than half our population are under twenty-one, and as there has been no corresponding increase of educational facilities, there must be, and is, a still larger number, more than three millions, of young persons who are growing up in ignorance to fill the ranks of illiteracy as the older ones pass off the stage ; so that more than six millions of the American people constitute a bookless class, shut out from direct access to this main source of knowledge. Not counting the million and a half of these under ten years of age, who cannot yet be said to be illiterate, (though they are on the high road to it, unless something more efficient is promptly done to save them,) we have one and a half millions of illiterate youths to add to the three millions of illiterate adults, or four and a half millions of youths and adults actually illiterate. They themselves can make no use of our Bibles, our printed constitutions and laws, our various instruetive books, or our newspapers, the great agency of popular information, but must depend upon others. To their blind eyes the light from the printed page and the daily sheet is darkness. They have received no direct benefit from all our public and private schools, or from the large sums given or appropriated for school purposes. Those who have learned to read have been reached directly by these appropriations and benefactions. Cannot something effectual be done for these millions who have been, and still remain, unprovided for and out of reach ?

It may be said, “A large proportion of these are negroes, recently slaves.But they are men, ignorant men, women, and children; and they themselves, and we all of us with them, must suffer the evil consequences of this ignorance, if it cannot be, if it is not removed. But, besides them, there are more than a million and a half (1,700,000) illiterate white youths and adults, and another half million of children under ten, growing up to (must it be?) hopeless ignorance.

But some say, “They are mostly foreigners, from countries where, in the interests of despotism, the people are kept in ignorance." This is true of only a small portion of the emigrants from Europe, nearly all the European states from which most of them come having efficient systems of public schools. Besides, our illiterate are, most of them, native-born. In 1860, according to the census, there were, of our illiterate adults, but 346,893 of foreign birth, while there were 871,418 native-born. The foreign-born illiterate are found chiefly in the States containing our great commercial cities, (as Massachusetts, 45,000; New York, 96,000; Pennsylvania, 37,000;) especially in the East. In the West and many western cities the immigrants, being chiefly Germans, can read and write their own language. In California the Chinese are not to be included in the number of those who cannot read and write. A writer in one of our leading magazines has recently said that “the first Chinaman unable to read his own lan. guage has yet to make his appearance in California.” The superintendent of public instruction of the State of New York, in his special report in 1867, says, “ travelers and missionaries, and men connected with foreign embassies, are agreed in saying that about all the male population of China can read and write. But the women are neither sent to school nor educated at home.” It is well known that, by law, all the offices of government, the greatest civil advantages, and the highest honors, are given only to those

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