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Savoy there is a school of watch-making. There is a thorough system of marine engineering and naval schools. The famous École Polytechnique at Paris is too well known to need more than a reference as part of the system of scientific training pursued. At Arles the national mining school trains pupils for practical employment as superintendents, foremen, and other officers of government mines. The directors and inspectors are educated at the Ecole Polytechnique. The schools above referred to are designed to train managers rather than workmen. France also possesses a large number of local schools--departmental, municipal, and commune. In 1867 there were 250 special schools and public courses of technical lectures and classes in the various departments; 35 farm schools; 21 drawing; 12 of arts and trades; 5 of hydrography; 4 of the technical sciences; 4 of design for textile arts, laces, wall-papers, furniture, &c.; 4 of clock and watch-making; 3 of weaving; 2 for stokers; and a number of separate schools for instruction in agriculture, horticulture, silk culture, mining, practical chemistry, dyeing, &c. More than fifty courses of lectures, &c., were sustained in different manufacturing centers.

GREAT BRITAIN. At the present time Great Britain is making marked progress in the way of industrial education. The “science and art department” of the report of the privy council on education for 1869 gives interesting data. The following table illustrates the rapid increase of scientific and art instruction, as applied to industry:

Number Under Year.

of schools. instruction. 1860....


500 1861

38 1, 300 1862...


2,543 1863...

75 3,111 1864

91 4, 666 1865...

120 5, 479 1866..


6, 835 1867...


10, 230 1868...


15, 010 There were 780 special classes in these general schools, some having only one and others running up to ten. There is a very complete system of annual examinations carried out under the direction of the department. In the scientific examinations the inspectors are assisted by engineer officers of the army who may be stationed near. The government grants are graduated according to the number of and proficiency shown by the pupils; hence they act as incentives to the teachers. The latest data received (March 1869) show 514 schools, with 1,448 classes and about 21,000 scholars. The navigation schools, of which there are a number, are organized separately. The national geological survey pow in progress, the Kensington Industrial and Art Museum, and other instrumentalities, are, by various means, made serviceable to the progress of these schools, through models furnished or works loaned, &c. All scientific investigations under government direction and the mining records office furnish material for the aid of the teachers. The Whitworth scholarships afford a notable illustration of the interest manifested. Mr. Whitworth has founded thirty scholarships, lasting each a term of years, of the annual value of $500, open to competitive examination, and designed for practical machinists, mechanics, and students who may aspire to a thorough scientific training. Ten of these scholarships have recently been awarded. Five of them were gained by working mechanics.

Besides this diffused system of technical instruction, there are a number of royal colleges and museums of mining, geology, chemistry, &c., to all of which are attached free courses of lectures. There is a national art training school, to which a number of national scholarships are attached; there are 771 students in all; 101 local schools are affiliated with this. In them instruction is given to about 20,000 students. Besides, there are nearly 200 night classes, having 4,468 students, and under the recent impetus given to these studies there were reported in England alone (1867) as receiving instructions in drawing, modeling, &c., in 538 schools, as many as 79,441 children.

INTEREST MANIFESTED BY THE WORKINGMEN. With the zeal manifested by foreign governments, and the principal employing interests in Europe and here, it is equally as gratifying to note that felt by the workingmen themselves. The answers received by this Bureau give proof of this. The agitation on the relations of capital and labor affords striking evidence. The workingmen are fully cognizant of the fact that, to understand the complex and often subtile issues involved therein, they must acquire a wider intelligence and a more thorough education; hence, they place foremost among their demands on legislation the necessity of enforced attendance on schools; the shortening of the hours of labor for children, so they may attend thereon; and the establishment of technical and special schools for

their own benefit. The chief reason they urge for lessening the hours of adult labor is, whether it be justifiable or not, the need of more leisure for mental improvement. In Europe the subject of enlarged industrial education is a prominent topic among all the labor organizations, conventions, and congresses. The "International Workingmen's Association," a body, which aims at uniting all trade and labor organizations in a federative unity, and which has become of considerable importance during the last two years, has given great prominence to this question. At their meeting in Brussels, 1868, one of the Belgian delegates argued that “ an education in all the sciences, accompanied by a good religious training, is one of the best ways to make people prosperous and to entertain a respect for good order.” The French delegates announced themselves as of the opinion that the education required for the children of the working classes must include the natural sciences, and a technical course of training which will impart an elementary knowledge of the various manipulations of productive industry” In Great Britain there is no question but that the unceasing demands of the industrial classes, as well as the violent character of the trades' disputes which have occurred there during the half-century past, have greatly aided in establishing the necessity for thorough education, by proving that its relations to production and consequent profit or loss are of the most intimate character. The undoubted success of her continental rivals, growing out of superior technical skill and training, has had a great deal to do with the demand of manufacturing England for a thorough education of labor; but so also has the growing restlessness of the workingmen, with their earnest desires for better conditions, had very much to do with the remarkable activity now displayed in Great Britain.

The outrages which have made such hideous notoriety for some English trade unions flourish chiefly among the more ignorant class of mechanics and laborers. It is the universal testimony of all who have studied the condition of labor in Great Britain, that, just in proportion that intelligence increases and education is made more accessible, the success of the great ameliorative efforts already inaugurated there are assured. Coöperative societies are the work of the more intelligent men. Councils of arbitration and courts of conciliation, now forming so extensively, are always successful in proportion to the educated intelligence that prevails. So thoroughly are liberalminded capitalists and employers in England impressed with the productive force and economic value of education, that, throughout the manufacturing districts, the traveler will see many fine school-buildings, libraries, mechanics' institutes, &c., attached to the great manufactories and carried on under the direction of these employers. The same is true wherever coöperation has succeeded.

THE FRENCH EXPOSITION AND ENGLISH ARTISANS. During the Paris Exposition of 1867, the London Society of Arts defrayed the expenses of fifty-two English workmen, representing the principal trades and manufactures, to visit and report on the products and industry there exhibited. Their reports constitute one of the most remarkable of all the volumes devoted to the Exposition. Written, as a rule, with great clearness, simplicity, and directness, they testify alike to the intellectual capacity of the writers ard the progress of industrial rivals. This volume teems with tributes to the admirable results achieved by the knowledge and skill acquired through, and directed by, technical and scientific education. Mr. Lucraft, chairmaker, is astonished at the skill displayed by very young men in the Paris workshops. He refers to their carving most delicate and tasteful designs, generally their own. He always found such workmen to have been pupils of the Paris art and technic schools. “The mere mechanical workmen," he says, “ stand not the slightest chance with the workmen of cultivated taste.” Messrs. Kendell & Caunt, hosiers, after what their report shows to have been careful examination, testify: “There can be no doubt that the superior education that is given to the working classes on the Continent gives them an advantage in some respects." Thomas Connolly, stone mason,


, says: “It is impossible to estimate the loss entailed upon England through the neglect of art culture in every form." . This is said after an enthusiastic tribute to the skill and taste displayed by his fellow-craftsmen in Paris. Mr. Randall, painter on chinaware, argues that the state ought to furnish art education to its citizens. “The Frenchman,” he says, “has excellent schools to give him such culture.” With considerable force Mr. Randall observes: “How few men know anything of the material in which they work. Yet such knowledge would sweeten daily toil, would open the treasure-house of thought, and enable a man to convert to new uses elements of force by which he is surrounded, and enrich the nation by adaptations and modes of economizing means now in use.” Mr. Huth, one of the English jurors, says that the cotton production of European countries showed clearly “that there is not a machine working a machine, but that brains sit at the loom, and intelligence stands at the spinning wheel.” Mr. McConnel!, engineer, declares that England inust soon adopt a system of technical education, or be driven from the markets, not even holding her own as to cheapness. Mr. Winstanley argues for the organization of technic schools with workshops attached. Mr. Whiteing declares that in France “a due provision for art education, for instance,


is not a favor on the part of the administration, but one of the conditions of its continuance."



The value of industrial education is made most striking by the results seen in the town of Creuzot. All English testimony is unanimous as to the character of the work there manufactured. J. Scott Russell, Mr. Samuelson, M. P., and other eminent authorities, declare that Mr. Schneider has, by a thorough system of technical training, placed a generation of educated workmen at his disposal. Mr. Russell affirms that it will take twelve years of unremitting effort for England to reach the same degree of skill as these educated workmen and scientific superintendents have attained. Nor is the mechanical skill the only or best results achieved. The frugality and temperance of Mr. Schneider's employés, several thousand in number, make Creuzot a model town in all respects. There are several thousand people in it, of whom seven-tenths are owners of their own dwellings; while the youth and adults who cannot read and write (though few in number) are nearly all strangers-persons not born or trained in the place. The same testimony is given with regard to the Krupp foundery and connected town in Prussia, where every foreman, superintendent, draughtsman, &c., is a graduate of the higher technical schools. Similar statements are made of Mulhouse, Guise, and other French ouvrier towns, in which the necessity of technical education has been most apparent and best supplied.

Mr. Russell declares that fifteen years is required for the theoretical and practical training of a skilled artisan-meaning of course in workshop as well as school. Dr. Lyon Playfair, recognized as among the foremost authorities on this question, in a report to the English government declares that the one cause tending to make continental manufactures superior to English is that Austria, Prussia, France, Belgium, and Switzerland “possess good systems of industrial education for the masters and managers of manufactories and workshops, and England possesses none." Mr. Samuelson, M. P., the leading iron ship-builder on the Thames, says, after giving the whole subject a thorough examination: “I do not think it possible to estimate precisely what has been the influence of continental education on continental manufactures. That the rapid progress of many trades abroad has been greatly facilitated by the superior technical knowledge of the directors of work everywhere, and by the comparatively advanced elementary instruction of the workers in some departments of industry, there can be no doubt."



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At a congress of educators and others, held in Brussels, September, 1868, to consider the best system for popular art instruction, the testimony to its value, as adding to the productiveness of labor was quite unequivocal. Janssen Smit, director of one of the best industrial and art schools, said: “I do not hesitate to say that, by the experiences and education of the industrial workshop, (referring to the workshop schools so common in Belgium and France, as well as other European countries,) more than by the teaching of some special useful art, Paris has monoplized the trade of the world in almost all articles whose value lies in their artistic taste. Art instruction," M. Smit, continued, “is a powerful means of popular education; it exercises on the workingman an eminently civilizing influence; it polishes his manners and gives him calm and serious tastes.Again, “Art in itself will exercise an immense influence on the aptitude and the success of the workingman.” M. Vischer, who presided at the congress, declared the question to be “by what means we can place in the hands of all men, and particularly the workingman and mechanic, a new instrument to increase their personal capital—the power of usefulness and enjoyment.” Evidence of this character might be indefinitely multiplied. Each but cumulates the evidence proving that education—not the mere elements, but that higher culture which throws open the arcana and enables the student to apply his knowledge-tends not to the creation of wealth alone, but to the improvement of man in all that is of individual benefit and constitutes his value to the community at large. In one of the replies sent in response to the questions addressed by the Bureau on this subject of the relations of education and labor, there is a sentence which, strongly epitomizing as it does the labor view, is here quoted : “Aye, education, not only of the alphabet and the multiplication table, but à general popular education in the full meaning of the word, is the panacea for all the social evils and injustices, because it renders men less submissive to evils of human creation which may be remedied by human efforts.A volume might be expanded from that and fail to express it more pertinently.


It is rather surprising to find that, in Massachusetts even, under the high pressure of production and profit which the development of her manufacturing system has aroused, there is some danger of neglecting educational advantages, at least so far as children employer in the cotton and woolen mills are concerned. Recent investigations show some surprising facts in this regard, evincing disregard of the law on the part of employés and parents, which justifies the demand for a compulsory system now being made.

Hon. Henry K. Oliver, in charge of the Massachusetts State Bureau of Labor Statistics, argues in the report for 1869 for such a law, especially with reference to factory children. He recommends that no child under thirteen be allowed to work in these mills, and no child but eight hours per day, and only then if possessed of a good elementary education. With great force Mr. Oliver says: “There is no remedy for the wrong of depriving children of a proper education, and for the greater evils that will ensue if an ignorant class of persons is permitted to grow up, to increase and perpetuate a debased class crowded upon us, threatening danger, nay, already weakening the very foundations of the republic."

In response to a suggestion made by Mr. Oliver, there was established in 1868, at Salem, a school designed directly for children, the hours, &c., being regulated to suit their needs. John Kilburn, esq., superintendent of the Naumkeag Steam Cotton Company, writes of the effect of this school that "it has proved an eminently successful institution and source of comfort to the mills of this company.” Mr. Charles J. Goodwin, agent of Indian Orchard Mills, says, as one result of a similar school, that “a marked change for the better is seen in the deportment and personal appearance of the children." Similar facts and statements might be multiplied almost indefinitely. In a report to the legislature, made in 1867, by a committee appointed on the “hours of labor,” of which the Hon. Amasa Walker was chairman, the majority urgently advocates a higher education for the industrial classes. They pertinently point to the fact that there has been for years a growing disinclination on the part of American workmen to enter on, or continue in, the mechanic arts and trades. The reason is apparent: intellectual ambition and activity find but few opportunities. The report already referred to says, in reference to the proper use to be made of shorter hours of labor, that “we must educate our children to fit them for even the mere drudgery of labor. With the increased skill and intelligence of the laborer, the improvement of machinery, and the increase of wealth, the desire and capacity to enjoy leisure will surely come, and the desire will be gratified.” “It is not enough,” the minority report by Mr. Rogers, of the same committee, argue, “that the laborer have education in childhood; he must have the means of constant improvement and progress in manhood.” The economic use and aggregation of capital caused by the application of science to manufacturing purposes have necessarily changed the condition of vast masses of persons, rendering concentration in large numbers necessary. Yet the conditions of education have remained unchanged. Well arranged as was our public school system for the state of society existing even a generation ago in New England, it has not yet enlarged itself to meet the wants of the changes now being effected, and the evils of illiteracy, or, what is perhaps as dangerous, those arising from mistaking the rudiments or mere implements of education for education itself, are becoming too apparent. In a recent petition to the Massachusetts legislature, calling for a strict apprenticeship system, the evils flowing from the want of special industrial training are referred to in strong terms. The petitioners say that "human labor is so connected with exalted mental and moral capacities that it of right ought to have higher consideration than merchandise.” Massachusetts is moving in the matter of special instruction, as well also as in that more fundamental one, of seeing that the constantly increasing class of children employed in its mills and factories shall not, either from cupidity and carelessness of parents or corporations, or both, be allowed to grow up in ignorance.


The questions and answers with which this paper closes are of a character to need no introduction beyond that given by the facts presented. But a small number of answers have been received up to the date of closing the report for the printer; a fact which is to be regretted, as they show great interest on the part of the gentlemen from whom replies have been, and are now being, received. In themselves they afford proofs of the need and value of a high degree of scientific and technical education as a wealth-producing and social-politico instrumentality, and, with the facts adduced ir. regard to European efforts in this direction, present striking reasons for an increased and continued endeavor to secure and facilitate a more thorough training in the industrial arts and sciences, as well as general knowledge for the working people of the United States.

In this connection the remarks of Dr. Lyon Playfair, at the recent meeting of the British Social Science Association, upon the questions under consideration are weighty and opportune. The English savant advocates the training which shall best fit a man for his place in life. After referring to certain English schools, and to ancient law requiring compulsory education for certain classes, he says: “This main idea of fitting a man


for his work was vigorously supported by our old reformers. John Kuox held firmly by it, especially in his scheme for secondary education, which, unfortunately for Scotland, was never adopted, though his plan for primary education was. In the former he announced that no boys should leave school till they had devoted a proper time to

that study which they intend chiefly to pursue for the profit of the commonwealth.' This is the old conception of the object of education, and reappears at the present day under the modern garb of technical education. All the reformers urged its necessity, especially Luther and Melancthon. Most European states have held fast to the idea with more or less of development, but it has vanished utterly from our English schools.

“Our primary schools, on the whole, do not teach higher instruction than a child of eight years of age may learn. In our class of life, our children acquire such knowledge as a beginning; with the working classes they get it as an end. What an equipment for the battle of life! No armor-plate of knowledge is given to our future artisan, but a mere thin veneer of the three R's, so thin as to rub off completely in three or four years' wear and tear of life. * Under our present system of elementary teaching, no knowledge whatever bearing on the life-work of the people reaches them by our system of State education. The air they breathe, the water they drink, the tools they use, the plants they grow, the mines they excavate, might all be made subjects of surpassing interest and importance to them during their whole life; and yet of these they learn not one fact. Yet we are surprised at the consequences of their ignorance. A thousand men perish yearly in our coal mines, but no schoolmaster tells the poor miner the nature of the explosive gas which scorches him, or of the after-damp which chokes him. Boilers of steamengines blow up so continually that a committee of the House of Commons is now engaged in trying to diminish their alarming frequency, but the poor stokers who are scalded to death or blown to pieces were never instructed in the nature and properties of steam. In Great Britain alone more than 100,000 people perish annually, and at least five times as many sicken grievously, out of pure ignorance of the laws of health, which are never imparted to them at school; they have no chance of learning them afterward, as they possess no secondary schools. The mere tools of education are put into the hands of children during their school time without any effort being made to teach them how to use the tools for any profitable purpose whatever; so they get rusty, or are thrown aside altogether. And we fancy that we have educated the people! Our pauperism, our crime, and the misery which hovers on the brink of both, increase, terribly, and our panacea for their cure is teaching the three R’s. The age of miracles has passed by, and our large faith in our little doings will not remove mountains. It is best to be frank. Our low quality of education is impoverishing the land. It is disgracefully behind the age in which we live and of the civilization of which we boast, and, until we are convinced of that, we cannot be roused to the exertions required for its amendment. This is no new complaint, and has been long ago made by far higher authorities than myself."

Though Dr. Playfair speaks directly to an English audience, and aims, therefore, to illustrate English necessities, there is no one who has examined the relations of labor and edụcation in the United States, however superficially, but what will acknowledge the applicability of his criticisms to our own circumstances. The answers received, especially those from workmen, forcibly illustrate this.


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Washington, D. C., October, 1870. SIR: The object of this Bureau in making the annexed inquiries is to ascertain your views with regard to the effect of education on industry, all other things--as natural ability and length of time employed in a given pursuit-being equal.

It has been claimed that the mere ability to read and write, by even an unskilled laborer, adds one-fourth to his value as a member of the community. This claim, if true, must be capable of demonstration through the observation of intelligent persons.

The following inquiries will be sent to employers or superintendents, to workmen, and to those observers who, as far as may be, are not embraced in either the first or second class. It is the desire of the Commissioner to combine the testimony from these three sources. You will confer a favor by returning to this office such answers to these questions as you are able to give from experience

and observation, adding also such other information as may seem to you pertinent to the subject. Very respectfully, &c.,



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