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realization of this plan; it will be sufficient to state that the exertions of Mr. E. Fellner, president, and of Mr. L. Klemm, teacher of the German-American Seminary in Detroit, were crowned with success, so that a large number of male and female teachers met in Louisville, Kentucky, on the 1st of August, and who, after three days of very harmonious and intelligent labor, constituted themselves permanently as the 'DeutschAmerikanischer Lehrerbund,' (German-American Teachers' Association.) Mr. Fellner, having been elected president, stated in an address the object of the meeting, and of the proposed organization. (See Amerikanischer Zeitung No. 1, page 21 et seq.) Now, it will be well to state at once that the association does not intend to organize an opposition to the English-American system of teaching, but rather to remove the obstacles which oppose harmonious action; to bridge over the chasm which hitherto separated the two systems. The German settlers are far from wishing to be a separate people; they want to be Americans in the most extended meaning of the word. But they are convinced that everynation which becomes an element of the future homogeneous American nation should see its best qualities accepted as a contribution to the completion of the grand process of assimilation which is steadily going on in this country. The Germans can offer no better contribution to the people of the United States, besides their industry, than an improved system of education, which, when properly understood and adopted, will have a powerful influence on the intellectual and moral development of the western world, and will bring it one step nearer to its 'manifest destiny' to excel all nations in power, wealth, and happiness.
"In order that the greatest possible amount of work should be performed in the short space of time allotted to the first meeting, it was necessary to organize the labor without loss of time. The membors were, therefore, divided into the following sections: 1, school in general and school discipline ; 2, method of teaching in general, elementary laws, object-teaching, music, drawing; 3, German reading, writing, and speaking; 4, English reading, writing, and speaking; 5, mathematics; 6, geography, history, natural history, and sciences; 7, permanent organization of the GermanAmerican Teachers' Association; 8, Erziehungszeitung, (official organ of the association;) 9, gymnastics.
"The chairman of each section was required to report, at the specified time laid down in the programme, the most important propositions which their sections in committee meeting had agreed upon, to write them at the black-board, and to offer them for discussion, after such preliminary remarks as he considered necessary. This arrangement worked admirably; it prevented all irrelevant questions, concentrated the labors of the association, offered the individual members an opportunity of expressing their opinions and experiences, and secured for the discussion the time which but too frequently is allowed to learned and less instructive essays. All sections had not an opportunity to report, the time being too short; they will be heard next year. Several very valuable essays, written by practical school men, were also read to the association in the interval between the section reports, or in public evening meetings. Referring for the detail to the minutes published in the Schulzeitung, I only beg to mention that the invitation to join the association is not only addressed to the German, but also to the American teachers, and to all friends of education. It is hoped that many English-American ladies and gentlemen will attend the next meeting in Cincinnati. The day of meeting will be fixed by the committee in St. Louis, which is charged with all the preliminary labors. I will lastly call your attention to two resolutions :
“1. The committee on statistics shall continue their labors during the year, and make monthly reports in the Schulzeitung.
“2. Practical teachers (their names, see Schulzeitung) are appointed in all principal cities of the United States, charged with the duty to examine, both theoretically and practically, candidates who apply for employment as teachers, and to give them a certificate as to the result of such examinations.
“I shall be happy to complete this short report-written at your request--by verbal communications, whenever you shall have appointed a Saturday (the only day of the weck at which I am disengaged) on which I can be sure to meet you at your office. I beg to add that I have requested Mr. Hailmann, (editor of the Schulzeitung,) at Louisville, to send you a copy regularly. “I am, dear sir, very respectfully, yours,
"WM. STEFFEN. " General JOHN EATON,
“Commissioner of Education.”
As having a bearing upon the subject of Professor Steffen's communication, the opinions and facts given in a recent article by John Kraus, entitled “The German Language in the Public Schools, and the Germans in America,” and published in the National Republican of this city, are here presented in substance. The object of the writer of the article was to answer some objections to the introduction of the study of the German language into our city schools, which had appeared in a number of the same paper. After stating that he had shown, in a former article, how the study of the German was gaining ground, he quotes from a speech, made in 1856, by the president of the board of education in New York, that no modern language, other than our own, has a higher claim to a place in educational institutions than the German, to the extent that a liberal education is desired. It ought to have a prominence over all other modern languages; and none can be more useful in ordinary life and business.
Roference was made by Mr. Kraus to the fact that there are now in Berlin sixty American students attending lectures at the universities of that city alone, while in Heidelburg, Bonn, Jena, Leipsic, and the mining school at Freiberg there are as many more. Mr. Kraus continues :
"The question in regard to the German language in our public schools is at present agitated in New York; but the leading Germans lay particular stress on the circumstance that the introduction of the German language, as a regular branch of instruction, is desired only for a limited number of schools, and not for all of them.
“ Last year the German Teachers' Society of New York and environs, by their re. porter, Dr. Adolf Dousi, laid before Hon. Henry Barnard, Commissioner of Education, a statement respecting the German schools in existence in the Union. The first of the reasons and causes that have led to the foundation of these schools is that our Germanborn population find their children rapidly unlearn the German tongue, English being not only the common idiom of all nationalities in this country, but also a language easier than almost any other to acquire, to read, to pronounce. This fact sadly disturbs the family relations, the efforts of parents toward the education of their children, and the respect due to the parents from the latter; for when their children speak among themselves, even at home, nothing but English, they form, as it were, a foreign element within the family. The great mass of the immigrated Germans learn, during the first generation, hardly English enough to understand all their children talk among themselves, and thus they are unable to discover their secrets, to warn, to guide, to correct them. The children deeming English, the common language of the country, a better one than any other, begin to slight their parents, who have not a perfect command of the same, to enjoy the fun of having their own secrets, inaccessible to their parents, and end in refusing obedience to them, and in keeping no longer company, when balf grown, with their nearest relatives not perfectly Anglicised. That these facts are productive of a great many evils, and even engender juvenile crime and profligacy, can be easily understood.”
Another reason is thought to be more important, namely, that “Germany is the cra dle of the reformation of schools, and the German schools, as a whole, might, from the latter part of the eighteenth century down to the middle of the present, be justly considered as by far the best in the world. It is, then, but natural that immigrated Germans, coming from a great many excellent schools in their old country, and being conscious of and thankful for the great advantages derived from them, should desire that their children may grow up under the same benefits, and that the United States, this dear country of their choice, may profit to some degree from the existence of schools instituted after the German model, even though the latter be modified according to the peculiar circumstances and requirements of the American nationality and idea. causes mentioned, each, according as it was prevailing over others, in the minds of the founders of German schools, gave rise to a different kind of school. Where the idea of preserving the family relations, and together with them the parental religious denomination, prevailed, there denominational German schools were founded, of which there are in this country nearly as many as there are German church buildings and societies. The adversaries of this movement are generally laboring under the mistake of supposing that the Germans wish to carry this reform into all the schools. Diversity of language is an obstacle to intercourse between different nations and races that the wisest have not been able to remove. It is a matter of course that the citizens of this great country should have a common language as a means of mutual intelligence, and a characteristic feature of their nationality; and, as Jacob Grimm, the great German philologist, says: 'No other living language is so well adapted to express every variety and shade of thought, or to express it so forcibly.' But it is not adverse to the American idea that the citizens of this country should derive untold advantages from their ability to freely converse and communicate with the natives of other countries, and enjoy their national literature.
THE RELATIONS OF EDUCATION AND LABOR.
In the United States there is some danger of mistaking the elements of education for education itself, through leaving to private effort, rather than the community, tho providing of means for such comprehensive and thorough instruction in the practical arts and sciences, which is demanded more and more by the industrial necessities and progress of the age. Humboldt long since declared "that the time was not far distant when science and manipulative skill must be wedded together; that national wealth and increasing prosperity of nations must be based on an enlightened employment of natural products and forces.” The truth of this is daily more apparent. Here we have laid broad and enduring foundation for a comprehensive common school system, which, if it has not yet reached its full measure of usefulness, is in a fair way to do so. But for special instruction, either elementary or higher, which all modern industrial life establishes as absolutely necessary for success, our provision is wholly insufficient. On the other hand, the interest felt in this matter of industrial education in Europe is strikingly manifested by the following summary of what is being done in the leading states thereof:
in common with other German States, has an extensive system of special schools, designed for persons employed in the useful and mechanic arts. They are of different grades, from those wherein apprentices are trained to the polytechnic schools, where the mining, civil, and mechanical engineers, the architect and constructor, the industrial and practical chemist, and the scientific manager of factory, foundry and workshop, can all obtain the training essential for success in their several pursuits. The system pursued in Austria and other European states may not be the best adapted for our wants, but it will show what is being done elsewhere in this important matter.
In Austria proper there are 45 superior schools and academies for scientific instruction in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, the culture of the vine and the silkworm, and veterinary surgery; also of mining, navigation, and commerce; with 7 polytechnic schools, in all having 5,951 pupils and 426 professors and teachers, (1868.) These schools are in part sustained by the imperial government, and are under the general direction of the minister charged with educational matters. Hungary has 13 similar
. schools, with 116 teachers, and 1,311 pupils. Bohemia has an extended system of industrial instruction, more diffuse than in other parts of the empire. What are termed “ burgher schools," answering to our secondary or grammar schools, have special courses designed for mechanical and commercial training. Besides, there are throughout the Austrian provinces a large number of workman and apprentice schools, usually teaching some special trade. In Vienna and Prague there are a number of these. In the latter city there is one whose course includes the technical sciences, practical weaving, linear and free hand machine and constructive drawing, lectures on machinery, practical chemistry, and modeling. There are classes for machinists, building trades, weavers, dyers, industrial art, as for goldsmiths, jewelers, porcelain makers, &c. The Austrian polytechnics have been in existence for more than a century. They are in part sustained by the government, and in part by the fees received from students. These are small, and provision is made for gratuitous instruction. The course of studies pursued is comprehensive, and the collections of models, tools, laboratories, museums, and libraries attached are large and constantly being increased.
The duchy of Baden boasts of not less than 50 special technical schools, with 5,772 pupils; among these, 41 schools of "arts and trades,” with 4,803 pupils. There are several for teaching watch-making, weaving, agriculture, straw-plaiting, (for girls,) which give instruction not only in those pursuits, but in studies of a general character. The Carlsruhe Polytechnic School is regarded as among the model institutions of its class. It was founded in 1814, as an engineering school; but has been gradually enlarged, until it now includes divisions or schools of engineers, architects, builders, foresters, chemists, machinists, commerce, and of posts. The latter division is common in the European schools, and is designed to educate men for government postal service and in the management of roads and telegraphs. The student may select his studies and follow any given course. The qualifications requisite are elementary knowledge. The preparatory course is one or two years in length, and their technical studies last from two to four years. The fees are $3 admission, and 66 Rhenish florins per annum. Some are admitted to lectures only. The buildings are regarded as among the best in Europe ; as are also the collections, laboratory, museum and library. In 1868 there were 589 regular pupils in attendanco.
The Bavarian system is extensive and highly praised. It includes, besides a good system of elementary, secondary, and high schools, a large number of technical and industrial schools, embracing, besides normal, music, painting, sculpture, and other belonging to the fine arts, 4 superior agricultural academies, with 29 sections for similar instruction in that number of superior trade schools. These latter have commercial as well as mechanical and industrial art courses. The pupils in attendance number several thousand. Schools of forestry, horticulture, veterinary surgery, and commerce are also in operation. The Bavarian schools, long established, and reorganized in 1864, have for their chief design “to carry the sciences into industry, and to put industrial pursuits upon a footing corresponding to the progress of technical art and the competition of foreign industry.” In the trade schools the studies embrace physics, drawing, modeling, chemistry, geometry, and mechanics. Practical labor in workshops and on the farm are part of the courses. The polytechnic is the apex of the Bavarian system. It embraces the usual scientific courses. Small fees are required; but remitted in deserving cases. At Passau, Munderberg, and at Berchtesgaden there are special training schools. The latter teaches wood-carving. At Augsburg is the Royal School of Machinery, which has a peculiar reputation for beautiful models of machinery, &c., made by the pupils. Many of the polytechnic schools and museums are supplied therefrom. Each pupil works in the shop, as well as receives appropriate theoretical instruc tion. The Nuremberg School of Art, as applied to trades, is famous all over Europe. Its course is thorough, and includes drawing, plain and from ornamental models, architecture, the antique, from life, plastic studies, embossing, sculpture, wood-carving, brass-founding, engraving, with classes in perspective and shadows, and in anatomy. It is affirmed that this school has contributed largely to national prosperity.
WÜRTEMBERG, with 1,700,000 inhabitants, is conceded to possess the best educated population in Europe. Besides a complete system of general schools, she has one technical university and io technical schools of the next grade, with 539 instructors and 5,148 pupils. There are 11 building and trade schools, giving a thorough theoretical and practical training in those occupations. They have 286 teachers and 6,457 students. There are 108 trade and industrial schools, having 8,254 scholars. There is an admirable polytechnic university at Stuttgardt, designed for the education of the higher class of professional men. The eminent English engineer, J. Scott Russell, in his work “Technical Education,” gives a full account of the remarkable system' prevailing in this little kingdom, and shows to what a height the intelligence and progress of the people, as well as the prosperity of the community, may attain under such admirable training. Speaking generally, Mr. Russell says: "In every country where technical education has taken root and had time to bear fruit, I also find unquestioned proofs of the rapidity with which increased intelligence and enlarged knowledge bring increase in employment and remuneration.”
The special technical system of Prussia, to which most of the smaller German states now conform, will bear brief examination. There are in Prussia alone 361 schools devoted to architecture, mining, agriculture, forestry, navigation, commerce, and other technical studies, general and special. Besides schools for weaving and the textile manufactures, there are 265 industrial schools whose studies and hours are directly arranged for the use of mechanics. They are classified as the central academies, approaching nearly to the polytechnic grade. The provincial and municipal improvement schools, and those for foreman, workman, and apprentice, all are fitted with models, tools, and laboratories. There are a large number of drawing schools, in which the classes are arranged to suit various trades needing such instruction. The agriculture schools are thorough, being divided into general and special. In the weaving schools the pupils receive practical instruction, and also study chemistry, as applied to the textile arts, &c.
Saxony has 76 technical schools, and a number for special instruction in various trades and occupations. The Dresden Polytechnic is one of the best in Europe. An excellent training school for women also exists, in which instruction is afforded in commercial and other branches. All the states of North Germany are being affiliated to the excellent system of Prussia.
has a complete system of technical and special industrial schools honored by the best though youngest polytechnic institution in existence'; such high praise is awarded it by competent English observers like Messrs. Samuelson, J. Scott Russell, and others, who have examined these institutions. The industrial and scientific university is located at Zurich. The buildings were erected at the expense of that canton, costing over $500,000. There are 7 schools or courses of study, architecture and construction, civil engineering, mechanics and machinery, chemistry, inorganic, applied and industrial agriculture, forestry, and rural economy, moral and political economy, and the fine arts. The federal government makes an annual appropriation of $40,000 towards its maintenance. There are over 70 regular professors, tutors, and assistants, and an average of 600 pupils. In addition to this federal polytechnic, there is an excellent technical institute at Lausanne, designed for the education, in the French cantons, of engineers, mechanicians, chemists and architects. It was started by an association, but receives a subsidy from the canton government, and also from the Lausanne commune. Small fees are charged, though provision is made for scholars who are unable to pay, but they must pass a competitive examination. There are 20 industrial schools for girls, in different cantons; a school for weavers, one for watchmakers, and another for wood-carving and drawing, besides 7 agricultural schools for boys. The Zurich cantonal schools are famous, and are held up as models to educators everywhere.
In consequence of the impetus given by these schools, eminent English authority say, it may be safely declared that “the Swiss, in their far valleys, are rapidly growing a dexterous and successful manufacturing people.” More than half the students are from other countries. Besides the extensive corps of professors, there are excellent laboratories, workshops for the practical application and teaching of the several industrial arts, fine collections of models of all kinds, and an extensive and well-selected library. A good observatory, well fitted up, is also part of the polytechnic.
has been active for the last twenty years in promoting industrial education. The result is marked in growing manufacturing importance. There is 1 college and school of agriculture; 1 of horticulture, forestry, and veterinary surgery. The simpler branches of these are taught in a large number of the primary schools. Of commercial schools there is 1 superior, and 12 secondary ; 3 navigation schools, and 15 technical, with 2,293 pupils. Besides these there are 68 workshop schools, with 1,857 pupils. They have 1,428 looms in them, and have sent out, since 1845, 27,373 thoroughly trained weavers. The expenses are divided between the state, province, and communes. There is a royal academy of arts, mining, and manufacturing at Liege, and one of engineers at Ghent, besides art, as applied to industry, is taught in 60 academies and schools, having more than a thousand scholars.
justifies her renewed unity by a renewal of industrial growth which is quite surprising. There were in 1868, 964 secondary technical schools, giving instructions in drawing, mechanics, industrial chemistry, &c., to 42,800 pupils. There were also 132 free technical schools, with 16,955 pupils ; 72 assimilated with 6,495, and 55 royal or or principal technical schools having 5,868 scholars; besides, there are 3 superior and 84 institutes of technology, making a total as abovo stated. In the principal school at Milan there were 252 pupils. In addition to these designed mainly for the use of artisans and mechanics, at Naples there is I school of applied engineering and 2 of mining. Besides these, Italy has 29 art schools.
The Scandinavian states also interest themselves in this special training. Denmark has a polytechnic school of excellent character, and schools of horticulture, agriculture, forestry, and veterinary surgery, with several technical schools, properly so-called. In Norway and Sweden there are academies of arts and design; also of mining and for elementary instruction in agriculture. Sweden maintains an excellent technological institute, and 4 elementary schools; 1 of ship-building, 9 of navigation, and 1 of mining.
Russia has several well organized polytechnic schools, embracing practical scientific studies, and also instruction in turning, carpenter's work, foundery, dyeing, engraving, and machine construction. Shops for all these pursuits are attached. The technological schools at St. Petersburg and Moscow are of the best character. There are 70 normal agricultural schools and 1,000 primary schools, in which practical farming, horticulture, and forestry are taught. There are 80 schools of mining, 1 central academy, and several provincial schools. Besides, there are 15 schools for instruction in naval architecture and steam engineering.
FRANCE has paid great attention to this subject. Of government schools there were, under the French empire, (1868,) 2 national schools of agriculture; 9 courses on agricultural sciences in other colleges; 70 farm schools; 1 national agronomic institute; a number of schools for teaching practical draining, irrigation, horse, sheep, and cattle breeding; experimental sheep-folds and cow-houses; besides 3 schools of veterinary surgery, one being termed a college. There is a college and chamber of commerce; 1 school of roads and bridges; 3 of mining, with 19 professors. At Paris we find central schools of arts and manufactures ; also the famous conservatory of arts and industry. There are 3 national schools of arts and manufactures located in the provinces. In