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common estrangement in regard to the land of their adoption, common dialect, should breed common sympathies, and should draw together. Thorough and complete Americanization is, however, hindered by all such isolation.
As the man is fashioned in the training of the child, and as the spirit of the nation is shaped in the family, it is of the first importance that not only the family life be maintained and protected, but also in order to the completest fusion that this family life be impregnated by the true American spirit, and be shaped after a pure American and Christian pattern. The family spirit which so characterizes the Chinaman should not be eradicated and supplanted, but only elevated and expanded.
ADOPTION OF AMERICAN MANNERS.
In like manner a full initiation into the peculiar social usages and manners of American life, so far, at least, as worthy, is to be desired, as also a free introduction into the vast diversity of our arts and occupations, as likewise into our religious usages and habits. Into this whole social life, this new element may bring in something that will liberalize, expand, enrich, as well as purify and elevate our manners; but it should be carefully grafted into the fundamental principles and spirit of our social order and economy, and not root itself and grow up a distinct and isolated growth.
ADMISSION TO CITIZENSHIP.
Finally, on the broadest, surest grounds of a true and wise policy, the Chinaman should be brought to a free participation in our political life. Intelligence and morality, indeed, should be the conditions of political rights and privileges; but such conditions only as are accorded to others should be imposed on him. His wonted training and spirit, as already observed, do not predispose him to seek political privileges, rather to shun them. He, therefore, needs no unusual checks. He is to be nationalized in his feelings and views, his characteristic family spirit being expanded into the proper love of country as the characteristic filial spirit rises and swells into reverence for the Divine Father of all. This is the only safe result for him, as for the country. The sordid calculations of political partisanship will doubtless often prompt to strong opposition to the naturalization of the Chinaman, perhaps sometimes seek to effect it too hastily, and with too much disregard of settled limitations and safeguards. The dangers of the too free admission of foreigners to citizenship will be as much exaggerated in the one case as underrated in the other. The one safe, desirable course is, under suitable limitations and conditions of intelligence, morality, time of residence, and the like, to bring in all that dwell among us into the full exercise of all political rights, and the corresponding participation in all political burdens and responsibilities.
III.-METHOD OF ATTAINMENT.
To the question, now, how such thorough assimilation of this foreign element to American life after its highest type is best to be accomplished, all the facts in the case point to the answer: By education under a right popular sentiment.
This right popular sentiment in regard to the whole Chinese question is indispensable even to much success in any educational effort, for this must itself spring from an enlightened, philanthropic feeling, and be guided and sustained by this feeling, while all educational endeavors may be effectually prostrated by a strong popular sentiment arrayed in hostility, and bent on oppression or extermination. It is most important, therefore, that the public mind be carefully and accurately informed in respect to all the facts and principles involved in this question. It should be lifted above the low, mean selfishness which vitalizes the caste spirit in every form, whether industrial or political. It should be familiarized with the lofty, worthy views that are inspired at once by that superintending providence which has brought the swelling tide of population onward till it has reached our waiting continent, that it may spread over its wastes a reclaiming, regenerating life; and also by that noble spirit of philanthropy which from the first has extended a hand of welcome to all the oppressed and crushed from other lands. It is a necessity that drives to us from overcrowded China, a necessity that it is folly to struggle against. The overflowing waters will, must, find their resting-place. They threaten no harm, if a judicious, efficient, and timely guidance be given them. They can be so controlled and influenced as to nourish and foster every good interest, and immensely augment our true prosperity and well-being. The one fundamental condition is that the Chinaman, as he comes among us, be treated as a man; as having the same rights, as he has the same natural endowments, as ourselves; in the free reciprocation of all human sympathies and courtesies; and, especially, in the true spirit of a pure Christian philanthropy, that shall generously seek to elevate and bless him. The cost of prohibitory measures and of oppressive legislation will greatly exceed that of an effective philanthropic effort to Americanize and Christianize; while such unworthy policy must necessarily bring in influences pernicious
to our free institutions. The highest wisdom dictates a kind, generous reception to all waifs of humanity from other lands; while open vice and crime meet a prompt and just retribution, poverty and want should fall into the hands of charity; ignorance seeking light and industry seeking employment should find instant help and guidance. Let proper educational provisions be supplied under the promptings and support of this wise, humane, eminently American sentiment, and what is timidly feared as a threatening evil to industry, to manners, to political purity and integrity, and to religion, cannot fail to be converted into a blessing to all of these precious interests. If labor be cheapened here or there, experience proves that while it benefits all in so far as it cheapens production, it only in the end lifts whatever worthy industry is temporarily displaced to a higher plane. Such are the lessons taught by the history of the introduction of competitive human labor, so far as free at least, of animal force and artificial machinery. Cheap European labor has displaced the native American from domestic service and from public works; but it has only elevated him to a higher condition that brings better pay and allows a richer culture. The use of horses and of oxen has not injured the most menial class of laborers; nor has labor-saving machinery proved detrimental to them. So the policy of a generous treatment has proved and must ever prove the wisest and best too in the sphere of political partisanship. This worthy, generous sentiment will open towns, schools, factories, shops, so that the foreign element shall diffuse itself freely everywhere into all the currents of our national life and so better effect its assimilation and make it truly enriching and blessing. The narrow policy of exclusion and opposition will only drive into separated communities where antagonisms cannot fail to be nourished.
The availability and effectiveness of a proper educational policy may safely be inferred from what facts are in our possession. We have, first, the great underlying fact of the universal intelligence of the Chinese. They all come instructed by long, systematic, publicly-enforced training in the rudiments of learning. They come with the habits of learners, accustomed to discipline, accustomed to acquire knowledge, capacitated as disposed to attain new and higher instruction. Their docility is remarked everywhere in the Eastern States and on the Pacific coast, in private instruction, in charitable schools, in Sunday-schools, in seminaries and colleges where individuals have stood among the first in scholarship, in public schools, as well as also in the industries and arts of common life.
This docility is accompanied and fostered by a remarkable eagerness to learn the American language and the arts and sciences peculiar to our civilization. Every motive presses them to acquire our language. The testimony is unvarying. Of the workmen employed at North Adams, it is said, "about half are at their books nearly all the time out of work-hours; the rest do not read much, only as they have teachers." Of what other class of immigrants can anything like this be said? In New York there is but one school for teaching them the English language, which is itself of recent establishment, yet it is said "a considerable portion of the Chinese population has been graduated from it, and it has recommended to various employers nearly 200 of its pupils. At present there are about 40 pupils under tuition." This is about one-fifth of the entire number in New York. In San Francisco the desire to learn our language brings them to Sunday-schools as well as to other places of education. It is noticeable that within the last two years a great change in this respect has taken place, and the difficulty is no longer that of obtaining pupils, but teachers. The efficient superintendent, Rev. O. Gibson, expresses "no doubt that the desire to learn English will fill every department" in the Chinese Mission Institute, for which a fine three-story building is now in process of erection. The schools for boys and for girls, instituted by different Protestant and by Roman Catholic Christians, are represented to find no lack of pupils. The demands for the means and facilities for instruction on the other hand far transcend the supply.
This eagerness for instruction in our language and in the arts and sciences of our civilization is but the outgrowth and reflection of the new sentiments which have come forth with a wonderfully rapid growth in China itself. The English and French wars have demolished the old hostility to Europeans; and the demand is now so strong and general for a knowledge of our arts and sciences that not a doubt can be entertained of the complete availableness of proper educational efforts to assimilate this whole, incoming people to our proper American life and manners.
The effort is an exceedingly hopeful one for the adult Chinaman. But after all, the great work is to be accomplished through the children. This work is at present entirely within reach; for the immigration hitherto has been mainly of adult males. The number of children is at present small. They belong to families too, for the most part, that are settled in life, having adopted this country for their permanent abode, and having fixed occupations. They live, moreover, in cities and communities where educational means and help can be readily procured. These boys are to be the members of our political body from the Asiatic continent; they will be almost exclusively, to
judge from present appearances, the citizens among us of Chinese origin; for, as before intimated, the notion of our being overwhelmed by an inundation of heathen voters, is like that of our being threatened with a new form of servitude in the persons of Chinese coolies, a mere bug-bear of a distempered fancy. If, accordingly, the children of the Chinese be properly trained in American and Christian ideas, the great problem is solved and the immigration may go on without danger. Further, the desired influence upon the adults will best reach them through the children who, as they are taught themselves, will be the best teachers, at home and in the society of their countrymen, in our language, usages, arts, manners. They will be the vital bonds which will unité in one life the foreign with the native members.
In respect to the studies to be made prominent, the leading one is of course that of our language. The Chinese all read in their native dialect; they seek and should be helped to learn to read in ours. When once such a command of our language is acquired as to enable them to read our newspapers, the work of Americanization may be considered to be assured of its full accomplishment. A good daily newspaper in our language will do more to indoctrinate and imbue with truly American ideas and habits of life than probably any other instrumentality. It is therefore to be earnestly hoped that all occasion for the further publication of newspapers in Chinese will be obviated by the timely impartation to them of the principles of our own speech.
To qualify the Chinese then to read our language freely is the leading aim in all educational labors. Here, doubtless, are formidable difficulties to be encountered. The Chinese tongue is further removed from the English thran are most, at least of the European, tongues, and to acquire it is a work of much and peculiar labor. Our phonetic system is different from the Chinese; it contains elements, as the r, which the Chinese can hardly distinguish from the l, that require a special training of the vocal organs. These organs, too, united to monosyllabic elements, break down under our heavy polysyllables. The use of inflections to indicate relations in verbal expression is strange to them, and hence they easily fall into errors, such as the "Pigeon-English" exemplifies, in distinguishing by one invariable suffix for all persons, numbers, moods, and tenses, the use of a word as a verb from its use as a noun. Yet, here it should be remarked, the English comes nearer than any other Indo-European tongue to the Chinese, as, like that, it indicates grammatical relations mainly by the position of words in the sentence; while, on the other hand, the Chinese tongue gives evidence of a preparation for an advance from the monosyllabic and low agglutinative type to the proper inflectional. The English tongue meets the Chinese full half-way in both these particulars. It has dropped off in great measure the inflections which characterize both the classical and the Teutonic families of dialects, and uses with allowed freedom the same word for all the grammatical uses of nouns, verbs, and adjectives; and also delights, especially in the more colloquial usage, to employ the sturdy monosyllabic stem-word in preference to delicately wrought inflectional polysyllables. Like the Chinese, its colloquial, and therefore its most highly practical, vocabulary is made up more of object-words than of words denoting relations of thought and of diction, and thus characteristically addresses more the imagination and the reflective faculties. On the assumption of a primitive unity of dialect among men, to which all the facts of linguistic science thus far attained significantly point, in perfect harmony with reason and revelation, the Chinese language is but the result of a more effective attrition from the intermingling of tribal communities leading a wandering life, which has worn off all inflectional additions to original stem-words. This result has been the more complete because of the absence in early times of all literature, whether written or legendary, and because of the more nomadic character of the people, and the consequent meagerness of its vocabulary. The people that have shaped the English dialect have been distinguished from other Europeans by this very circumstance of a more promiscuous origin, while they have enjoyed the advantage of a literature which has operated to preserve primitive words and forms, and also have been kept in more intimate and thorough intercommunication with one another than was the case with the earlier Chinese families and tribes.
In the same way the sentence structure in the two languages differs little but in the one particular, determined by the same influences of a conservative literature. Both essentially follow the strict order of thought, the purely logical order; but the English suffers considerable rhetorical and poetical deviations not so free to the Chinese. The difficulties, accordingly, which a Chinese has to encounter in acquiring the English tongue, are far less considerable than those he must meet in learning any European dialect. The phonetic difficulties, as also those of grammar, including the inflectional and syntactic, are real, but after all are comparatively slight. The main difficulty lies in the vocabulary. So wide has been the divergence in the history of the ancestries of the Chinaman and the American, that whatever may be true of the original unity of their tongues, the vocabularies now retain hardly a sign of this primal identity
This diversity does by no means imply any diversity of intellectual, or moral, or speaking natures; for nothing could be more antecedently probable than that in early times, when the human race was broken up at the era of the great dispersion into small communities of tribes or families, wandering apart in a scattered nomadic life, with no literature, written or oral, and a vocabulary of but a few hundred words altogether, this meager stock of words should, in the lapse of ages, be thoroughly changed; that, in other words, in such circumstances, our group of articulate sounds, taken out of an infinite number of like possible groups, should gradually be changed, losing and substituting word by word, till every one of the original group should disappear. The speaking nature of the Chinese and the American is the same, and on this solid foundation is the plan and hope of an educational effort for the Chinaman among us to be based. The difficulties to be surmounted are not fundamental, but incidental. It is worthy of mention, in corroboration of this view, that a Chinaman a few years ago took the first prize in English composition in Yale College, where he graduated with honor.
Moreover, it is to be remarked of these difficulties, that, aside from those arising from a different vocabulary, they are to be encountered rather in learning to speak than in learning to read our language. The Chinese are a reading people, and the thorough indoctrination into American ideas, which is, after all, mainly to be accomplished through reading rather than speaking, appears to be altogether feasible. Especially will this appear if we consider that only a small part of our literary vocabulary enters into the uses of common life. It is a well-attested fact that the entire vocabulary in actual use by portions of the English peasantry is confined to a few hundred words, that might easily be committed to memory in a week.
It is worthy of careful consideration whether rudimental text-books or primers, spelling-books, and primary reading books should not be prepared which shall be specially adapted to the peculiarities of the Chinese mind and habits in regard to orthoepy, orthography, and sentence construction, and inasmuch as the adults are, for a time at least, to constitute the great mass of those to receive instruction, it is worthy of consideration also whether rudimental books should not especially be prepared for them as being already well educated in their own tongue. At present the slow, clumsy practice of hearing and reading portions of the English scriptures is the best resource available, a practice which is indeed recommended by the fact that an introduction to the Christian faith is sought in union with the knowledge of our language. It is questionable, however, whether both objects cannot be better attained by pursuing the two separately.
Of the other studies which the peculiarities of the Chinese among us indicate as of special importance to them, little need be said. To write comes so easy to them that only that practice which may be desirable for learning other branches is required beyond the mere shaping of our written characters. The training in book-keeping, which ought to be enforced in every American school where arithmetical studies are pursued as far as to the common rules of commercial usage, but which is so strangely overlooked, will, to the Chinese mind, so prone to trading life, from its attractiveness, furnish probably the sufficient and readiest introduction to a good chirography.
The peculiarities of his condition suggest also at once the desirableness of special training in geography and in history, that his mind may be fully delivered from the proverbial thraldom of Chinese pride and exclusiveness. For a like reason, at least, there should be sought a rudimental acquaintance with the principles of technological science, as developed among the occidental nations, by which they are so exalted above the oriental tribes, including, of course, something of those sciences on which that of the useful arts is founded.
The final question which presents itself in the consideration of the method to be adopted respects the instrumentality by which the education of the Chinese among us is to be effected. Actual experience sheds some light on this point, which it is safe to follow. We have, on the one hand, settled among ourselves some general principles which are applicable to educational efforts among the Chinese, and, on the other hand, we have the actual fruits of such efforts among them, which are suggestive.
The American people, then, have recognized the duty of the Government to oversee and secure the education of its citizens to such degree as to protect our free institutions that rest upon the intelligence and morality of the people. The action of the Federal Government, and also of particular State legislatures, is decisive on this point. Wisely leaving this work as far as is safe to private care, governmental action has in many ways, directly and indirectly, not only encouraged but enforced instruction. It has further, directly and indirectly, to an extent unprecedented in the history of nations, aided by liberal benefactions this general education which it has sought, and the whole tendency of the age, guided and prompted by experience, is unquestionably tỏ freer and larger governmental patronage and encouragement.
On the other hand, it is well established among us that education, to be universal
as it should be, as it must be, indeed, for our national security, must be within the reach of all; that, consequently, it must be to a great extent free-must be furnished, in other words, either without cost, or at a far less price than its actual cost.
We start then with these recognized principles, that education should be under governmental supervision and patronage when needed, or, generally speaking, under governmental favor and encouragement, while yet sustained mainly by private munificence, and that general education should be furnished to a large extent without cost. Experience, as it respects actual fruits, indicates the following general particulars in regard to the kind of instrumentality to be employed :
First. The successes which have attended the education of Chinamen in our colleges and schools, promiscuously with native Americans, indicate that this policy be pursued and encouraged in every way. All considerations sustain this view; while no social repugnances are encountered, our habits of training bring no difficulties to the learner. Such free intermixture of the foreign with the native elements of our people is for the health and safety of all.
Secondly. The remarkable successes which in the last two years have attended purely philanthropic efforts among the Chinese, indicate that these efforts should be continued and enlarged in every way, with more system, if possible, so as that all may be reached, and, at all events, with more efficiency. They should receive a greatly increased support from the enlightened and humane.
The proper religious efforts, particularly in Sunday-schools, that have had such great success, may be greatly extended. Only through them, at present, probably, can the children be generally reached, especially while the unreasonable prejudice continues in those communities where Chinese children are mostly to be found. This agency may, in any event, well supplement what is done in the public schools that are open to the children of this race.
The night schools during the week have also been favored with a parallel success. These efforts, meeting particularly the adult Chinese when disengaged from industrial pursuits, are deserving of special consideration and favor.
The provision of higher institutions specially for Chinese by individual munificence, is one that should be resorted to only in case of a clear necessity, which does not as yet seem to have arisen. Every movement that can tend to sustain a caste system is to be deprecated, and should be allowed only as the less objectionable alternative of ignorance and continued debasement.
Thirdly. It is the clear dictate of wisdom to extend whatever educational privileges are accorded to the children of native Americans or of whites, also to the children of the Chinese. What the Federal and the State governments should do in behalf of education it is not proper here to prescribe; but whatever is thus done should certainly avail as fully to the needy and the neglected as to the affluent and favored. All legislation and all administration which discriminate in favor of any one class of our heterogeneous people to the prejudice of any other, is as anti-American as it is unwise and impolitic.
H. N. DAY, A. M.
The following series of questions was sent, as far as time would allow, to State and city superintendents. The answers received, though limited, from a number of school officers, contain important facts and suggestions in reference to the right adjustment of this vital part of school business.
The answers will be given, as far as received from State, county, and city superintendents, corresponding to the numbers of the questions.
1. What is your annual salary?
2. How many assistants are you allowed by law; their salaries; their duties?
3. Is the force of your office adequate for the amount of work to be done?
4. What is the smallest additional force you should have to satisfactorily do your -duty; proper compensation?
CONNECTICUT.-1. Three thousand five hundred dollars.-Birdsey G. Northrop, secretary board of education.
2. The law does not allow any assistant; or, if two or more were necessary, the law would allow so many. At present one is employed; salary, $1,600. His duties are to receive and attend to calls at the office, to answer inquiries as to laws, &c., pertaining to educational affairs in the State, to conduct the correspondence of the office, and to