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man Hospital, Jewish Hospital, and St. Francis Hospital. Additional instruction is also given in the university dispensary and the surgical wards in the college building.
The dissecting room is open during the session, under the supervision of the professor of clinical and demonstrative surgery and his assistants. Every student is here thoroughly instructed and practically trained in the application of bandages and surgical apparatus, and in the performance of operations upon cadaver. Instruments, splints, and bandages are supplied free of cost.
The rules for graduation in medicine are as follows:
1. The candidate must have attained the age of twenty-one years, have applied himself to the study of medicine for three years, and been, during that time, the private pupil, for two years at least, of a respectable practitioner of medicine.
2. The candidate must also have attended two complete courses of the following lectures in this institution: Theory and practice of medicine; anatomy; materia medica and pharmacy; chemistry; surgery; obstetrics and diseases of women and children; institutes of medicine.
3. Medical students who have attended one complete course in a respectable medical school, where the attendance on two complete courses is necessary to a degree, where the same branches are taught as in this, and which is placed upon the ad eundem of this school, are permitted to become candidates by an attendance here for one full course; the rules of graduation being in other respects observed.
4. The candidate, at the time of his application, must deliver to the dean of the medical faculty a thesis, composed by himself, on some medical subject. This thesis is referred to one of the professors, who shall examine the candidate upon it, and make his report thereon to the medical faculty.
JEFFERSON MEDICAL COLLEGE, PHILADELPHIA, PA. There are 7 chairs : 1, general description and surgical anatomy; 2, institutes and practice of surgery; 3, practice of medicine; 4, obstetrics and diseases of women and children; 5, chemistry ; 6, materia medica and general therapeutics; 7, institutes of medicine and medical jurisprudence ; 1 lecturer on clinical medicine;' 1 'demonstrator of anatomy.
The course of instruction includes a carefully considered combination of didactic and clinical teaching, the result of many years' experience.
The clinical facilities of Philadelphia are unsurpassed. The clinic of the Jefferson Medical College is held in high esteem throughout the country, and the cases of every variety, from the rarest form of disease to that met with in daily practice, are presented during the session. -- Besides the college clinic there are in the city 18 hospitals, 7 dispensaries, and 38 other charitable institutions, affording every facility for the practical study of disease and injury. The opportunities offered to the student, indeed, are only limited by the time at his disposal.
Believing that clinical studies pursued too exclusively can only lead to empiricism in practice, the didactic lectures are so arranged as to give the student a thorough knowledge of the principles of his profession. The most ample means of illustration are employed, and every care taken to treat the subject clearly and with a direct reference to practical results.
While it has not been found practicable to extend the regular course beyond the usual period, from October to March, yet the faculty, wishing to afford the fullest opportunity to the student, have arranged a course of supplementary lectures, which extends through the months of April, May, June, and September, without additional charge, except the registration fee of $5.
The candidate for the degree of M. D. must be of good moral character, and at least twenty-one years of age. He must have attended at least two full sessions of lectures in some regular and respectable medical school, one of which, the last, shall have been in this college, and must exhibit his tickets, or other adequate evidence thereof, to the dean of the faculty.
He must have studied medicine for not less than three years, and have attended at least one course of clinical instruction in an institution approved by the faculty. He must present to the dean of the faculty a thesis of his own composition, correctly written, in his own handwriting, on some medical subject, and exhibit to the faculty, at his examination, satisfactory evidence of his professional attainments. The degree will not be conferred upon any candidate who absents himself from the public commencement, without the special permission of the faculty.
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN.
There are 7 chairs : 1, chemistry, mineralogy, pharmacy, and toxicology; 2, obstetrics and diseases of women and children ; 3, pathology and practice of medicine; 4, anatomy and physiology ; 5, organic chemistry and metallurgy; 6, therapeutics and
materia medica ; 7, surgery; 1 assistant professor of chemistry; 1 demonstrator of anatomy.
Every candidate for admission shall exhibit to the faculty satisfactory evidence of a good moral and intellectual character, a good English education, including a proper knowledge of the English language, and a respectable acquaintance with its literature, and with the art of composition; a fair knowledge of the natural sciences, and at least of the more elementary mathematics, including the chief elements of algebra and geometry, and such a knowledge of the Latin language as will enable him to read current prescriptions, and appreciate the technical language of the natural sciences and of medicine.
Students are expected to be in attendance upon the first day of the term, as the regular course of instruction will commence upon, and continue from, that day, and by the rule adopted certificates are issued only for the period of actual attendance.
The annual session commences on the first day of October and continues until the last Wednesday in March. Four lectures are delivered daily. Previous to each lecture the students are carefully examined upon the subject of the preceding lecture.
The total number of lectures in the term will thus be between 600 and 700.
Clinics are given every Saturday for both medical and surgical patients, when examinations are held, prescriptions made, and operations performed gratuitously to patients, in the presence of the class.
A special course of instruction in physical diagnosis is given by the professor of the theory and practice of medicine, for which a fee of $5 extra is required. Also, special instruction in microscopy is given by the professor of anatomy and physiology, for which also a fee of $5 is charged. Attendance on either of the above courses is optional with the students.
To be admitted to the degree of "doctor of medicine” the student must exhibit the evidence of having pursued the study of medicine and surgery for a term of three years with some respectable practitioner of medicine, (including lecture terms ;) must have attended two full courses of lectures, the last of which must have been in the College of Medicine and Surgery of the University of Michigan, and the previous one in this or some other respectable medical institution; must be twenty-one years of age; must have submitted to the faculty a thesis, composed and written by himself, on some medical topic, and have passed an examination at the close of the term satisfactory to the faculty.
To encourage a higher grade of preliminary acquirement, an allowance of six months from the term of study is made in favor of the graduates of the department of science and arts, and of other respectable literary colleges.
Each candidate for graduation must announce himself at the commencement of his second year, and must be examined in anatomy, physiology, materia medica, and chemistry. He is also required, during the course, to submit
to written examinations by each professor, on some subject pertaining to his department, in order to further test his knowledge of such subjects, and his ability to express himself correctly in writing. His final thesis may be written either in English, German, French, or Latin, and, if required, must be defended before the faculty.
ST. LOUIS MEDICAL COLLEGE.
There are eight professorships : 1, chemistry and pharmacy; 2, principles and practice of medicine; 3, principles and practice of surgery and clinical surgery; 4, general descriptive and surgical anatomy, military surgery and clinical surgery at the city hospital; 5, clinical medicine and pathological anatomy; 6, therapeutics and materia medica ; 7, physiology and medical jurisprudence; 8, obstetrics and diseases of women and children; and a demonstrator of anatomy.
The course of instruction in the St. Louis Medical College continues twenty-three weeks.
The hospitals of the city are as well appointed as can be found in other localities of medical instruction, and their size, giving accommodation to thousands of patients andually, affords to the student constant and extensive information on every subject connected with medicine and surgery. They are the City Hospital, with medical and surgical clinic; the Quarantine and Small-pox Hospitals; the St. Louis (or Sisters') Hospital, with surgical, obstetric, and ear and eye clinic; the United States Marine Hospital, and the St. Louis County Insane Asylum.
Requisites for the degree of doctor of medicine :
1. The candidate must be twenty-one years of age, of good moral character, and must have been engaged in the study of medicine for three years, (course of lectures included.)
2. He must have attended two full courses of lectures in this institution. Attendance on a regular course in some respectable and generally accredited medical school, or four years of reputable practice, will, however, be considered as equivalent to one of the courses above specified. The dissecting ticket must also have been taken continuously in this or some other school. He must also have followed the practice of a hospital.
3. He must undergo a satisfactory examination on all the branches taught in this college, and write an acceptable thesis, in the English, Latin, French, or German language, on some subject connected with medicine. A second regular examination will be held in the course of the summer. Applicants who have complied with all the requirements may present themselves at either of these examinations. At no other time will students be examined.
4. He must, by the first of February, notify the dean, in writing, of his intention to become a candidate, and deliver to him his thesis and graduating fee, both of which will be returned in case of withdrawal or rejection.
MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY, (CHICAGO MEDICAL COL
There are 16 regular professorships, including clinical medicine and clinical surgery, and 16 professors besides the demonstrator of anatomy. It provides for three consecutive courses of instruction, (junior, middle, and senior,) one for each of the three years of study, and an examination at the end of each term. The regular lecture term is five and a half months, with a free summer course of three months added.
2. In Europe.—The following facts respecting medical education in Europe are an abstract of the remarks on the subject in the report of Dr. J. W. Hoyt, one of the commissioners to the Paris Universal Exposition. They will serve to compare with the preceding statements :
In Italy, the applicant for admission to the medical school must present a certificate showing that he has completed the studies of the lyceum-Greek, Latin literature, Italian literature, history and geography, philosophy, (mental and natural,) chemistry, mathematics, natural history, mechanics, and gymnastics, and has been examined in the higher mathematics, the elements of natural history, and Italian and Latin literature. The term of study is six years, in which the studies are distributed substantially as follows:
First year.—Botany, physics, inorganic chemistry, zoology, comparative and human anatomy, and normal histology, with practical, anatomical, and botanical exercises.
Second year.–Natural philosophy, physiology, organic and physiological chemistry, human anatomy, with practical, anatomical, and physiologico-chemical exercises.
Third year.-Physiology and general pathology, with practical experiments in physiology and in pathological histology.
Fourth year.—Special pathology, medical and surgical, materia medica, therapeutics, hygiene, and topographical anatomy, with dissections, pathological and topographical, and attendance upon medical and surgical clinics.
Fifth year.-Theory and practice of medicine, obstetrics and diseases of women and children, and ophthalmic diseases, with medical, surgical, obstetric, and ophthalmic clinics, pathological and topographical anatomy, with dissections and surgical operations upon the cadaver.
Sixth year.—Theory and practice of medicine, obstetrics, diseases of women and children, with corresponding clinics as in fifth year, special study of the diseases of the skin, of syphilitic diseases, and of mental diseases for four months each, medical jurisprudence, and toxicology.
In France the medical school at Paris comprises the following chairs: Anatomy, pathological anatomy, physiology, medical physics, hygiene, materia medica and therapeutics, medical chemistry, medical natural history, histology, surgical pathology, medical pathology, pathology and general therapeutics, operations and apparatus, medical, surgical, and obstetrical clinics, obstetrics and diseases of women and children, medical jurisprudence and pharmacology, with abundant supplementary instruction.
In the Austrian Medico-chirurgical School, at Vienna, the whole period of study occupies five years, as follows:
First year.-- Zoology, mineralogy, chemistry, descriptive anatomy, anatomical exercises, and botany, with special lectures on medicinal plants.
Second year. -Dissections, topographical anatomy, physiology, general pathology, prescriptions, instruments, apparatus, and bandages, pharmacology, preliminary study of climatology, percussion, and auscultation.
Third year.–Pathological anatomy and medical jurisprudence, with appropriate dissections, surgery, theoretical and operative, surgical and medical clinics, physiological and pathological chemistry.
Fourth year.—Clinics in medical jurisprudence, medicine, surgery, obstetrics, and diseases of the eye, dissections illustrative of medical jurisprudence, instruction in vaccination, &c.
Fifth year.--Surgical, ophthalmic, and medical clinics, descriptive and topographical anatomy, with dissections, physiology, &c.
The instruction in the several departments of study is given by 35 full professors, 19 assistant professors, and 39 privat docenten, all of whom give numerous lectures and demonstrative exercises during each half year.
The degrees conferred in Great Britain are those of bachelor of medicine, (M. B.,) master in surgery, (C. M.,) and doctor of medicine, (M. D.) No one is admitted, as a rule, to the course of medical study in a university who has not either graduated in the arts, or is able to pass an examination in the elements of mathematics, the Latin and English languages, and in at least two of the following branches, to wit: Greek, French, German, and higher mathematics, natural philosophy, logic, and moral philosophy. And in no case is a candidate for the professional examinations prerequisite to the degree of bachelor of medicine, or the degree of master in surgery, eligible to such examinations unless possessed of the general educational qualifications above named. Each candidate for degrees is also required to establish by certificates
1. That he has studied medicine and surgery for four years, during each of which a course of at least 200 lectures, with corresponding clinical instructions, have been delivered, wherein he has studied for prescribed times the following departments of medical science: Anatomy, chemistry, materia medica, institutes and practice of medicine, surgery, obstetrics, diseases of women and children, general pathology, (or, in schools where no such course exists, morbid anatomy,) practical anatomy, practical chemistry, practical obstetrics with medical and surgical clinics, medical jurisprudence, botany, and zoölogy.
2. That he has attended the medical and surgical practice of a general hospital for two years, and outside practice for six months.
3. That one of the aforesaid years of study has been in the medical school of the university to which application for examination is made. (The Edinburgh school also requires that two of the four years of study shall have been either there or in some other university authorized to grant degrees.)
4. That he has at date of application completed his twenty-first year, and is not under any articles of apprenticeship to any surgeon, physician, or other master.
Dr. Hoyt remarks:
“Thus qualified, the candidate may be received to examinations, both on written and oral: First, on the elementary branches of medical science, such as anatomy, chemistry, botany, and materia medica; secondly, on advanced anatomy, zoölogy, comparative anatomy, physiology, and surgery; third, on materia medica, and the strictly practical departments, including practical medicine, clinical medicine, clinical surgery, obstetrics, general pathology, and medical jurisprudence. A thesis on some medical subject is also required.
"The examinations in the natural history branches and in practical chemistry are conducted, as far as possible, by actual demonstrations upon material placed before the candidates, and the examinations in the practical departments are conducted, at least in part, in the hospitals, candidates being required to test their knowledge by examinations and prescriptions. As a general rule, those whose study is in the university are examined in the branches of the first and second divisions above enumerated at the close of the second and third years of their course; but admission to examination on those embraced in the third or practical division cannot take place until the candidate has completed his fourth year. Should the candidate fail, he cannot be admitted again until the completion of another year, or the expiration of such period as the examiners may prescribe.
“The degree of master of surgery can in no case be conferred upon a candidate who is not at the same time granted or has previously received the degree of bachelor of medicine.
“The degree of doctor of medicine is conferred upon candidates who have obtained the degree of bachelor; have spent, since their graduation, at least two years in attendance upon a recognized hospital, or in the military or naval medical service, or in medical or surgical practice, and are either possessed of the diploma of bachelor of arts from a recognized university, or have passed a satisfactory examination in Greek, logic, and moral philosophy, and in French or German, or the higher mathematics, or in natural philosophy and natural history."
This is really an incomplete résumé of the medical course in these countries; but what a contrast in extent to the best that our own country affords.
(IV.) MEDICAL EDUCATION FOR WOMEN. The fitness of women, from their exquisite humanity, patience, neatness, and skill as nurses, for the medical profession, was long ago suggested. Women have for many years, in Europe, been licensed and have practiced as accoucheûses. For years a scattering few in this country succeeded in obtaining a medical education in spite of the caution and conservatism (just in general) of the profession. But of late years this subject has received a very great impulse, and medical schools for their education in the regular practice have been established in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston.
There is a homeopathic medical school for women in Cleveland, Ohio, and a physiopathic course of instruction in Cincinnati, Ohio.
The following account of the course of training in the New York Infirmary Female Medical College shows how high a stand female physicians should hereafter take, if such programmes shall be generally adopted and steadily adhered to.
WOMAN'S MEDICAL COLLEGE OF THE NEW YORK INFIRMARY.
Every student npon matriculating will be required to deposit with the secretary a certificate of good moral character from a physician of good standing, clergyman, or other responsible person.
The plan of instruction which this school desires to carry out is arranged to secure a gradation of studies through the three years of the student's course. For this purpose students
must attend the winter sessions. During the first, they will be principally occupied with the elementary branches of anatomy, physiology, materia medica, and chemistry, with practical work in the anatomical rooms, and pharmacy.
In their second year they will continue these four branches, and receive full instruction in medicine, surgery, and obstetrics.
In the third year the instruction in these three departments will be continued, and the students will engage in practical medical work, under the direction of their teachers, and be required to furnish clinical reports of cases so attended.
Hygiene will be taught through the three years.
All students will be required to attend weekly recitations in the studies proper to their year, these recitations forming an esseutial part of the course.
Yearly examinations will be held at the end of each winter session, when every student will be examined in the studies pursued during the year.
Besides these a general examination will be passed by all students presenting themselves as candidates for graduation.
This final examination will be passed in anatomy, materia medica, physiology, and chemistry at the end of the second year, and at the end of the third year in hygiene practice, surgery, and obstetrics.
This progressive mode of study does not increase the length nor the expense of the student's course, as no extra charge is made for the third year.
It offers very great advantages as compared to the ordinary plan of reading for a year under private instruction and attending college during two sessions only.
It gives more facilities for practical anatomy, pharmacy, and clinical study, prevents the winter session from being over-crowded with work, and, by dividing the exaninations, enables the student to prepare for them more easily and thoroughly.
In view of its much more satisfactory results, it has been adopted as the couise of the school, and is warmly recommended by the faculty to all those beginning their education.
Students who are unable or unwilling to attend three sessions can complete their college course in two years by attending two'winter and two summer sessions. The summer sessions, being devoted principally to practical work, will be taken as equivalent to the third winter session, where the student can bring satisfactory certificates of a year's previous study.
Clinical instruction is given in the New York Infirmary, Bellevue Hospital, the Eye and Ear Infirmary, Nursery and Child's Hospital, Demilt and other Dispensaries.
Candidates for graduation must be twenty-one years of age, must be of good mora. character, and have received a good general education.
They must have spent three years in the study of medicine, under the direction of : duly qualified physician, during which they must have attended three winter, or two winter and summer sessions of lectnres, and received clinical instruction, according to the course laid down by the school.