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adoption, some facts of interest in regard to the present state of education in Bengal were brought out, which we condense, first from the memorial:
" In 1855–56, the year when the educational dispatch of the court of directors came into operation, the number of Anglo-vernacular schools was 25, and that of vernacular schools 54, while in 1868–69, the last year of actual returns, the former had increased to 670, and the latter to 2,962, mostly through the exertions of native gentlemen, educated in English, and under the fostering influence of the grant-in-aid system.
“It will be seen that the opposition of the government is to the spread of English among all classes, and not to high education, through the medium of the English language, for the higher classes exclusively,
“ The resolution of the government of India is calculated to convey an erroneous impression as to the share of state contribution in aid of English education. It is often : alleged that the British Indian government gives a “charity” education to its subjects, but how far this charge is grounded on fact, will appear from the following statement:
“ Expenditure on English education in 1868–69.
“It will thus be seen that in government colleges an amount equal to half the state contribution is raised by fees, subscriptions, and endowments, in the Zillah schools a sum equal to the government grant, and in the aided schools nearly two-thirds come from the same sources, a state of things quite in accord with the general spirit of the education dispatch of 1845, and with the grant-in-aid rules sanctioned by the government of India. It is observable that the two government schools in India, kept up for the Hindoos of the city, far from being a burden on the state, yield a surplus income, and that, of the institutions for professional education, the law schools showed in 1868–69 a surplus of rs. 7,016. Your memorialists may add that in Calcutta, where the demand for English education is exceptionally great, and the people are for the most part in a position to bear the whole cost of maintaining English schools, the government does not now give any grant-in-aid to a school in which English is taught.
“Every civilized country, your memorialists submit, considers it obligatory on the state to appropriate a portion of the public revenues to the promotion of liberal education, and as that education can only be attained through the medium of the English language in the present state of this country, it cannot, they humbly conceive, be consistent with sound policy to withdraw the insignificant sum now given in aid' of English education in Bengal, which is scarcely an appreciable fraction of the enormous revenues which Bengal contributes to the imperial treasury. And they would further point out that the voluntary contributions of those who avail themselves of the EngIish schools and colleges are much greater than the amounts raised in the other provinces by compulsory local cesses; while the free payments in Bengal are already high, compared with corresponding rates, even in Europe. Thus, by a recent statute of thé University of Oxford, its doors are open to all for the almost nominal fee of £3 108. per annum, while the fee-rate in the Presidency College in Calcutta is at present £14 8s. per annum, and in the Mofussil colleges £6 per annum, exclusive of fees for the professional branches, such as law and civil engineering.
“The principle regulating the allotment of the public revenues to the several provinces for the purposes of education is, in the humble opinion of your memorialists, highly unsatisfactory. In the first place, out of an income of nearly fifty millions, only £680,530 is allotted to education; and that amount is thus divided among the several
1; provinces :
Allotment for edu-
9, 616, 233 15, 379, 708 6, 351, 728 3,873, 749 1, 590, 483 1,088, 815 1, 161, 478
£90,052 118, 271 234, 384 103, 528 64, 909 26, 056 27, 864 10,998
“The recent resolution of the government of India involves the transgression of the educational charter of India on three cardinal points: 1st, it divorces English from vernacular education;
2d, by causing this divorce it undermines the sound basis of Indian education, viz., European knowledge, inasmuch as the Bengalic language, though far more improved than most of the vernaculars of India, is not sufficiently advanced for the communication of knowledge in the improved arts, science, philosophy, and literature of Europe;' and 3d, by discountenancing aid to English education, it destroys the prospects of the aided Anglo-vernacular schools which feed the colleges, and where the bulk of the middle classes receive their education.
“The practical result of the new policy announced by the government of India would, your memorialists believe, be the surrender of English education of a higher order to the Christian missionaries, whose avowed object is to proselytize the people of this country, and subvert their national religion. It may easily be surmised that such an issue will fill her Majesty's native Indian subjects with the deepest discontent, for what could be more unsatisfactory to a nation than to see its own bard-earned resources placed in the hands of a body of propagandists, whose chief aim it is, as observed above, to overthrow its religious and social fabric.”
So far we have given extracts from the memorial, which is very voluminous, and contains twenty-two separate clauses, five of which we have taken. From the different speeches, reported at length in the Hindoo Patriot of July 11, 1870, we extract the following detached paragraphs:
“In 1868–69, there were reported by the director of public instruction 5,423 schools of every grade, English and Bengalic, aided and unaided, giving instruction to 215,550 students.
“It has been proposed to raise the fees in all government and aided English schools as a means of diminishing the contributions of the state for such education, so that English education in Bengal may be prosecuted 'not only without carrying a charge to the imperial revenue, but even so as to provide some means for helping forward vernacular education. This proposal assumes in the first place that the students in our government colleges and schools pay less schooling fees than the students in other civilized countries, say England, France, Prussia, Italy, and Switzerland, and in the next place the capability of the parents and guardians of these students to pay more. Both these assumptions are alike unwarranted. In the University of Oxford, the fee payable under a recent statute is £3 10s. per annum. In France the fee charged in all its colleges (lycées) ranges from £6 to £10 per annum, and the fee for the communal colleges, which resemble our district schools, is £4 per annum. In Prussia the average fee rate is a little lower than £2 148. per annum, and the highest fee rate appears to be £4 per annum. Mr. Amold calculates that in Italy, a state so newly constituted, and engaged in struggles with such gigantic difficulties, the yearly average cost of a student for maintaining himself at the university, all charges included, is about £3. As for Switzerland, the same author observes that the fees are low and the staff of professors is excellent. Mr. Arnold also tells us that France spends £3 7s., Italy
' £5 128., from the imperial exchequer, and that in the year 1861 Prussia spent $79,629 to meet a sum of £2,761 from the students' fees, endowments, &c., yielding a further sum of £21,160. Now, gentlemen, compare these figures with the statement on page 5 of the report of public instruction, 1868–69, and you will find that the cost of each pupil to the state in Bengal is rs. 10 12–7 only.
"Can it be said in this state of facts that the students of Bengal receive a charity education? Can it be maintained for one moment that parents and guardians of our students pay nothing for the education of their children
“It has been said that the position and wealth of the students who read in our government colleges and schools is such that they can easily pay an increased fee for their education. To rebut this assumption I have only to read the remarks of Mr. Sutcliffe, principal of the Presidency College, reported in page 431 of the the Report on Public Instruction for 1868–69. After giving a full analysis of the positions and occupations of the guardians and parents of the students, the learned principal says that 25 per cent. of the students are dependent upon their scholarship for defraying their college expenses. This remark of the principal of our most expensive government institution has an eloquence which I can hardly surpass, and if, with facts like these, the government should still insist on an increase of the schooling fees, it would only strengthen the impression that under the high-sounding name of mass education lurks an intention to bring about a dissolution of our great educational institutions.”
“Is the system of education that has been adopted in Bengal entirely provided by the government? Do we not contribute very largely, if not qually, with the state for this system? The receipts and disbursements of the education department for the years 1868-'69, as given in page 44 of the Calcutta Gazette, shows that out of a total gross outlay of £295,150, £119,651 is from private sources, and only £175,400 is paid by the state.”
“The history of education in this country, and the marvelous changes wrought by it during the last two quarters of a century afford, in my humble judgment, the strongest condemnation of the educational policy propounded by the government of India, and also the strongest support to the resolution itself. For some time after the establishment of the British supremacy in India no thought could be bestowed on the education of the people. But when the empire was consolidated and peace was proclaimed, better ideas dawned on our rulers.
“Warren Hastings was keenly alive to the importance of extension of oriental learning: Lord Moira recorded a minute in the judicial administration of Bengal, in which he fully recognized the duty of the state to promote the moral and mental advancement of the people. Several English schools were in the meanwhile established in Calcutta and the metropolitan districts, the first of these being one set up at Chinsurah by Mr. Robert May, a dissenting missionary, and which culminated in the college of Mahomea Moslem. These schools spread a taste for English learning. Availing themselves of this altered state of feeling, David Hare, Sir Hide East, and the leading members of the native community in 1816, established the Hindoo College. The Hindoo College, sir, proved a brilliant success. Its alumni were the first band of reformers who made noble exertions to improve and elevate their country. They were eager to communicate the knowledge they had acquired at the college to their less fortunate countrymen, and they established for this purpose several schools in and around Calcutta. Of these schools I have given a detailed list in a paper read by me at the Bengal Social Science Association.
“In 1835 the battle between the Orientalists and the Anglicists was decided in favor of the latter, and a new system of education inaugurated.”
“At present the extensive cultivation of some foreign language, which is always very improving to the mind, is rendered indispensable by the almost total absence of vernacular literature, and the consequent impossibility of obtaining a tolerable education from that source only.
“ The study of English, to which many circumstances induce the natives to give the preference, and with it the knowledge of the learning of the West, is therefore daily spreading. This, as it appears to us, is the first stage in the process by which India is to be enlightened. The natives must learn before they can teach. The best educated among them must be placed in possession of some knowledge before they can transfer it into their own languages.”
“I know a host of educated natives who communicated their knowledge to their less fortunate countrymen in their own language and in the manner and form most acceptable to them. The cry that has been raised against them, that, having received a charity education in the colleges, they have done nothing for their country, is an unreasoniug cry. Now, the truth is exactly the other way. The education they have received is neither a charity education, as shown by Mr. Atkinson and by the fact that the Hindoo school and Hare school are nearly self-supporting; nor is it true that they have failed in their duty as educators. Far from having done nothing, they have done a great deal in furtherance of the cause of education. They have been foremost in organizing schools, literary societies, and newspapers in every possible way. Their exertions in this direction have been most indefatigable and laudable, and instead of evoking the obloquy of a clique deserved the lasting gratitude of the public.”
We have given these extracts as furnishing the latest summary of the present state of education in this province of British India, to be obtained from material in possession of this Bureau.
EDUCATION OF THE WORKING CLASSES.
One of the greatest benefits yet conferred upon the working classes of Austria is the general school bill of the 14th of May, 1869, which renders national education compulsory, and greatly elevates the standard of it. In accordance with this law, compulsory attendance at school begins with every child at the age of six, and is continued uninterruptedly to the age of fourteen. But even then, (that is to say, at the end of his fourteenth year,) the child is only allowed to leave school on production of certified proof that he has thoroughly acquired the full amount of information which this great law fixes as the sine qua non minimum of education for every Austrian citizen. The prescribed educational course .comprises reading, writing, and arithmetic; a sound knowledge of the native language, history, and chiefly, though not exclusively, that of the native country, embracing the political constitution and general social structure of it, geography in the same sense, all the more important branches of physical science, geometry, geometrical drawing, &c., singing, athletic exercises. Children employed in the large factories, or prevented by special circumstances from attending the communal school, may complete or continue their education at any special school supported by their employer, and the employers are authorized to found schools for that purpose. But it is a sine qua non condition that all such schools shall provide the full amount and quality of education required by law, and otherwise fulfill all the obligations prescribed by the general school bill, which subjects every school, whether private or public, to the instruction of the state. In places where a special trade school exists, the employer is bound to send his apprentices to it. In addition to the subjects of instruction above enumerated, every child is simultaneously provided with religious instruction in the creed to which he or she is born. The local ecclesiastical authorities or notables of the church or religious community to which each child belongs are entitled, and indeed bound, by law to provide competent teachers for this purpose.
The free selection of the teachers is left entirely to these religious bodies, subject only to the certified proofs which the state exacts of the teacher's proficiency and general character. It is only in the event of the local religious communities declining to avail themselves of the privilege allotted to them by the law that the state steps in and undertakes the duty which they refuse to discharge. But this religious instruction, which is altogether denominational and on a footing of impartial equality for all religious sects, is kept by the state carefully apart from the secular education, which is, in every case, obligatory, and which it is in no case allowed to interfere with, or attempt to control. Nor are any private schools tolerated by the government wbich do not efficiently provide the prescribed amount of secular instruction ; although, so long as this condition be fulfilled, the law imposes no limit to the foundation of private educational establishments.
Such is the education now provided in Austria for every child of the working classes.
EDUCATION IN AUSTRALIA.
This Bureau has received, with the request for the exchange of educational reports, the seventh report of the board of education of Victoria, for the year 1868, dated April 30, 1869, made to the governor, and by his excellency presented to both houses of Parliament. From the statistics given by the Hon. Benjamin F. Kane, secretary of the board, the following summary is taken: Total population of the colony..
683, 977 Total number of children of five to fifteen years of age.
166, 907 Number attending common schools.
101, 925 Number attending private schools.
19, 009 Average attendance.
58, 420 Total number of school establishments, whether denominational, national, or common ...
798 Separate departments, each under a head teacher.
834 The board of education consists of five members, who hold their office for the term of five years. During the year 1868 the board held seventy-eight meetings.
REMARKS CONCERNING THE STATISTICS OF ATTENDANCE.
Five out of eight of the whole number of children between five and fifteen are attending schools, either public or private, according to estimates based upon data in possession of the board. Upon this subject the report states that,
“In estimating the number of children receiving instruction, it must be borne in mind that a large number of children who do not attend either public or privato schools are taught at home by tutors and governesses, and by their parents; and probably every person who reads this report will be aware of many such cases. In many of the gold-Fields, and in the bush more especially, children are taught in this manner, owing to the unwillingness of parents to send their children to schools in the absence of any other than common schools, to the preference of parents for home instruction, or for other reasons. We refrain from making any estimate of the number of children tanght by these persons, because the data upon which we have to work are too scanty to aulmit of that precision which should always characterize statistical information; but if we add those children under fifteen who, having received more or less education, are employed in pursuits which prevent their attendance at school, it will no doubt bé found that they form in the aggregate a considerable portion of tho whole.
“From the above figures we arrive at the conclusion that 17.70 per cent., or one in 5.65 of the total population, and 60.90, or nearly two out of three of children between five and fifteen years of age, are attending schools with an amount of regularity which
is not equaled either in England or America; and allowing for the facts that the children attending school vary from year to year, those attending one year leaving the next, and others taking their places; that many under fifteen have left school and are engaged in various employments; and that inany others are taught by tutors, governesses, and parents, we believe we are justified in arriving at the conclusion that the number of children unprovided with education is less than is generally estimated, and that the great liberality of Parliament in providing for public education has not been unproductive of substantial fruit."
DESTITUTE CHILDREN ATTENDING SCHOOLS. During the past year, under the operation of the rule reducing by one-half the amount paid by the board for the education of destitute and deserted children and orphans, the proportion of such children decreased about 20 or 26 per cent., while at the same time the aggregate proportion of the children attending school increased. Under the present regulations the following is the scale for such payments:
"For a single scholar above eight years of age, 41d. per week; for a single scholar under eight years of age, 3d. per week; when more than one attend from the same family, per scholar, 3d. per week. But in every such case a certificate must be furnished
. to the local committee, signed by a justice of the peace or registered clergyman, in form of A or B, Appendix K, and a copy thereof forwarded to the board; and the board will require to be satisfied that such case really exists. Every such certificate must be renewed half-yearly.”
A return is submitted in the appendix, which gives interesting information relative to the proportion of destitute children attending schools of the different classes receiving aid. The following is a summary of the return: “Roman Catholic common schools...
43. 80 per cent. on the rolls. Church of England common schools
27.34 per cent. on the rolls. Wesleyan common schools.
24. 69 per cent, on the rolls. Vested common schools ...
21.31 per cent, on the rolls. Presbyterian common schools.
20.35 per cent. on the rolls. Non-vested common schools.
17. 32 per cent. on the rolls. “It will be observed from this table that the proportion of destitute children attending Roman Catholic schools far exceeds that of any other denomination or class of schools, being three-fifths more than that attending Church of England schools, fourfifths more than that attending Wesleyan schools, and more than double that attending any other schools. It will also be observed that the percentage of these children attending the non-vested schools (by which is meant schools which, although not actually vested in the board, are conducted upon the same principles, but which at the same time include many schools which are the private ventures of the teachers) is 17.32
DIRECT GAIN TO TEACHERS BY DESTITUTE CHILDREN.
“It will be interesting to consider what direct pecuniary gain is now afforded to teachers by the destitute scholars. The direct gain is comprised in the payments by the board of school fees and for results; and, according to the returns for 1867, allowance being made for the reduction in the fee by one-half since that date, is as follows:
a. £ d. £ d. For each individual child on the rolls..... 0 7 57 0 5 71
0 13 04 For each individual child in average attendance.. 0 13 14 09 101
1 3 0 Showing that each child in average attendance is worth £1 38. per annum, or, counting 46 school-weeks in the year, sixpence per week, being 3.42 pence in fees, and 2.58 pence in results.”
During 1868 aid was granted to forty-seven schools, of which twenty-seven were vested in the board ; eleven were non-vested, having been established with the intention of being vested at a future time, or being conducted on the same principles; eight
a were connected with the Roman Catholic Church, and one with the Church of England.
All schools receiving aid must follow the course of instruction laid down by the board, but other branches may be introduced with the sanction of the board. The report states that the sanction thus given has been abused in some instances, in which schools have been conducted in upper and lower departments—the former being established for children of a higher social position-where the pupils are separated and taught apart, extra fees being charged for instruction in extra subjects, imparted by special teachers. “We consider," says the report, “that any practice which has a tendency to restrict the benefits of a school to a particular class, or to exclude from its