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ton, and sustained by the Federal Government, organized a department in which might be afforded to deaf-mutes of high mental capacity a full academic course of study, such as is given in colleges and universities.
Congress has evinced its approval of this novel undertaking by appropriating ample means for the maintenance of the work, and by authorizing the admission of students from all the States and Territories of the United States.
More than sixty young men and women, representing twenty-two States and the District of Columbia, have availed themselves of the advantages thus afforded, and nine have been already graduated from a course of study equal, in the severity of its requirements, to that of the most respectable colleges of the country,
The following extract from the last report of the institution (not yet published) is of interest as showing the practical results of the college work in fitting deaf-mutes for positions in life much higher than they could hope to reach were their education limited to that of the common schools :
“ What the graduates of the college do.- In the progress of our college and the presentation of its interests to the public, the questions are often asked, rather doubtingly, “But what can your graduates do in the struggle of life ?” “What positions can they fill that shall justify the expenditure of time and money necessary to their collegiate training ?” Our practical answers to these questions were begun to be given last year by our first three graduates, who were at once called to fill honorable and useful positions, one in the service of the Patent Office, one to instruct his fellow-mutes in Illinois, and the third to supply a professor's place, as tutor, in the college from which he had just graduated.
“The young men of our second graduating class have also given gratifying evidence that their collegiate training has been to good purpose. One has been called to teach in the Tennessee Institution for Deaf-mutes; another has been employed in a similar manner in the Ohio Institution; a third has taken an eligible position as teacher in the new Institution for Deaf and Dumb in Belleville, Canada; the fourth is a valued clerk in the Census Bureau ; and the fifth is continuing his studies here with a view of becoming a librarian, while he fills temporarily the position of private secretary in the office of the president of the institution.
“The aggregate annual income to-day of the nine young men who have graduated from our college is $9,600, giving an average of more than $1,000 to each. This may, perhaps, be taken as the present market value of their services to the community, and is no mean return for the cost of their education. But who can measure the probable influence for good which these educated young men may be expected to exert during the years they may reasonably hope to live and labor in the world ?"
An examination of the table of statistics, while it sustains the claim that the United States takes the lead of other countries in caring for the deaf and dumb, reveals also the fact that much yet remains to be done in order that the benefits of education may be extended to all the mutes of our land.
The proportion of this class of persons to the entire community does not vary materially in the different States. This being the case, it appears that several of the larger and older commonwealths are greatly behind what might be expected of them in the number of deaf and dumb under instruction.
In no instance is this discrepancy more marked than in the State of Pennsylvania, with a population in 1860 of 2,900,000, where only 238 deaf-mutes are reported as being under instruction, while New York, with a population less than one-third greater, reports more than double the number of deaf-mutes in school. Ohio, with a population less by 600,000, reports nearly one-third more deaf and dumb in its institution; and Illinois, with but little more than half the population of Pennsylvania, greatly exceeds it in the number of mutes provided for.
E. M. GALLAUDET, Ph. D., LL.D.
EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS IN ENGLAND, A great advance has been made in the system of public education in England during the past year, one which gives promise that before long the proud boast of America that education is offered as a free gift by the State to the child of every citizen-will also be that of the mother country. The preliminary step was taken in 1869, when the government took upon itself. the supervision of the endowed schools of the kingdom. These endowed schools, many of them of great antiquity, were founded by benevolent people, generally for specific purposes. In many cases the value of the foundation has greatly increased, owing to the rise of real estate; and also abuses have sprung up, to correct which, and to reader available for general educational purposes, so far as may be practicable, those moneys devoted to education, was the object of the bill. A few of the larger schools, such as Eton, Harrow, Rugby, which have been notably well managed, were excepted from the provisions of the law. With these express exceptions, it includes all endowed schools. We are indebted to the visit of the Right Honorable A. J. Mandella, M. P., for information concerning the recent school legislation.
The endowed schools bill was passed in 1869, which has for its object to bring all the educational endowments of England, many thousands in number, and some of them of very large amount, entirely under the control of the educational department. This law requires a complete statement of all the property of every educational corporation established in England; and some of them have been grossly mismanaged-have been entirely wrested from the purposes for which they were founded. Most of them were founded to give education to the poor, but have fallen into the hands of the rich. Some of them have increased enormously in value, but instead of giving a simple elementary education to the poor, they have given the very highest classical education to the sons of rich men. By this act all these are brought under the control of the educational department, and it is intended that they shall supply the means of sustaining education of a higher character, preparatory for the university. It is proposed to offer scholarships to a certain percentage of the scholars of the elementary schools who shall distinguish themselves, to sustain them in this higher school. Mr. Forster described it, in the words of Napoleon, as “la carière ouverte aux talents.”
SCHOOLS AND THE SCHOOL LAW IN ENGLAND.
The central authority rests in the council of education, and the whole of England is cut up into certain districts for school purposes, which are under the charge of inspectors. For instance, suppose Yorkshire has two inspectors, who go to every elementary school and report upon each to the vice-president of the council of education. If there is any improvement to suggest, that is done; or, if a teacher should be removed, that
a is reported and acted upon. If children pass a certain examination an extra grant is made to the school. There are certain standards from one to seven inclusive, and the higher the standard which a class reaches, the greater the grant from the educational fund for that school. The payment is dependent upon the results, and the teacher is therefore earnest in pushing on his work.
“In regard to truancy, we shall, whenever we get the law well in working order, alter that word "may' to 'shall.'"
Within one year provision has to be made for the education of every child in Eng. land and Wales; and this, it is anticipated, will require that the present number of school-houses shall be doubled. The school boards are authorized to provide funds for those additional buildings by issuing bonds running for thirty years at 4 per cent.
The discussion in Parliament which resulted in the present act was long and earnest, and the advance indicated by this bill, which is confined in its action to England and Wales, will be fully appreciated only by those who followed the course of the debate or were familiar with the previous state of public education in Great Britain.
The question of compulsory attendance was very earnestly discussed, and was finally left to separate school boards, who have a certain discretionary power of enforcing attendance; but the advocates of compulsion do not propose to be content until its ultimate adoption.
The question of religious education in schools was also very warmly debated, and resulted, as will be seen in the following summary of the acts, in making them wholly unsectarian.
The leading features of the law will be found in the following abstract, prepared by Mr. James Richardson of New York for the Educational Gazette, which is prononnced by Mr. Mundella to be a clear and fair statement of the law as it passed, which we make use of in default of receiving our official copy of the act. The bill was prepared and brought in by Mr. William Edward Forster (vice-president of the council of education) and Mr. Secretary Bruce, and was ordered printed by the House of Commons February 17, 1870. The present act was passed August 9, 1870.
ENGLISH ELEMENTARY EDUCATION ACT.
BY JAMES RICHARDSON, NEW YORK. The complete text of the new education law of England and Wales having at last been published, we are able to see exactly what its provisions are.
The object of the law is to secure the establishment in every school district of public schools sufficient for the elementary instruction of all the children resident therein whose education is not otherwise provided for. School districts are either municipal boroughs or parishes included in them. An elementary school, in the meaning of the act, is a school in which elementary instruction is the principal part of the education given, and in which the ordinary payments of each scholar do not exceed ninepenco a week. In estimating the educational requirements of any district, one-sixth of the total population are to be counted as of school age. These, less the number in schools charging more than ninepence a week, are they for whom the public schools must provide. In calculating the accommodation afforded by existing schools, eight square feet of flooring is to be allowed for each child.
DEFINITION OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOL.
To be considered a public school, every elementary school must be conducted in accordance with the following regulations, a copy of which must be conspicuously posted in the school-room:
1. It shall not be required as a condition of any child being admitted into or continuing in the school, that he shall attend or abstain from attending any Sunday school or any place of religious worship, or that he shall attend any religious observance or any instruction in religious subjects in the school or elsewhere, from which observance or instruction he may be withdrawn by his parent, or that he shall, if withdrawn by his parent, attend the school on any day exclusively set apart for religious observance by the religious body to which his parent belongs.
2. The time or times during which any religious observance is practiced, or instruction in religious subjects is given at any meeting of the school, shall be either at the beginning or at the end of each meeting, and shall be inserted in the time-table to be approved by the education department, and to be kept prominently and conspicuously affixed in every school-room. And any scholar may be withdrawn by his parent from such observance or instruction without forfeiting any of the other benefits of the school.
3. The school shall be open at all times to the inspection of any of her Majesty's inspectors. So, however, that it shall be no part of the duties of such inspectors to inquire into any instruction in religious subjects given in such school, or to examine any scholar therein in religious knowledge, or in any religious subject or book.
4. The school shall be conducted in accordance with the conditions required to be fulfilled by an elementary school in order to obtain an annual parliamentary grant.
The word "parent," as used in these regulations, is defined as signifying any parent, guardian, or other person having legal authority over the child.
HOW SCHOOLS ARE TO BE SUPPLIED.
Full returns of existing school accommodations in each district are to be made by proper authorities (as hereinafter explained) to the education department, which will promptly decide whether any deficiency exists. In so doing, the department will take into consideration every school, whether a public elementary school or not, and whether actually situated in the school district or not, which in their opinion gives, or, when completed, will give, sufficient elementary education to, and is, or will be when completed, suitable for the children of the district.
The education department will then publish their decisions, giving the number, size, and description of the schools reported as available for the district, with the amount and description of the accommodations required. Any appeal against such decision must be made in writing to the department within one month after its publication, either by rate-payers of the district (not less than ten in number, except when the smaller number represents at least one-third of the ratable value of the district) or by the managers of any elementary school in the district. If such an appeal is made, the case must be settled by public inquiry. If no appeal is made, or if, after appeal, public inquiry has shown more accommodation to be necessary, final notice is to be issued by the department, directing the required accommodation to be provided. If it is not supplied at the expiration of six months, or is not in the course of being supplied, a school board must be formed to see that the work is done. If this school board fail to comply with the requirement within twelve months, the education department must take the matter out of their hands and provide the needed school accommodations independent of the local authorities. School boards may be formed without such preliminary inquiry or notice, where application is made to the education department by the persons who would elect the school board, or where the department are satisfied that the managers of any elementary school in the district are unable or unwilling to maintain such school, and that its discontinuance would occasion a deficiency of accommodation.
MANAGEMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF SCHOOLS BY SCHOOL BOARDS.
Every school-board school must be a public elementary school as defined above, and no religious catechism or religious formula, distinctive of any particular denomination, shall be taught in the school. The school board may delegate any of their powers, except that of raising money. They may delegate the management of any school provided by them, with or without restrictions, to not less than three managers, and may remove such managers or alter the conditions as they may see fit. Any manager so appointed may resign on giving notice to the board. Any school board that fails to enforce the prescribed regulations will be considered in default, and the department will act accordingly. In any dispute the decision of the department is to be final. The fees to be paid by children attending school-board schools are to be fixed with the concurrence of the department. The school board may remit the fees of any child of poor parents for a renewable period of not less than six months, the remitted fees not to be deemed parochial relief. The school boards must maintain the efficiency of all school-board schools, and provide additional accommodations when necessary. Schools can be discontinued, or their sites changed, only with the concurrence of the department.
If school boards fail at any time to increase accommodations when needed, the department must interfere. School boards are further empowered to provide necessary apparatus, and to make compulsory purchase of school sites. The managers of any elementary school may transfer their school to the district school board with the consent of the department together with that of two-thirds of the annual subscribers to the school. Objection to such an arrangement must be made within six months from the date of the transfer. When the school fees of any child of poor parentage are paid by the school board, the parent has the right of selecting the school to which the Child shall go. School boards may establish free schools, with the consent of the department, and also contribute to or establish industrial schools.
CONSTITUTION OF SCHOOL BOARDS.
In boroughs, the school boards are to be elected by burgesses; in parishes, not within the metropolis, by the rate-payers. In the election of these boards the process of “cumulative voting” is allowed that is to say, every voter is entitled to a number of votes equal to the number of the members of the school board to be elected, and may give all his votes for one candidate, or may distribute them among the candidates, as he may think fit. Special provision is made for the election of school boards in London. The number of members on any school board must be not less than five nor more than fifteen, and in the first instance is to be determined by the department; afterward by the school boards, with the concurrence of the department. The education department may require the mayor, or other proper officer, to take steps necessary for holding the election, and in case of default may appoint some other person so to act. In case of non-election of a board, or the subsequent inefficiency of a board through the resignation of members or otherwise, the department may act as if the school board were in default. Any question as to the right of any person to act as a member of a school board is to be determined by the department, and their order is to be final unless removed by a writ of certiorari in the next term. No member of a school board, or manager appointed by them, can receive any profit from his position except in cases specified, and in these cases such member is deprived of his vote. The board can appoint the necessary officers-clerk, treasurer, &c., with or without salary. Two or more boards may arrange to employ the same officers. Boards may also appoint truant officers to enforce by-laws in regard to the attendance of children at school; and the expenses of these officers are to be paid from the school fund.
The education department has power to form united districts upon the first returns under the new law. Such united districts may be dissolved at any time by the department. Any parish, which, in the judgment of the department, has too few ratepayers to act as a separate parish, may be added to any other parish or parishes. The department may order one district to contribute to the schools of another district, and may determine the proportion of such contribution. School boards of two or more districts may combine and unitedly exercise all powers with the concurrence of the department.
SCHOOL INCOME, EXPENSES, ETC. All school expenses are to be paid out of the school fund, which fund is to be made up of fees, parliamentary grants, loans, and any other moneys received by the board. Any deficiency in the school fund is to be paid by the rating authorities out of the local rates. În united districts the school boards will apportion the amount required among the constituent districts in proportion to the ratable value of each, to be paid by the rating authorities on each. If these authorities fail to pay the required amount, or if the money is to be raised from any place which is part of a parish, the school board may appoint officers to take the place of the rating authority of such place. School boards are permitted to borrow money, with the consent of the department, on the security of the school fund, for the purpose of providing or enlarging their schoolhouse.
Where a school board is in default, the education department may appoint one in its stead. The department may also appoint if the board is not elected at the time fixed for its first election, or has ceased to exist. In such cases the department may certify such appointments, and also the amount of expenses and loans. The expenses and remuneration of the appointed board are to be paid out of the school fund on the certificate of the department; but an appointed board will not have power to borrow money beyond such amount as may be certified by the department. If any school board fails to perform the duties required, the department can dissolve it and order a new election.
INQUIRY AND RETURNS. On or before January 1, 1871, or, in the case of the city of London, four months from the election of the chairman, every local authority shall furnish such returns as to elementary education as the education department may require ; forms for such returns to be provided by the department, and filled up by the teachers or managers of the elementary schools. These returns are to be made to the department, in the metropolis, by the school board; in boroughs by the council; in parishes by two persons to be chosen by the vestry if the department think fit, or by the overseers. The department may sanction the employment of assistants by the local authority, and shall remunerate such assistants. If the local authority fails to make returns, the department may appoint some person who shall act as the local authority for the time being. Inspectors of returns may be appointed by the department. If the managers or teachers of any school fail to give all the required information, such school is not to be taken into consideration in estimating the school provision to be made.
ATTENDANCE. School boards may, with the approval of the education department, make by-laws requiring the attendance of all children between five and thirteen years of age, determining the time during which the children shall so attend (subject to the regulations above given;) providing for the remission of the payment of the school fees of poor children, imposing penalties for the breach of the by-laws, and revoking or altering the by-laws.
Children between ten and thirteen years of age may be exempted from such compulsory regulations upon certificate of proficiency from the school inspectors; or on showing that they are otherwise sufficiently instructed, that they are sick or unavoidably prevented from attending; or that there is no public elementary school within the prescribed limit-three miles.
After March 31, 1871, no parliamentary grant will be made to any elementary school which is not a public
school, as defined above. No application for building grants will be entertained after December 31, 1870. After March 31, 1871, no grant will be given in respect of any religious institution. No grant to any school in any year shall exceed the income of the school for that year from fees and voluntary contributions. Hereafter no school will be required to be connected with any religious denomination, or to give religious instruction as a condition of receiving aid from parliamentary grants. Voluntary schools and school-board schools are to be treated impartially, Additional parliamentary grants are to be made to exceptionably poor neighborhoods. The annual grant may be refused to any school not previously in receipt of public aid if it is situated in a district having a school board, and if in the judgment of the education department the school is not absolutely necessary.
E DUCATION IN BEYGAL, INDIA. There has been much excitement in Bengal on account of the declared intention of the government to withhold its aid from "all English education, thereby reversing that policy which was inaugurated by Lord William Bentinck, and fully set forth in the dispatch of the honorable the court of directors in 1854, which is regarded as the charter of education for British India. In this dispatch the government announced that the education that it was desirable to extend in India was that of “the arts, science, philosophy, and literature of Europe," and in furtherance of this the English and vernacular tongues were taught in the same schools. A long and able memorial to the secretary of state, protesting against the proposed change, was adopted at a public meeting of the native inhabitants of Bengal, held in the town hall of Calcutta, July 2, 1870. Similar meetings were held in forty different districts throughout Bengal on the same day. In this memorial, and in the highly interesting debate which was held at the time of its