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Statement of liabilitics of the United States for educational purposes, as per treaty stipulations ;
vide report of Indian affairs, 1869.
Name of tribe.
Number of annual payments required.
Total to be appropriated.
Apaches, Kiowas, and Comanches.... Continuous. $1,000 00
Valley, Oregon ..
1, 000 00 Chickasaws Chippewas, Fort Boise
800 00 Chippewas, Lake Superior
3,000 00 Chippewas, Mississippi.
666 67 Chippewas, Mississippi..
4,000 00 Chippewas, Pillagers, &c...
1,000 00 Chippewas, Pillagers, &c..
3, 000 00 Choctaws (a)
19,512 89 Confederates, Middle Oregon.
1, 000 00 Creeks (6)
10, 000 00 Crows...
3, 000 00 Crows, River(c)..
1,200 00 Dwamish, and allies, Washington Territory
3, 000 00 Flatheads and confederates
2, 10000 Gros Ventres (d)
1, 200 00 Iowas .. Kansas (has trust fund)
120 00 Kickapoos (e).
5,000.00 Klamaths and Modocs (S)...
16 Klamaths and Modocs.
15 2, 1000 00 Klamaths and Modocs..
2,500 00 Menomonees Miamies, Kansas (9).
2,500 00 Miamies, Indiana... Mixed Shawnees, Bannacks, and Sheep-eaters
2,000 00 Molels...
3,000 00 Navajoes.. Nez Percés
3,700 00 Nez Percés
3,000 00 Nez Percés..
3,000 00 Nisqually, Puyallup, and others.
2,000 00 Northern Cheyennes and Arapahoes.
3, 456 00
11, 200 00
5, 000 00 Pottawatomies..
9, 290 00 Pottawatomies, Huron. Quapaws....
1, 006 00 Quinaielts
37,000 00 45, 000 00 33, 000 00 8, 000 00
22, 500 00
3, 500 00
The sums marked with an (*) indicate that
the appropriations are for an indefinite period, or at will of Congress or President. Estimating their average continuance at
twenty years, and we have a total of..... Amount of educational trust fund...
220, 000 00 1,441, 420 69
Total educational fund...
2, 104, 820 71
0, $1,000 for building.
p, $5,000 for building. NOTE.—It will be seen that 42 tribes and bands in the above tables are without any provision for school purposes.
KINDERGARTEN CULTURE. . In undertaking to initiate a national system of education, and especially in a nation that, for the first time in the ages, embodies in its constitution provision for the development of will, heart, and thought in every man, in such harmonious play that he shall be free to do the will of God on earth, as it is done in heaven—which is at once our daily prayer and the ideal of human society-we must not stop with providing tho material conditions, but consider the quality of the education to be given.
The history of many great nations shows that there may be an education which paralyzes and perverts instead of developing and perfecting individual and national life. It is not from want of a most careful and powerful system of education that China is what she is. And India, Egypt, Greece, and Rome had their systems of education, efficient for the production of material and intellectual glories, certainly, but which, nevertheless, involved the principles of the decay and ruin of those nations. Even tho education of Christian Europe, that, with all its acknowledged defects of method and scope, has made all the glory of modern civilization, has failed to bring out the general results that are to be hoped for, if we are to believe in the higher prophetic instincts of the sages and saints of past ages, to say nothing of the promises of Christ, who expressly includes the life that now is with that which is to come. At our own present historical crisis, when it is the purpose to diffuse throughout the United States the best educational institutions, it is our duty to pause and ask whether all has been gained in educational method and quality which it is desirable to spread over the South; whether it may not be possible to improve as well as diffuse, and in the reconstructed States to avoid certain mistakes into which experience has proved that the Northeastern States have fallen. It is certain that a mere sharpening of the wits, and opening to the mind the boundlessness of human opportunity for producing material wealth, are not the only desiderata. As education builds the intellect high with knowledge, it should sink deep in the heart the moral foundations of character, or our apparent growth will involve future national ruin. In defining education as only the acquisition of knowledge, which is but an incident of it, we have indeed but followed the example set by the Old World, and have hoped that by offering this knowledge to all, instead of sequestrating it to certain classes, we have done all that is possible. But it is not so. The quality of our education should rise above, or at least not sink below, that of the nations that have educated their few to dominate over the many, else our self-government will be disgraced; and, therefore, I would present the claims of the new system of primary education, which has been growing up in Germany during the present century, and which, in the congress of European philosophers that met at Frankfort-on-the-Main, in September 1869, received a searching examination and was pronounced the greatest advance of method. A distinguished private teacher of America was present at this congress, and has furnished a translation, which I hope some time to see put to the press by the Bureau, of the report drawn up by Professor Fichte, of Stuttgard, son of the great Fichte, who, with Goethe, Schiller, Pestalozzi, Diesterweg, and other eminent men, effected that reform of education in Germany that commenced in the early part of this century, and whose results are so brilliantly manifested at this very moment in the discipline and efficiency of the Prussian army, and also in the still more significant pervasive demand of the mass of the people for the peace of Europe.
In the report of Dr. Hoyt (United States commissioner to the Paris Exposition of 1867) on the present state of education in Europe, there is a short, clear, and very striking statement of the normal education given to the primary teachers of all the Germanic nations, Prussia taking the lead. He says they all recognize that the primary department of education is at once the most important and difficult, and requires in its teachers, first, the highest order of mind; secondly, the most general cultivation; and thirdly, the most careful cherishing, greatest honor, and the best pay, for it has the charge of children at the season of life when they are most entirely at the mercy of their educators. As this report is distributed by the Senate to whoever will send for it, I will not repeat Dr. Hoyt's minute description of the normal training required of the primary teachers, or his statistics of the satisfactory results of their teaching, but pass at once to a consideration of the still profounder method of Froebel, which immediately respects the earliest education, but of which Dr. Hoyt does not speak, inasmuch as it is not yet anywhere a national system, though, within the last twenty years, it has spread over Germany and into Scandinavia and Switzerland, and been introduced into Spain, France, Italy, and Russia ; but to no country is it adapted so entirely as to America, where there is no hinderance of aristocratic institution, nor mountain of ancient custom, to interfere with a method which regards every human being as a subject of education, intellectual and moral as well as physical, from the moment of birth, and as the heir of universal nature in co-sovereignty with all other men, endowed by their Creator with equal rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It is all the more important to make an exact statement of Froebel's art and science of education in its severity, because it has been and is extensively travestied in this country by numerous schools called Kindergartens, which have disgraced its principles, inasmuch as they have only the most superficial resemblance to those institutions to which Froebel gave that name.
One of your assistants, in a voluminous paper upon all the reforms of education made in Europe and America during this century, has given an exhaustive history of the rise and progress of Kindergartens and their imitations, together with very valuable criticisms on education generally of his own and of various other writers of Europe and America; and this, also, I trust you may be able to send to the press before long. In the meantime, however, I must say something in this report on a subject of such vital importance, since it respects the beginning of education.
The fundamental or rather root point by which Froebel's method differs from that of all other educators, is this: he takes up the human being in the full tide of that prodigious but blind activity in which he comes into the world, and seeks to make it intelligent of itself and of things around it by employing it to produce palpable effects, at once satisfactory to the heart and fancy of childhood and true to nature by knowledge of whose order and organization the human understanding is built up in soundness and truth. For the blind heart and will, which the human being is, until by becoming intelligent of nature he is transmuted into a principle of order, is the very principle of evil. Without imagining any inherent malignity of heart, we must admit that the child necessarily goes on, knocking down and tearing up, and creating disorder
generally, to its own and other people's annoyance, in its vain endeavor to satisfy the instinct to alter, (that is the characteristic of human will,) until it is educated to recognize and obey the laws of God expressed in nature. For a time the young senses are not adequate to accurate perception of outward objects, and far less is the power of abstracting the laws of order developed in a young child. A certain evil is therefore originated, which seems so inevitable, that has tasked the human intellect to reconcile it with Divine benevolence and driven men into various theories, more or less unsatisfactory to all, upon the nature of evil, and its place in the economy of creation. Now Froebel undertakes to give a practical solution of this terrible problem by his art; for he seizes this very activity in the earliest infancy and gently guides it into the production of effects that gratify the intense desires of the soul and cause it actually to produce the beauty and use at which it has blindly aimed. He looks upon the child as a doer, primarily, and a knower, subsequently; that is, as an artist before he is a scientist, entering with genial sympathy into that primal activity which we call childish play, he guides the child first to embody and then carefully observe eternal laws, even on this humble plane, by which he surprises and delights himself with the beauty or use that grow under his hands, and therefore absorb his attention. For what meets a child's internal sense of fitness and beauty, especially if it is his own work, he is delighted to examine; and he loves to analyze the process by which the delightful result has been obtained. While it is a hard thing to make a child copy the work of another, he will repeat his own process over and over again, seeming to wish to convince himself that like antecedents involve like consequences. These repetitions sharpen his senses as well as develop his understanding; they also give skillfulness to his hands, and make him practically realize individuality, form, size, number, direction, position, also connection and organization, which last call forth his reflective powers. Hencé Kindergarten-teaching is just the careful superintendence and direction of the blind activity of little children into self-intelligence and productive work by making it artistic and morally elevated. For it carefully regards the ennobling of the soul by developing the love of good and beauty which keeps the temper sweet and the heart disinterested, occupying the productive powers in making things not to hoạrd-not to show how much they can do, which might foster selfishness, vanity, and jealousy, but for the specific pleasure of chosen friends and companions. Thus, without taking the child out of his childish spontaneity and innocence, Froebel would make him a kind, intelligent, artistic, moral being, harmonizing the play of will, heart, and mind from the very beginning of life into a veritable image of the creativeness of Ġod. The mother gave Froebel the model for this education, in the instinctive nursery play by which she helps her little one to consciousness of his body in its organs of sense and motion. She teaches him that he has hands and feet, and their uses, by inspiring and guiding him to use them; playing with him at “pat-a-cake,” and “this little pig goes to market and this stays at home," &c. I wish I had room to give a review of Froebel's book of mother songs, nursery plays, pictures, and mother's prattle, which is the root of the whole tree; but I can merely refer to it in passing. He shows in it that what he learnt from the mother he could return to her tenfold, bettering the instruction; and that the body being the first world of which the child takes possession by knowledge, though not without aid, we must play with the child. If we do not he ceases to play. Charles Lamb has given a most affecting picture of the effects of this in his pathetic paper on the neglected children of the poor; and the statistics of public cribs and foundling hospitals prove that when children are deprived of the instinctive maternal nursery play, almost all of them die, and the survivors become feeble-minded or absolute idiots. Dr. Howe says much idiocy is not organic but functional only, and to be referred to coarse or harsh dealing with infants, paralyzing their nerves of perception with pain and terror; even a merely inadequate nursing may have this effect; and he and other teachers of idiots have inversely proved this to be true, by the restoring effects of their genial methods. “And what produces idiocy in these extreme cases produces chronic dullness, discouragement, and destruction of all elasticity of mind, in the majority of children. It is appalling to think of what immense injury is done, and what waste made of human faculty, by those defective methods of education which undertake to reverse the order of nature, and make children passive to receive impressions, instead of keeping them actire, and letting them learn by their own or a suggested experimenting. Some people having seen that the former was wrong, let their children "run wild,' as they call it, for several years; but this is nearly an equal error. Not to be attaining habits of order is even for the body unhealthy, and leaves them to become disorderly and perverse. The very ignorance and helplessness of children imperatively challenge human intervention and help. They would die out of their mere animal existence in the first hour of their mortal life, did not the mother or nurse come to their rescue. Most insects and other low forms of animal life know no care of parents. They are endowed with certain absolute knowledge, enabling them to fill their small sphere of relation unerringly as the needle points to the pole. We call it instinct. But as the scale of being rises, relations multiply, which, though dependencies at first, become, by the fulfillment of the duties they involve, sources of happiness and beneficent power ever widening in scope. Man, who is to fill the unlimited sphere of an immortal existence, knows nothing at all of the outward universe at his birth. The wisdom that is to guide his will, is in the already developed and cultivated human beings that surround him; and he depends on that intercommunion with his kind which begins in the first smile of recognition that passes between mother and child, and is to continue until it becomes the communion of the just made perfect, which is highest heaven both here and hereafter.
The instinct, therefore, that makes a mother play with her baby, is a revelation of a first principle giving the key-note of human education; and upon it Froebel has modulated his whole system, which he calls Kindergarten, not that he meant education to be given out of doors, as some have imagined; but because he would suggest that children are living organisms like plants, which 'must blossom and flower before they can mature fruit; and consequently require a care analogous to that which the gardener gives to his plants, removing obstructions, and heightening the favoring circumstances of developinent.
The seed of every plant has in miniature the form of its individual organization, enveloped in a case which is burst by the life force within it, so that the germ may come into communication with those elements, whose assimilation enables it to unfold, in one case a tree, in other cases other vegetable forms. In like manner the infant soul is a life force wrapped up in a material case, which is not, however, immediately deciduous; for, unlike the envelope of the seed, the human body is also an apparatus of communication with the nature around it, and especially with other souls, similarly limited and endowed, who shall meet its outburst of life, and help it to accomplish its destiny-or hinder! I beg attention to this point. We either educate or hinder. The help to be given by education is an essential part of the Eternal Providence, and wo must accept our duty of embodying the divine love in our human providence, which we denominate education, on the penalty of injuring, which is the supreme evil.” “Woe unto him who shall offend one of these little ones. It were better for him that a millstone were hung about his neck, and he were cast into the uttermost depths of the sea."
As the child gets knowledge and takes possession of his own body, by the exercise of his several organs of sense and the movement of his limbs, so he must gradually take possession of the universe, which is his larger body on the same principle; by learning to use its vast magazine of materials, to embody his fancies, attain his desires, and by and by accomplish his duties, education being the mother to help him to examine these materials and dispose them in order, keeping him steady in his aims, and giving him timely suggestions, a clew to the laws of organization, by following which all his action will become artistic. For art is to man what the created universe is to God. I here use the word art in the most general sense, as manifestation of the human spirit on every plan of expression, material, intellectnal, and moral.
Froebel, therefore, instead of beginning the educating process by paralyzing play (keeping the child still, as the phrase is,) and superinducing the adult mind upon the childish one, accepts him as he is. But he organizes the play in the order of nature's evolutions, making the first playthings, after the child's own hands and feet, the ground forms of nature. He has invented a series of playthings beginning with solids,the
— ball, the cube, and other forms--going on to planes, which embody the surfaces of solids, (squares and the various triangles) and thence to sticks of different lengths, embodying the lines which make the edges of the solids and planes; and, finally, to points, embodied in peas or balls of wax, into which can be inserted sharpened sticks, by means of which frames of things and symmetrical forms of beauty may be made, thus bringing the child to the very borders of abstraction without going over into it, which little children should never do, for abstract objects of thought strain the brain, as sensuous objects do not, however minutely they are considered. In building and saying forms of symmetrical beauty with these blocks, planes, sticks, and peas, not only is the intellect developed in order, but skillful manipulation, delicate neatness, and orderly process become habits, as well as realized ideas. The tables that the children sit at as they work are painted in inch squares, and the blocks, planes, and sticks are not to be laid about in confused heaps, but taken one by one from the boxes and carefully adjusted to these inch squares. In going from one form to another the changes are made gradually and in order. No patterns are allowed. The teachers suggest how to lay tho blocks, planes, sticks, also wire circles and arcs, in relation to each other severally, and to the squares of the table. For symmetrical forms they suggest to lay opposites till the pupils have learned the fundamental law-union of opposites for all production and beauty. A constant questioning, calling attention to every point of resemblance and contrast in all the objects within the range of sensuous observation, as well as to their obvious connections, keeps the mind awake and in agreeable activity. Margin for spontaneous invention is always left, which the law of opposites conducts to beauty inevitably. In acting from suggested thoughts, instead of from imitation, they act from within outward, and soon will begin to originate thoughts, for Kindergarten has shown that invention is universal talent.
But the time comes when children are no longer satisfied with making transient