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Mitchell, president, has 233 pupils and 10 ten teachers; value of buildings and grounds, $30,000.
Christian University, located at Canton, Lewis County, in 1858, B. H. Smith, president, has an attendance of 210 pupils, with 9 teachers; value of buildings and grounds, $100,000; apparatus, $500.
Washington University, located at St. Louis, in 1857, William Charvenet, president; number of students, 589; teachers, 41; value of buildings and grounds, $250,000; apparatus, $6,000.
St. Louis University, located at St. Louis, in 1829, Rev. F. H. Stuntebeck, president; number of students, 278; teachers, 19.
Mount Pleasant College, located at Huntsville, Randolph County, in 1856; president, J. W. Fevrill; number of pupils, 100; teachers, 4; value of buildings and grounds, $250,000; apparatus, $3,000.
Western Educational Institution, located at Warrenton, Warren County, in 1864, Rev. H. Koch, president; pupils in attendance, 200; teachers, 7; value of site and buildings, $15,000; apparatus, $250.
St. Paul's College, Palmyra, Marion County, Rev. William B. Corbyn, president; established in 1850, and has two teachers.
Bethel College, Palmyra, Marion County, was established in 1854. The Rev. R. M. Rhoade is president. Number of teachers, 1.
THE NORTH MISSOURI NORMAL SCHOOL
was founded in 1867, incorporated 1868, in the hope that it would be adopted as one of a system of the State normal schools. Located at Kirksville, Adair County, J. Baldwin, president. The number of students the first year was 284; the second, 423. Over 200 teachers, partially trained, have been sent out. The course for common school teachers is two years; for teachers in academies, high, or graded schools, four years' training is required. The institution is now self-sustaining. With or without State aid, it is regarded as a permanent institution.
MISSOURI ASYLUM FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB,
located at Fulton, Callaway County, William D. Kerr, superintendent, was established in 1851. The whole number of students is 111-males, 48; females, 63. The value of buildings and grounds is estimated at $75,000; apparatus, $150. This institution was located by the State, and provision made for a site, &c., in 1847. Pupils are admitted between the ages of seven and thirty years, and are allowed a course of ten years' instruction. The report of the principal suggests that "that feature of the law which requires certificates of poverty from such pupils as are beneficiaries of the State, operates as a great hinderance to the best interests of the school;" also that "the law limiting the number of teachers to five ought to be changed so as to allow the board of commissioners to appoint, from time to time, such assistance as is necessary.
The present system of public schools in St. Louis originated in an act of Congress approved June 13, 1812, by which "all town or village lots, out-lots, or common field lots, not rightfully owned or claimed by individuals, or held as commons," &c., were reserved for the support of schools. The total value of the lands thus reserved is now estimated at over $2,000,000. In 1817 a board of school trustees was established by the territorial legislature. In 1838 the first public school was establisbed. In 1850 a superintendent was first appointed; a high school class in 1853; a normal school opened in 1858. In 1859-'60, the first evening school was opened, and in 1864 German classes, for instruction in the German and English languages.
The reports for 1868, of the president board of school directors, Hon. Felix Coste, and of the superintendent, Hon. William T. Harris, give the following statistical and other information:
Estimated population of the city, 1867.
Number between five and twenty-one years, (drawing State money).
Number of school-houses: owned by board, 27; rented, 11..
Number of school-rooms
Total value of property used for school purposes..
Number of schools: normal, 1; high, 1; district, 30; colored, 5; evening, 12..
Number of teachers in day schools: males, 27; females, 145...
Number in evening schools, 43; normal, 4; high, 10; colored, 10
Total number of teachers in all schools..
Number of pupils enrolled in day schools.
Number of pupils enrolled in evening schools...
Number of pupils enrolled in normal schools, girls.
-$864, 236 14
18, 460 2, 134
The superintendent gives a synoptical view of the school system of the city, from which the following items are taken:
The schools are governed by a board of president and directors, consisting of 24 members, two elected from each ward by the legal voters thereof, for a term of three years, classified in such a manner that one-third go out of office each year. They have absolute power to hold and control all the real estate and property owned and used for public school purposes; to build school-houses, establish schools, and manage the same; to create a revenue for their support, by levying a tax not exceeding one-half of one per cent. on all taxable property of the city. These directors appoint their officers, including president, secretary, superintendent, attorney, and bailiff, annually.
School revenues are derived from four sources: 1, from city mill tax, which may be as high as five mills on a dollar of taxable property, though the highest hitherto assessed is four mills; 2, from rents of real estate donated by the general government for the schools; 3, from State and county school funds; 4, irregular revenues derived from sale of real estate, tuition fees, or loans made by the board. The first source yields now, at four mills, over $410,000; the second, about $50,000; the third, $40,000; total from regular sources, $500,000.
It is esti
A gratifying progress has been made during the past four years toward regularity and punctuality of attendance in the public schools. Tardiness has steadily decreased during the past five years, so that from 26.5 per cent. it has now diminished to 11.16 per cent. Of the whole number of pupils attending school, 8,778 were under ten years of age; 9,142 between the ages of ten and sixteen, and 640 over sixteen. mated that at least 40 per cent. of the entire population of the city are Germans, and at least 25 per cent. of the children in the public schools are of German parentage. The experience of the past year has demonstrated the necesssity of more school accommodations. The present crowded condition of many schools shows that by next year many applicants must be rejected for want of room. During the year several new school-houses have been in progress, which will be ready, some time in the first half of the next scholastic year. It has been decided by the board to change the four old buildings, and adapt them to the graded plan, which change will create accommodations for 386 more pupils, and make, in the aggregate, a saving of $9,734 for each year. It is estimated that it would be economy for the tax-payers to build the new style of school-houses, even were they to be burnt down once in ten years, in preference to using the old style, arranged upon the plan of large study and small recitation
THE EVENING SCHOOLS,
twelve in number, were kept for a period of sixteen weeks, at a cost of $6 40 per pupil; the average number belonging being 1,191. Of the total number enrolled, viz., 2,134, 1,936 were boys, and 198 were girls. The total expenses were $7,621 66; of which some $6,279 50 were expended for teachers' salaries. At the close of the term diplomas were awarded to 230 pupils for "punctual attendance, dilligence in study, and correct deportment."
INSTRUCTION IN GERMAN
has been introduced into the schools since the year 1864, whenever the requisite number of pupils of German descent, viz., 100, should be in attendance. During the year 1867-68 this course was pursued in 14 schools, 2,476 pupils having received instruction in German. The number of teachers in this branch was 17. The main motive for introducing this study into the public schools is to render them equally available to the German as to the native American. American children are allowed to study German after they have advanced sufficiently in their English studies to warrant that they have the requisite maturity of mind. From year to year the system improves iu regularity of classification and gradation, its interference with the English approaches its minimum, and thoroughness of instruction increases.
The five schools for colored children are not sufficient to accommodate all that class, but when they shall have been removed, as is contemplated, to larger and better adapted buildings, they will supply sufficient accommodation for them all. Punctu
ality and regularity of attendance in these schools have been secured to a greater degree than previously, while in other respects their progress is good.
THE NORMAL SCHOOL,
since its commencement, in October, 1857, has graduated 189 pupils, of whom 130 are at present teaching in the public schools of the city. The report of the principal, Anna C. Brackett, states that it is intended hereafter to graduate two classes per annum, in order to supply, if possible, the demand of the schools. The two classes which graduated the present year numbered, one 8, the other 24. Graduates of the high school and teachers of some experience are admitted, after passing the requisite examination, to advanced standing, so as to graduate in six months. The number of pupils connected with the school during the year is 104; average number belonging, 69. The report of the principal considers, at length, the advisability of adopting the plan of object teaching; and expresses the opinion that though advantageous in the education of pupils in primary schools, its application to the education of older pupils is not desirable. The course of study comprises the fundamental, and higher English branches, with the Latin language, and calisthenic exercises.
THE HIGH SCHOOL,
from the report of its principal, H. H. Morgan, esq., for the year 1867-'68, has had an attendance during the year of 95.5 per cent. of the total number. The number of pupils in attendance this year is one-sixth larger than that of any previous year. The graduating class numbered 37, a large increase over the previous year. Pupils, upon admission are required to be at least twelve years of age, and to pass a satisfactory examination in History of the United States, grammar, geography, and spelling. At present the school is more than full with 360 pupils, an average of 40 to each teacher, but the proposed addition of new rooms, during the coming year, will increase the accommodations so as to admit from 90 to 120 more pupils. The course of study is intended to occupy four years. There are two courses open to the choice of the pupil, the general and the classical-differing only in the substitution of the ancient languages for the fuller mathematical course, and the study of the natural sciences.
THE PUBLIC SCHOOL LIBRARY
contains a collection of 11,592 carefully selected volumes, the value of which is estimated at $22,156 50. An interesting fact connected with the library is that it is resorted to by a large number of youths who have left school. A record kept for the month of January, 1868, showed that 1,137 books were taken from it by former pupils. The number of volumes received by district school pupils was 1,654; high school pupils, 787.
THE PRESS A TEACHER.
Report of T. A. Parker, superintendent of public schools of Missouri, 1870, says: "In an important sense the press is the school teacher of the people, and bears the same relation to the adult intellect of the nation that the text-book does to the juvenile. It utters a varied eloquence. It is generally on the side of the true, the good, and the just, and opposes falsehood, vice, and injustice. It is the parent of American literature in its genuine national aspect, and from its virile loins have sprung the productive germs which grow and ripen into the enduring forms of books. As it speaks to thousands where the pulpit and the book speak to hundreds, it is the fittest, as well as the strongest, defense of free education against all opposition. Like the miraculous canopy of Parebanon, in the tales of enchantment, it can be extended over the continent, or, if necessary, it can gather itself up to shelter the tiniest school-house in the State. Although inviting free and unrestricted discussion of all shades of opinion upon this subject, we believe the press to be so wedded to the free school that, if seriously threatened, it would turn upon the assailant a concentrated fire tenfold hotter than the streaming flames from embattled artillery."
NECESSITY OF EDUCATION TO THE STATE AND THE COMMUNITY.
The man who is controlled by a detestable self-interest, which takes on opposition to the public school because he is called on to help support it; or the one who is governed by a foolish pride against the social equality of the public school; or, worse still, the poor bigot who lifts his eyes in holy horror and protests against the public school because it cannot be directed by his "church;" all these do not and cannot understand the necessity of urging forward this great interest-of the education of the people, by the people, and for the people. Gentlemen of the ancient days of yore, there are some objects of higher consideration than your money, your pride, or even your church. One is the safety, prosperity, and peaceful government of this common
wealth. Its safety is conditioned upon general intelligence; its prosperity upon general confidence; its peaceful government upon both these, controlled by general virtue Beyond this is another object of high consideration-the social well-being of any given community-and this is dependent upon the same condition as the commonwealth. Beyond even this is the individual-the child-for whom is all this array of power and expenditure of means. You are so related to him that you are affected by his act. His claim to knowledge is one consequence, at least, of his relation to you. His is a sovereignty of demand, abstractly considered, even higher than that of the community or that of the cominonwealth. Should his life be vicious and criminal, the statistics of the State treasury will show how it affects you. It becomes your interest to help him to join one of the two grand armies of labor-that of muscle or that of mind; and from the multiplication of his personal influence confirm you in the enjoyment of your money, your pride, or your church.
I believe in the divinity of the teacher's work, as I do in the indestructible effects he produces. It is one of special consecration. It is better valued as we see more and more clearly the measureless possibilities of our nature in childhood. It is an office of high responsibility; for, next to the duty of saving, it is the office of leading out the soul. "One of the surest signs," says Mr. Channing, "of the regeneration of society, will be the elevation of teaching to the highest rank in the community."
Table of statistical details of schools in Missouri, from the report of 1869. Hon. T. A. PARKER, superintendent public schools, Jefferson City.
List of school officers in Missouri, &c.-Continued.
Marion... Mercer Miller. Mississippi Moniteau.. Monroe.... Montgomery Morgan. New Madrid. Newton.. Nodaway.
T. J. Freeman..
Thomas G. Deartherage
J. B. Collins
D. J. Caldwell
W. J. Sieber
J. D. Roberts
J. C. Samson.. W. G. Walker... Daniel Peterson.. Allan L. McGregor.. John W. Ayers... Charles E. Minter.. J. F. Hammond George Whitcomb. R. L. Galbreath A. E. Gore... John C. Ellis T. Turnbull.... T. J. O. Morrison J. C. Geyer S. C. McClusky W. T. Shares... J. N. Clark John Jack.