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cases at a considerable personal sacrifice upon the part of county superintendents and teachers. It was frequently met with decided opposition by persons who worshipped with their faces toward the past.” The institute meetings are marked by a uniform and cordial sympathy, courtesy, and mutual deference to opinion, undisturbed by the intrusion of either personal, political, or religious views. The testimony of the superintendent is, that he has yet to find the slightest discord, a state of feeling as remarkable, considering the past, as it is much to be desired. Under the influence
of this unity and fraternity the hateful and hostile feelings of the past are disappearing, and the enmity of the fathers is transmuted to friendship in the children.
The press of the State has been, and is now, with few exceptions, the most powerful and capable auxiliary to free education. In no instance has the urgent claim of the public schools been disregarded. The theoretical importance of public education, the practical duties of the school-room, the willful neglect of parents and officers, the relations of the school and the State, the child and the citizen, have been discussed over and over again, in forcible terms, by editors who could have no personal interest in the subject except that which springs from the generous sympathy which makes the world akin. It is fair to presume that the press of no other State devotes so much special attention, week after week, to the cause and the advancement of free education.
THE TOWNSHIP SCHOOL FUND MISMANAGED. The township school fund, amounting in the aggregate to $2,184,170, with an annual income of nearly $200,000, arises from the proceeds of section number sixteen, set apart by Congress in 1820 for the use of the schools. The amount of land then and subsequently granted the State for school purposes is 1,199,139 acres, sufficient, had it been judiciously managed in each township, to have laid the foundation for a school fund, the annual income from which would constitute the schools free for at least six months in the year. But many of the townships have lost the entire fund, and others have suffered greatly from the mismanagement of those who have had charge of this matter. It was early enacted that the county should have charge of the township school fund belonging to each township, and all subsequent legislation has placed this fund under the care of the same guardianship, with the provision that these moneys “shall be secured by a mortgage in fee on real estate, free from liens and incumbrances within the county, of double the amount of the loan,” &c. Had these funds been invested in accordance with the above enactment, or in United States bonds, as is further provided by law, much would have been saved. No object calling for legislation is more important than the present management of the school funds. In quite a number of counties there has been the most reckless management and neglect, to such an extent that for years the funds have been rendered unavailable. In some cases, county courts have taken the school moneys for their own use, on their own recognizance, or loaned them to favorites knowing that the security was worthless or insufficient.
It is recommended that the general assembly shall revise the present law for the purpose of better securing the school funds, directing them to their legitimate end, and recovering the funds and lands which are not yet beyond redemption.
SCHOOLS AND RAILWAYS.
The report enters at length into a discussion of the school law as recently amended, specifies its faults, and suggests remedies for them; and having, as is stated," but faintly delineated the outlines of the magnificent structure which stands in the fields of the future as our system of free education--a vast and impartial scholium generale-spacious enough for all races and all conditions,” goes on to remark:
“ The present time is not auspicious for the speedy completion of this work. Just now the locomotive is the popular idol, and it is astonishing with what zeal the iron divinity is served. "Give us a railroad,' is the universal cry. With unstinting liberality nearly every county in the State has voted large subsidies to a coming railroad. The policy may leave a burden of debt, but it will also hasten material prosperity, and bring to a speedy solution the problems of our varied resources. Let the God of this world take his lawful empire! Speed the victory of the railways; because as they develop the material resources, they also break away the thick veils of indifference and ignorance in what portions of the State they have shut out the light of the public school. The true apotheosis of the railway is not the wealth it produces, but the intelligence it fosters.”
Upon the admission of Missouri as a State, in 1820, Congress granted the State two townships of the best land in the State for the support of a seminary of learning, the State legislature becoming the trustee for the management of the land and the proper application of the funds. In 1832 the legislature had most of the lands sold for $2 per acre, realizing a sum of only $70,000, when they were really worth half a million. When the fund thus originating, invested in the State Bank, had reached the sum of $100,000, the university was located at Columbia, Boone County, the citizens of that county having subscribed the sum of $117,500 to the institution as an inducement. One man who could neither read nor write paid $3,000 to the purpose, and certain others subscribed to this sum and afterwards paid more than they were actually worth at the time of the subscription. The corner-stone of the edifice was laid in July 1840. The institution existed twenty-five years, and though with very insufficient funds, still making substantial progress, without ever having received the least aid from the State. Even a deficit, which occurred through State management, was not made good, far less was the loss resulting from the premature sale of the ample and beneficent grant returned to the institution by the State. The provision for the State institution contained in the new constitution, with the adoption of the new State constitution, began a new era for the university. The provision made for it is in these words: “The general assembly shall establish and maintain a State university, in which there shall be departments in teaching, in agriculture, and natural science, as soon as the public school fund will permit.” An act was passed giving $10,000 for rebuilding the president's house, which had been destroyed by fire during the war, and also making an annual grant of 14 per cent. of the State revenue, after deducting therefrom 25 per cent. already appropriated for the support of common schools. The general plan of the institution is to retain the usual college course for those who desire that; to enlarge and perfect the scientific course; to establish and maintain a college of agriculture and mechanic arts, including military tactics, embracing a school of engineering, analytical chemistry, mining, and metallurgy, a normal college, a law college, and a preparatory department. The president is Daniel Reid, LL. D. The number of students, 217; graduates for the year 1867–68, 13; value of property, estimated at $250,000 to $350,000.
owes its origin to the liberality of colored soldiers enlisted from Missouri. In the spring of 1866 a subscription of $4,000 was made by the enlisted men of the Sixtysecond United States colored infantry, to aid in the foundation of an educational institution in Missouri for the especial benefit of the colored people. Afterward, another colored Missouri regiment added to it the sum of $1,325; and $2,000 were subsequently received from the Freedmen's Bureau. Other funds, including $1,000 from the officers of the Sixty-second regiment, have supported it three years and a half. Tuition is free: A valuable library of several hundred volumes has been obtained. It is recommended that an annual sum of $5,000 be added to these funds, and a State institution therewith founded for the education of colored teachers.
THE MISSOURI INSTITUTE FOR THE EDUCATION OF THE BLIND, located at the city of St. Louis, was established in 1851. The superintendent is H. Rensselver Foster; number of students in attendance, 72; value of buildings and grounds, $75,000; of apparatus, $1,200. Through the efforts of Mr. Eli William Whelan, the legislature, in 1851, appropriated $15,000 to the institution, provided that the sum of $10,000 should be subscribed by individuals, or by the city or county of St. Louis, which amount was soon pledged. In 1856, it was located in the city of St. Louis, upon a lot 22 by 300 feet. It had hitherto been supported by an annual appropriation of $3,000 from the State, and $2,000 from the citizens of St. Louis; but as the operations of the institution became more extensive, the State assumed the entire responsibility of its support, on condition that all the property “should be held in trust for the State and subject to its disposal,” which was accordingly done. The institution is managed by seven trustees, appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate. The course of instruction embraces three departments—literary, musical, and mechanical. Since the establishment of the institute 250 pupils have been under instruction. Of those who have gone out one is a physician, fifteen are teachers of music, one literature, fifteen regained their sight, twenty-six removed from the State without completing their course, eighty-four are pursuing the different trades which they acquired here, viz., broom, brush, and mat making, chair seating and willow work.
Besides the North Missouri Normal School, already referred to, there are in the State eleven other institutions of learning which are not fostered by the State government. Blanks sent to them by the superintendent have elicited the following particulars: The William Jewell College, located at Liberty, Clay County, established in 1849; Thomas Rambant, LL.D., president. The number of teachers is 6; of pupils, 110;
. value of buildings and grounds, $50,000; apparatus, $3,000. The endowment is $145,000
The Grand River College, located at Edinbug, Grundy County, in 1858, John E. Vertrees, A. M., president. The number of pupils is 110; teachers, 3; value of property, $6,000.
The Plattsburg College, located at Plattsburg, Clinton County, in 1867, James H. Thomas, president, has 137 pupils and 4 teachers. Property worth $10,000.
McGee College, located at College Mound, Macon County, founded in 1853, J. B. Mitchell, president, has 233 pupils and 10 ten teachers; value of buildings and grounds, $30,000.
Christian University, located at Canton, Lewis County, in 1858, B. H. Smith, president, has an attendance of 210 pupils, with 9 teachers; value of buildings and grounds, $100,000; apparatus, $500.
Washington University, located at St. Louis, in 1857, William Charvenet, president; number of students, 589; teachers, 41; value of buildings and grounds, $250,000 ; apparatus, $6,000.
St. Louis University, located at St. Louis, in 1829, Rev. F. H. Stuntebeck, president; number of students, 278; teachers, 19.
Mount Pleasant College, located at Huntsville, Randolph County, in 1856; president, J. W. Fevrill; number of pupils, 100; teachers, 4; value of buildings and grounds, $250,000; apparatus, $3,000.
Western Educational Institution, located at Warrenton, Warren County, in 1864, Rev. H. Koch, president; pupils in attendance, 200; teachers, 7; value of site and buildings, $15,000; apparatus, $250.
St. Paul's College, Palmyra, Marion County, Rev. William B. Corbyn, president; established in 1850, and has two teachers.
Bethel College, Palmyra, Marion County, was established in 1854. The Rev. R. M. Rhoade is president. Number of teachers, 1.
THE NORTH MISSOURI NORMAL SCHOOL was founded in 1867, incorporated 1868, in the hope that it would be adopted as one of a system of the State normal schools. Located at Kirksville, Adair County, J. Baldwin, president. The number of students the first year was 284; the second, 423. Over 200 teachers, partially trained, have been sent out. The course for common school teachers is two years; for teachers in academies, high, or graded schools, four years' training is required. The institution is now self-sustaining. With or without State aid, it is regarded as a permanent institution.
MISSOURI ASYLUM FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB, located at Fulton, Callaway County, William D. Kerr, superintendent, was established in 1851. The whole number of students is 111-males, 48; females, 63. The value of buildings and grounds is estimated at $75,000; apparatus, $150. This institution was located by the State, and provision made for a site, &c., in 1847. Pupils are admitted between the ages of seven and thirty years, and are allowed a course of ten years' instruction. The report of the principal suggests that “that feature of the law which requires certificates of poverty from such pupils as are beneficiaries of the State, operates as a great hinderance to the best interests of the school;" also that "the law limiting the number of teachers to five ought to be changed so as to allow the board of commissioners to appoint, from time to time, such assistance as is necessary.
ST. LOUIS. The present system of public schools in St. Louis originated in an act of Congress approved June 13, 1812, by which "all town or village lots, out-lots, or common field lots, not rightfully owned or claimed by individuals, or held as commons," &c., were reserved for the support of schools. The total value of the lands thus reserved is now estimated at over $2,000,000. In 1817 a board of school trustees was established by the territorial legislature. In 1838 the first public school was establisbed. In 1850 a superintendent was first appointed; a high school class in 1853; a normal school opened in 1858. In 1859–60, the first evening school was opened, and'in 1864 German classes, for instruction in the German and English languages..
The reports for 1868, of the president board of school directors, Hon. Felix Coste, and of the superintendent, Hon. William T. Harris, give the following statistical and other information: Estimated population of the city, 1867,
220,000 Number between five and twenty-one years, (drawing State money)...
70, 222 Number between six and sixteen years of age...
46, 100 Number of school-bonses: owned by board, 27; rented, 11...
38 Number of school-rooms
271 Total value of property used for school purposes....
-$864, 236 14 Number of schools: normal, 1; high, 1; district, 30; colored, 5; evening, 12..
49 Number of teachers in day schools: males, 27; females, 145.
272 Number in evening schools, 43; normal, 4; high, 10; colored, 10
67 Total number of teachers in all schools..
315 Number of pupils enrolled in day schools ..
18, 460 Number of pupils enrolled in evening schools
2, 134 Number of pupils enrolled in normal schools, girls.
104 In high schools: boys, 160; girls, 193.
353 In district schools: boys, 8,641; girls, 8,438.
17,079 In colored schools: boys, 445; girls, 479
924 Total number enrolled day and evening.
20,594 Number of foreign-born pupils
1, 235 Number born in St. Louis
11, 413 Whole number of school days..
200 Number of pupils who attended 200 days
482 Number of pupils who attended over 180 days
5, 377 Number not absent during their enrollment
1, 431 Per cent. of attendance...
93 The superintendent gives a synoptical view of the school system of the city, from which the following items are taken:
The schools are governed by a board of president and directors, consisting of 24 members, two elected from each ward by the legal voters thereof, for a term of three years, classified in such a manner that one-third go out of office each year. They have absolute power to hold and control all the real estate and property owned and used for public school purposes; to build school-houses, establish schools, and manage the same; to create a revenue for their support, by levying a tax not exceeding one-half of one per cent. on all taxable property of the city. These directors appoint their officers, including president, secretary, superintendent, attorney, and bailiff, annually.
School revenues are derived from four sources: 1, from city mill tax, which may be as high as five mills on a dollar of taxable property, though the highest hitherto assessed is four mills; 2, from rents of real estate donated by the general government for the schools; 3, from State and county school funds; 4, irregular revenues derived from sale of real estate, tuition fees, or loans made by the board. The first source yields now, at four mills, over $410,000; the second, about $50,000; the third, $40,000; total from regular sources, $500,000.
A gratifying progress has been made during the past four years toward regularity and punctuality of attendance in the public schools. Tardiness has steadily decreasel during the past five years, so that from 26.5 per cent. it has now diminished to 11.16 per cent. Of the whole number of pupils attending school, 8,778 were under ten years of age ; 9,142 between the ages of ten and sixteen, and 640 over sixteen. It is estimated that at least 40 per cent. of the entire population of the city are Germans, and at least 25 per cent. of the children in the public schools are of German parentage. The experience of the past year has demonstrated the necesssity of more school accommodations. The present crowded condition of many schools shows that by next year many applicants must be rejected for want of room. During the year several new school-houses have been in progress, which will be ready, some time in the first half of the next scholastic year. It has been decided by the board to change the four old buildings, and adapt them to the graded plan, which change will create accommodations for 386 more pupils, and make, in the aggregate, a saving of $9,734 for each year. It is estimated that it would be economy for the tax-payers to build the new style of school-houses, even were they to be burnt down once in ten years, in preference to using the old style, arranged upon the plan of large study and small recitation
TIIE EVENING SCHOOLS,
twelve in number, were kept for a period of sixteen weeks, at a cost of $6 40 per pupil; the average number belonging being 1,191. Of the total number enrolled, viz., 2,134, 1,936 were boys, and 198 were girls.' The total expenses were $7,621 66; of
. which some $6,279 50 were expended for teachers' salaries. At the close of the term diplomas were awarded to 230 pupils for “punctual attendance, dilligence in study, and correct deportment."
INSTRUCTION IN GERMAN has been introduced into the schools since the year 1864, whenever the requisite number of pupils of German descent, viz., 100, should be in attendance. During the year 1867–68 this course was pursued'in 14 schools, 2,476 pupils having received instruction in German. The number of teachers in this branch was 17. The main motive for introducing this study into the public schools is to render them equally available to the German as to the native American American children are allowed to study German after they have advanced sufficiently in their English studies to warrant that they have the requisite maturity of mind. From year to year the system improves iu regularity of classification and gradation, its interference with the English approaches its minimum, and thoroughness of instruction increases.
The five schools for colored children are not sufficient to accommodate all that class, but when they shall have been removed, as is contemplated, to larger and better adapted buildings, they will supply sufficient accommodation for them all. Punctu, ality and regularity of attendance in these schools have been secured to a greater degree than previously, while in other respects their progress is good.
THE NORMAL SCHOOL, since its commencement, in October, 1857, has graduated 189 pupils, of whom 130 are at present teaching in the public schools of the city. The report of the principal, Anna C. Brackett, states that it is intended hereafter to graduate two classes per annum, in order to supply, if possible, the demand of the schools. The two classes which graduated the present year numbered, one 8, the other 24. Graduates of the high school and teachers of some experience are admitted, after passing the requisite examination, to advanced standing, so as to graduate in six months. The number of pupils connected with the school during the year is 104; average number belonging, 69. The report of the principal considers, at length, the advisability of adopting the plan of object teaching; and expresses the opinion that though advantageous in the education of pupils in primary schools, its application to the education of older pupils is not desirable. The course of study comprises the fundamental, and higher English branches, with the Latin language, and calisthenic exercises.
THE HIGH SCHOOL,
from the report of its principal, H. H. Morgan, esq., for the year 1867–68, has had an attendance during the year of 95.5 per cent. of the total number. The number of pupils in attendance this year is one-sixth larger than that of any previous year. The graduating class numbered 37, a large increase over the previous year. Pupils, upon admission are required to be at least twelve years of age, and to pass a satisfactory examination in History of the United States, grammar, geography, and spelling. At present the school is more than full with 360 pupils, an average of 40 to each teacher, but the proposed addition of new rooms, during the coming year, will increase the accommodations so as to admit from 90 to 120 more pupils. The course of study is intended to occupy four years. There are two courses open to the choice of the pupil, the general and the classical-differing only in the substitution of the ancient languages for the fuller mathematical course, and the study of the natural sciences.
THE PUBLIC SCHOOL LIBRARY
contains a collection of 11,592 carefully selected volumes, the value of which is estimated at $22,156 50. An interesting fact connected with the library is that it is resorted to by a large number of youths who have left school. A record kept for the month of January, 1868, showed that 1,137 books were taken from it by former pupils. The number of volumes received by district school pupils was 1,654; high school pupils, 787.
THE PRESS A TEACHER.
Report of T. A. Parker, superintendent of public schools of Missouri, 1870, says:
“In an important sense the press is the school teacher of the people, and bears the same relation to the adult intellect of the nation that the text-book does to the juvenile. It utters a varied eloquence. It is generally on the side of the true, the good, and the just, and opposes falsehood, vice, and injustice. It is the parent of American literature in its genuine national aspect, and from its virile loins have sprung the productive germs which grow and ripen into the enduring forms of books. As it speaks to thousands where the pulpit and the book speak to hundreds, it is the fittest, as well as the strongest, defense of free education against all opposition. Like the miraculous canopy of Parebanon, in the tales of enchantment, it can be extended over the continent, or, if necessary, it can gather itself up to shelter the tiniest school-house in the State. Although inviting free and unrestricted discussion of all shades of opinion upon this subject, we believe the press to be so wedded to the free school that, if seriously threatened, it would turn upon the assailant a concentrated fire tenfold hotter than the streaming flames from embattled artillery."
NECESSITY OF EDUCATION TO THE STATE AND THE COMMUNITY. The man who is controlled by a detestable self-interest, which takes on opposition to the public school because he is called on to help support it; or the one who is governed by a foolish pride against the social equality of the public school; or, worse still, the poor bigot who lifts his eyes in holy horror and protests against the public school because it cannot be directed by his “church;” all these do not and cannot understand the necessity of urging forward this great interest—of the education of the people, by the people, and for the people. Gentlemen of the ancient days of yore, There are some objects of higher consideration than your money, your pride, or even your church. One is the safety, prosperity, and peaceful government of this common