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same time we confess that we should be disposed to give to the University Senate a real power, which is now enjoyed by the Board; namely, the election of the Chancellor. Any measure which would tend to strengthen the tie between the University and its former alumni-a tie which is much too weak-would be, we think, highly be neficial to both. Perhaps the passage in which the tendency to which we allude appears most strongly, is the following. After recommending the abolition of the tutorial committee, the Commissioners say :
"The business now performed by them ought, we think, to be performed by the Board. We have recommended that the senior fellows should not be eligible to professorships; we think that they should limit their attention to the government of the college. We think, however, that they are quite able to discharge the entire of this duty, and that they ought not to entrust a large part of it to a voluntary committee." -Report, p. 16.
The policy here laid down is, we have no hesitation in saying, retrograde and mischievous. Nothing could be more fatal to the interests of education than the marked line which the Commissioners wish to draw between the governing body and the educating body. For the science of education is like every other science, essentially progressive. A system which was highly approved of in 1820, may have fallen into disfavour in 1840, and be entirely exploded in 1860. Under these circumstances, it is absolutely necessary that among those to whom is entrusted the government of such an institution as Trinity College, there should be at least some whose daily practical acquaintance with the business of teaching gives them a continued experience, not of what education was, but of what it is. Such seems to have been the opinion of the authorities of
Cambridge, when they appointed a Board of Studies, taken from among the most distinguished professors and lecturers, to preside over one of the most important departments of their academic course. Such was the feeling of the English Commissioners when they recommended that the governing bodies of Oxford and Cambridge should be widened either by the increase of the number of Boards of Studies as at Cambridge, or by giving increased powers to the Congregation as at Oxford and such is the principle carried out, imperfectly it is true, by the control which the tutorial committee exercise over undergraduate lectures.
This wise and enlightened policy, acted on by the heads of at least one of the English universities, sanctioned and extended by their Commissioners, and carried out in Trinity College, although neither as fully nor as directly as it ought to be, the Dublin Commissioners have thought proper to reverse. By providing, that no professorships shall be held by the senior fellows, and thus taking the work of education wholly out of their hands, they have removed all possibility of their preserving and acquiring the continued experience to which we have alluded. At the same
time, they propose to remove all in. terference, direct or indirect, with their authority, and to give them uncontrolled power over collegiate education.
We have said "uncontrolled;" we may add, uncriticised. Every person familiar with the working of Trinity College, knows how much the progressive and liberal spirit of later years has been due to the presence within the walls of a body of men competent to form a sound opinion as to the acts of the Board, and independent enough to speak that opinion freely, either in censure or suggestion. The position and income of the tutors has been hitherto practically subject to no interference.
• The following passage from the Oxford "Report" is important, as showing the opinion of the Commissioners on this point :-' "We have before shewn that the power of legislation belonged, in early times, to those who were actually engaged in giving instruction, and that causes of a temporary nature, in a great degree, determined the successive interventions by which the government of the University was reduced to a narrow oligarchy. There is no reason why an arrangement which may have been thought at one time advisable, whether from state policy or other motives, should be perpetuated for ever. It is anomalous that
the professors and tutors have, as such, no right to suggest or amend, or even discuss any measure, how much soever it may affect the literary and educational interests of the place." Oxford Report, pp. 11, 12.
They succeed to their office according to a fixed rule, retain it on conditions prescribed by law, and receive through their own officer an income with which no other person has anything to do. This independent position, the Com. missioners, as we have seen, propose to destroy, by placing three-fourths of the tutorial income at the disposal of the Board, to be paid by them to professors elected by themselves, and, we presume, removable at their discretion.
Who can look for any free criticism from a body so circumstanced; and what Board, not absolutely composed of angels, would be likely to tolerate such criticism from their own dependents? Is there no reason to fear that
they will use the weapon which is thus put into their hands, to terminate so unpleasant a discipline-" ut si quis memorem libertatis vocem aut in senatu, aut in populo misisset, statim virgæ securesque etiam ad cetorum metum expedirentur." This policy, on the part of the Commissioners, is no mere error of detail or hasty experiment. It is far worse; it is a step in the wrong di
But we must bring these remarks to a close. If, in commenting upon the changes which the Commissioners are desirous to introduce, we have dwelt at some length upon the few points in
which we think them to be wrong, passing hastily by the very great majority, in which they are undoubtedly right, it is because we believe that the welfare of the Established Church, and the general interests of education, will be deeply affected by all that concerns the Divinity school, the tutorial system, and the principles on which the University should be governed. And there is another reason. The University Commissioners require no aid from us. There is but little danger that the Government or the public will under-estimate recommendations which bear the stamp of such an authority. Much more is it to be dreaded that their opinion should overbear the truth where they are wrong, than fail to enforce it where they are right. And, indeed, many of the recommendations belonging to the latter class are of such obvious utility, that they scarcely require or admit of discussion.
That many of these recommendations will be carried into effect, we hope and believe. But we have ventured to point out some, less perhaps in number than in importance, from which, with all respect for their illustrious authors, we should only expect detriment to the University, to the interests of education, and to the welfare of our common country.
If they be not so removable, the check over the indolent professor will be much less than the present check over the indolent tutor.
MIDSUMMER MELODIES. BY JONATHAN FREKE SLINGSBY. NOONTIDE; A CHANT-
HEROES, ANCIENT AND MODERN.-No. V. BELISARIES AND MARLBOROUGH
THE COUNTESS HAHN-HAHN
SIR JASPER CAREW, KNT. CHAPTER XXVIII-AN EPISODE IN MY LIFE. CHAP-
THE CROWN AND THE DAGGER.-A TALE OF THE THIRD CRUSADE
JAMES MCGLASHAN, 50 UPPER SACKVILLE-STREET. WM. S. ORR AND CO., LONDON AND LIVERPOOL.
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I HOPE, my dear Anthony, that, notwithstanding the avocations that chain you down to a town existence, you have, some time or other during your life, been able to break from your tether at such a season as this, and scamper away to the country. Not truer is the instinct, believe me, that leads the panting hind to the water-brooks, or the wild bee to the heathery knolls and the breezy hill-tops, than that which makes man's better nature long for the bright, beautiful, glorious, peaceful country, at such a season. Yes, this is the time to flee the city for, as sang the "iolly shephearde's swain" of Edmund Spencer, concerning this same month
"Now the sunne hath reared upp
His fierie-footed teme,
Making his way between the Cupp
The rampant Lyon hunts he fast,
Whose balefull barking brings in hast,
When the blistering glare of a city, reflected from white, glowing flags, and plate-glass windows of mighty monster-shops, makes the eyes ache and tho temples throb; when the heavy electrical atmosphere, thickened with the soot and carbon of many a chimney, chokes free respiration, weighing down the mind, and, as it were, clogging the heart; when the frame is hot, the energies languid the intellect vapid, and the spirits dissipated-oh! how one then thirsts for a draught from out those springs which can alone refresh body and soul-the repose of some deep sylvan shade-the freshness of a solitary hillside the coolness of the sea-beach, or the margin of some dark, dull river. How one then hungers after the pure, the true, the natural-in a word, for the country. And he, indeed, must be bound by a strong chain, or have but the pitiful and broken spirit of the long-time captive, who would not, at such a season, struggle hard for his liberty.
Well, if it be that you have never yet so freed yourself (that you have not struggled to do so I will never believe), you can, at least, form some estimate of the charms of which I speak. You have, doubtless, many a time and oft, hung long and lovingly a-gaze over those exquisite pictures, of Cuyp, and Claude Lorraine, and Poussin, which breathe, as it were, the very soul of rural loveliness. Happily you have now the opportunity of so doing, to an extent that you have never before enjoyed. You have but to enter the Fine Arts Hall at our Great Exhibition, and realise, at least to the sight, all that we who are in the country enjoy through every sense and every fibre. Go there now, in the hot noon, and, as it were, Aladdin-like, borne away by the ministrations of the