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advantages afford agriculture Andalusia annually Aragon Asturias attention Barcelona Biscay canals Catalonia cattle century clergy cloth Columella commerce consequently considerable consumption corn cultivation culture districts employed encouragement equally established estates Estramadura evil expence exportation extended fanegas favour flocks foreign fruit Galicia grain Granada granted Guipuscoa hundred important improvement increase individual industry inhabitants interest irrigation justice kind king kingdom of Granada kingdom of Leon kingdom of Murcia kingdom of Valencia labour landed property latter laws less livres tournois Madrid majorats Malaga Mancha manufactures means ment Mesta mortmain nation nature Navarre necessary necessity object obstacles obtain Old Castile period persons places population port possess present principles privileges produce profit prohibited proper proprietors provinces quantity regulations rent respect rivers roads Saragossa Seville silk society soil Spain Spanish subsistence thousand quintals tion Toledo trade trees ture wealth wine wool
Стр. 374 - Romish superstition morally impossible in those who have been once delivered from its baneful influence; and that, if the dawn of science and philosophy toward the end of the sixteenth and the commencement of the seventeenth centuries, was favourable to the cause of the Reformation, their progress, which has a kind of influence even upon the multitude, must confirm us in the principles that occasioned our separation from the church of Rome.
Стр. 185 - ... frame. It is accordingly observed, that in those countries of America, where, from the fertility of the soil, the mildness of the climate, or some farther advances which the natives have made in improvement, the means of subsistence are more abundant, and the hardships of savage life are less severely felt, the animal passion of the sexes becomes more ardent.
Стр. 110 - Report on the Advancement of Agriculture and on Agrarian Laws, addressed to the Supreme Council of Castile by the Patriotic Society of Madrid, and drawn up by one of its Members, Don Caspar Melchar de Jovellanos.
Стр. 57 - The journey which tiie flocks make in their migration is regulated by particular laws and immemorial customs. The sheep pass unmolested over the pastures belonging to the villages and the commons which lie in their road, and have a right to feed on them. They are not, however, allowed to pass over cultivated lands, but the proprietors of such lands are obliged to leave for them a path of about eighty-four yards in breadth.
Стр. 56 - ... renders the wool softer and more easy to be cut. This is one of the practices the Spaniards appear to have derived from the Romans. One hundred and twenty-five men are usually employed for shearing a thousand ewes, and two hundred for a thousand wethers. Each sheep affords four kinds of wool, more or less fine according to the parts of the animal whence it is taken. The rams yield more wool than the ewes, but not of so fine a quality ; three rams or five ewes afford twenty-five pounds.
Стр. 87 - ... till a certain measure of grain is deposited ; then every one receives back the whole corn which he has furnished, and replaces it by an equal quantity of new corn.
Стр. 53 - These flocks, when assembled for migration, generally consist of about ten thousand sheep. Every flock is conducted by an officer called a mayoral, whose business it is to superintend the shepherds and direct the route. He is generally an active man, well acquainted with the kinds of pasturage, the nature of sheep, and the method of treatment. Under him...
Стр. 164 - ... etiam consumuntque quod natum est, ut qui iam putent se non sibi parcere. Occurrendum ergo augescentibus vitiis et medendum est. Medendi una ratio, si non nummo, sed partibus locem ac deinde ex meis aliquos operis exactores custodes fructibus ponam. Et alioqui nullum iustius genus 15 reditus, quam quod terra caelum annus refert.
Стр. 87 - In some places seed corn is distributed to necessitous husbandmen, who are bound to restore as much in lieu of it the next harvest. The institution of such a system as this is no doubt highly necessary in a country only in an imperfect state of civilisation ; but that which requires the authority, of government to accomplish abroad, is in England brought about by less questionable means.
Стр. 87 - Every occupier of land is obliged to bring a certain quantity of corn, proportionate to the extent of his farm ; the following year he takes back the corn he has thus deposited, and replenishes the empty garner with a larger quantity ; and thus he continues annually to increase the stock by these contributions called