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witnesses in the present case are so respectable ; and the pus. lic, once at least, felt so much interest in the subject ; that we are induced to quote a suflicient number of the allegations of the Danish Doctors, article by article, to enable our readers to decide on the character of their evidence, and we shall intersperse some concise remarks.
Experiment 1. on a patient, aged 31, with a shooting paia in his right knee : all the needles used in the order in which they are above enumerated; on the use of the copper and lead, the pain ceased almost entirely. Why, in the name of common sense, was not the operation carried on till it was known whether the pain would quite cease? why so tantalise curiosity ? 2. Continued pain with an ulcer of the joint ;-iron and brass used; the pain sensibly decreased in the course of a few days: but what was the final result; did the pain go off entirely? 3. Stiffness in the knee, with some pain; amendment from silver and zine; copper and lead considerably abated the pain; and, under the use of iron and brass, that and the stitness almost went off :-almost again! 4. Gout in the left arm :perkinized with true perkinean needles; pain much abated, which amendment afterward increased! How precise ! how satisfactory! 5. Pain on the left side of the head from a blow five years before, and inflammation in the left eye :-bismuth employed; the pain quite removed; and the eye could see better against the light. 6. A ganglion on the right great trochanter, with pain of the hip: little effect from iron and brass: zinc increased the pain, as did lead :--afterward, zinc and bismuth diminished it; and, on repetition of the operation, it went off entirely. 7. Violent pain about the leít elbow; silver and zinc used with scarcely any effect. 8. Slight in flammation with pain of the right palpebræ :- with zinc and brass, effusion of tears, and a burning ; but the pain went quite off in two days :-the reader will remark the buty-and prob bly subjoin, but would not the pain have gone off as soon or sooner without the operation ? 9. An inflamed pterygiun of the left eye, with pain in the face and head:-under the use of iron and brass, a good deal of weeping, but the headache was lessened, and the light became less distressing; under 2 second operation, the symptoms increased; under a third, there was some aniendment. With silver and zinc, the pain ceased, the eye ran more, and the sight remained impaired. From the next operation, the pain of the head was increased, but that of the face removed. On using ivory, the pain seemed to lessen, but the eye swelled. The pain has since fluctuated. 10. Acute pain in the hind part of she headi-after one operation,
the pain went off: but a morbid sensibility long remained. --So far Professor Schuhmacher.
11. By M. Klengberg.-Violent pain in the hip, of four weeks' duration, removed by cicuta and quicksilver: but, in moving the knee, they came on again, so that it was necessary to hold the limb still. Application of iron and brass drove the pain to the arms and back; the stiffness went almost entirely off, and the patient could take a few steps. M. Steffens perkinized repeatedly without the smallest effect :-msometimes, however, pain was instantaneously removed, e.g. 12. A man troubled with flying gouty pains félt ease for a couple of hours after each operation. 13. Head-ach went off, but there remained a pain all day in the lower jaw. 14. In M. Steffens himself, the pain of a head-ach shifted much under the use of the needles, and ceased in a quarter of an hour after he went out. Indeed !_Tooth-ach eased, but for a short time:
Prof. Bang made eleven experiments in Frederick's hospital. 1. A young peasant, who had been relieved of flying paitis by mercury, was benefited by Perkinism ; and on his discharge was advised to continue the use of the needles. 16. Nothing. 14. Case of Arthritic pains, which increased by night, with exostoses on both the shin.bones, mercurials confined the pains to the nodes, where they were almost intolerable. They were fully removed by the needles, and the nodes diminished. 18, 19. In two ibstances, increase of pain and sensibility rendered it necessary to desist from the operation. The following is one of the most remarkable facts : 20. A patient of Dr. Schuhmacher (perhaps that marked by us No. 6.) who had been dismissed cured, returned in two days with great increase of pain.
A node was now found over the great trochanter, which had returned, as the patient said, after a former one had almost disappeared, The operation was daily employed, but to no purpose. --The next three cases amount to nothing; except that, in one, the pains increased violently.
Next follow four observations by M. Blech. 26. A woman subject (nearly every week) to a periodical pain, which lasted several days, was freed from an attack in five minutes. During the operation, the pulse was somewhat quickened; the hands, which used to feel cold, became hot, red, tumid, and perspired to such a degree, that a drop of moisture hung from each finger. The patient had no return in three weeks. Were not these the effects of the working of imagination ? Certainly, similar effects have been produced by this cause, when patients have believed theinselves to be under the operation of metallic tractors, but were not. Three other cases by M. Blech had nearly equal success. APP. REV. VOL. XXIX. Q
M. Abilgaard offers some conjectures concerning the possiole electric effect of metallic points, held near diseased parts : but on these he lays small stress. He mentions the following experiments :--if the points of needles be held near to the tongue, a taste, partly acid and partly metallic, is perceived. If the points be moved over the face so as not to truch it, some feel a pricking, and others have no sensation. Are not the sensations here purelv imaginary? A German author has remarked on this experiaient, that it creates in him a sense of coolness; and that, with his eyes shut, he can tell over what part of his face the points have passed. Is not this owing to the movement excited in the air incumbent on the face !--M. Abigaard found that a very delicate female could point out the spot over which the needles were held; and that a pain of the hae, to which he is himself subject after long sitting, disappeared on passing needles through his clothes so as to bring the points in contact with his skin.-On holding an iron nail near the temple of a person who had been subject, during the whole winter, to rheumatic head-achs, the pain went off, but soun fell on the eye. Here it was pursued with like success, and in the evening occupied its old seat, but was less severe. The part was now touched (with the nail), on which it becade easy; and it was not till the 4th day that any slight vestiges of uneasiness were again felt.
The other reports (there are fifty-one in all) maintain the same character. There are none in which we do not perceire either that fluctuation of feeling which, in the ordinary state of similar affections, is less regarded, because less attention is pa'd to it, or the mechanical effect of the points, as when the ope. ration takes place near the eye; or the power of imagination. To prove any electric operation, experiments of a very different description' would be necessary; and the writer of this article would pledge his reputation that; the mechanical operation excepted, those who choose to practise Perkinism have re chance of making impression but from the patient's credulits and power of imagination, and that, whether pieces of metal, glass, wood, or stone, pointed or pointless, be used, no difference will appear in the average result :-nay, we will venture to predict that, if the operator trust, as' we believe was the case with some animal magnetisers, to the bare finger, ther: will be exactly the same chance of a crisis.
ART. XVI. Mémoires Historiques et Philosophiques, &c. i.e. His.
torical and Philosophical Memoirs of Pius VI. and his Papacy, down to his Retreat into Tuscany. With curious Details concerning his private Life, bis Disagreements with the different European Powers, the Causes of the Overthrow of the Papal Throne, and the Revolution of Rome. With a Portrait of Pius VI. and a Chart of the Pontine Marshes. 8vo. 2 Vols. Paris, 1799. Im
ported by De Boffe, London. Price 12s. sewed. Do URING many centuries, the Papal influence in the general
transactions of Europe was very great and extensive; and though it has latterly been materially contrasted, indeed almost annihilated,) yet authentic memoirs of the life and transactions of him who possessed this dignity in times of peculiar interest, and in whose recent death the dignity itself has perhaps expired, must excite some curiosity and attention. We are glad of the opportunity, therefore, of introducing to our readers a publication, the author of which appears to have drawn his materials from authentic sources, and to write with some degree of that candour and that dignified gravity which become an impartial historian. We shall therefore proceed. with pleasure, to extract from his work a variety of particulars.
By whatever species of poison the life of the enlightened Garganelli
, Clement XIV. was abridged, it is now pretty generally supposed that his death was not natural. It is well known that, at the moment of signing the famous bull of Motu Proprio, which pronounced the extinction of the society of the Jesuits, Clement hesitated, and, from a kind of presentiment, said : « I am well aware that I am going to sign my death warrant: but that is of na consequence.” His dissolution ensued fourteen months afterward, and the Jesuits and their partisans dared to celebrate it as a triumph.-The majority of the Cardinals never pardoned him for having put his name to this Bull; for the Jesuits ever were the surest props, the most dexterous charapions, and the most devoted adherents, of the holy see;which, after their abition, appeared to be exposed to as great dangers as a monarchical state would be without the powerful order of nobility. Hence it was obvious that the Zelanti or zealots, who had gained an ascendancy in the sacred college, would use all their interest to get the vacand see filled by a person whose principles were congenial to their own. Such was Cardinal Braschi. He was a man of sense; and in his situation as treasurer to the Apostolic chamber, he had evinced some talents. In person he was handsome and genteel : advantages which do not always avail, but which seldom injure their
possessor. He had been a pupil of Benedict XIV, which occasioned a fortunate prejudice in favour of his prudence ; R 9 2
and he had been decorated with the purple by Clement XIII. the last of the fanatical Popes; whence he not only did not appear formidable in the eyes of the zealots, but even afforded them room for conceiving some hopes from his favour.
Before we proceed, it may not be improper to premise the following sketch of Braschi, drawn by the intelligent Cardinal Bernis, at a period when there was no appearance that the former would ever become Pius VI.
• John Angelo Braschi was born at Cesena, December the 27, 1717. The bounty of Benedict XIV, had opened to him the way to promotion : for, having employed him in certain affairs, he rewarded him with a canonry of St. Peter's ; hy means of which he procured a place in the prelature. Clement Xiu. afterward pominated him treasurer of the apostolic chamber. Although his character as to talents is universally known, his rapid rise has been attributed to the favour of the Jesuits, to which it was even said he had too much sacrificed. The present Pope, it would seem, after having elevated him to the hat, has not continued to shew him the same confidence as before his promotion ; and there have oot been wacting those who put a construction on this change, which is little favourable to the Cardinal. He is undoubtedly very active, and a man of multifarious attainments. From whatever motives might proceed the temporary reduction of his popularity to the mere regard due to his rank, he is not supposed to be of a temper adapted calmly to brook this alteration in his fame. He has sense enough to seize the opportunities of rendering himself necessary, or, at least, of giving himself consequence. His character for being too enterprising, indeed, will always be very injurious to him. He is a man whose in terest is to be secured in a conclave.'
Braschi wss chosen Pope on the 14th of February 1775, by the style of Pius VI. The people of Rome did not at first appear disposed to applaud this election. They applied to him the famous Latin line which, composed during the papacy of Alexander VI., called to recollection that Rome had ever been Tuined by sovereigns bearing the title of Sextus :
Semper sub Sextis perdita Roma fuit. Sextus Tarquinius had by his tyranny provoked the expulsion of the Roman kings :--Urban VI. had commenced the great schism of the West :- Alexander VI. had shocked all Rome and the whole world by his crimes ;-and Pius VI. has but too much confirmed the presentiment to which his title gave rise. When it was proclaimed in the election-chamber that the choice had fallen on him, he dropt on his knees, and breathed forth a prayer in so touching a manner, that all the attendants were bathed in tears. Then turning to the Cardinals, he said : " Venerable fathers, your assembly is terminated, but bow unfore sunate is the result of it for the!! Was this only an affected