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tion of Late Hours of Business. It was published, will show the progress and premost numerously attended, and several elo sent state of the Association : quent speeches were delivered by the clergy, “Since the publication of the last Report, ministers, and others; amongst which we your Committee have held more than fifty may particularize that of the Rev. F. Meetings; and it is gratifying to announce Close, the incumbent of Cheltenham, who to you, that their labours have been represided on the occasion. The hours of warded by a larger measure of success than closing agreed to were 7 o'clock in winter, they have been able to announce at any and 8 o'clock in summer.
former period. GLOUCESTER.—An “ Assistant Drapers' “During the last three years, the numAssociation” was formed in this city, in ber of Employers who have closed their March 1844, to reduce the hours of busi- shops at 7 o'clock has been steadily, though ness. They adopted the most effectual slowly, increasing. Until the present pemode of carrying out their object by dis- riod, however, they were but a small tributing tracts, essays, &c., addressed to minority of the Shopkeepers of the town. the public, and appealing to them to dis- At this time, not less than three-fourths of continue the practice of evening shop the Tradesmen in the principal streets have ping. The public responded to the appeal, adopted that wise and salutary rule. and the shops are now closed three months at 7 o'clock, six months at 8, and three “The Declaration to abstain from, and months at 9. It is gratifying to add, that otherwise discountenance, evening shopping, in order to make the best use of the leisure was also circulated under the same directhey have obtained, nearly all the drapers' tion;" that of the Mayor (T. Sands, Esq.), assistants in the city are members of lite and a Committee of gentlemen ; "and bears rary or other institutions for moral and in- the signature of more than 10,000 inhabittellectual improvement.
ants, who are mostly heads of families. HULL.-" The Hull Assistant Drapers' Association," ata Meeting held in the Wil "A few days after the Public Meeting berforce Rooms, December 11th, resolved to in April last, when the hours of business alter their name to “ The Hull Assistant were such as to render hopeless any very Tradesmen's Association," that the other numerous gathering in the evening, your trades in the town may be embraced in the Committee called a Meeting of the Assistoperations of the Committee, and participate ants, at the Music Hall, at 6 o'clock in the in the advantages now enjoyed by them- morning, upon which occasion there was a selves.
very numerous attendance. LEAMINGTON.-In a communication from this town, it is stated that the most cordial “The number of members is increased co-operation has been granted, by the Pub to the extent of 63 per cent." lic and the Employers, to the Association MANCHESTER.—The Secretary of the for early-closing ; and, although at the Manchester and Salford Association, in a onset some little opposition was raised, the communication, states, that, although a Committee persevered, the opposers saw considerable amount of apathy exists the unreasonableness of their opposition, amongst the young men with respect to and the shops are now closed six months early-closing, it is not the case with the at 7 o'clock, three months at 8 o'clock, and Employers and the Public. The latter are three months at 9 o'clock.
very perceptibly abandoning the custom of LINCOLN,—The early-closing movement evening trade; and the former are both commenced in this city on April 1st, 1844, willing and desirous to close their shops at with a Lecture by Mr. W. H. Bellatt, a more reasonable hour. It only requires which was followed by a large Public the Assistants themselves to show that they Meeting, over which R. T. Hervey, Esq., desire the change, by vigorously aiding the the Mayor, presided. An Association was committee, instead of indolently standing then formed, and a Committee appointed, by, and assisting by neither their own who have, after much solicitation, induced exertions nor by pecuniary contributions, the Drapers to close at 7 o'clock in winter, and the reformation would be rendered and 8 o'clock in summer. The Ironmongers certain. have since adopted the same rule ; and the NORWICH.-One of the most pleasing Grocers, the Druggists, and others, it is results of the agitation to close the shops at thought, will soon follow their example, an earlier hour, that has been witnessed,
LIVERPOOL.—The Fourth Annual Meet- bas taken place in this city. We allude ing of the Liverpool Association of Assist- to the establishment of the Athenæum,-a ant Tradesmen was held at the Commercial literary and scientific society, with libraHall, Gloucester Street, on Tuesday, Decem- ries, reading rooms, a museum, lectures, ber 3rd, Mr. Flower in the chair. The and classes for instruction. “ It will be following extracts from the Report, just fresh,” says the Report, “ in every one's recollection, that, in the course of the last Lord Bishop opened the proceedings with summer, with an unanimity never perhaps a most eloquent speech; and was followed displayed on any former occasion, the by Sir J. Boileau, Lord Wodehouse, ProMaster Drapers met the wishes of their fessor Sedgwick, the Dean of Norwich, Assistants, in shortening the hours of busi- and other speakers. All seemed to enter ness.
* * The point heartily into the spirit that should characgained, and the privilege granted, it be- terize such meetings,—the spirit of friendcame an interesting inquiry, not less among ship and mutual good-will, which gives the the young men themselves than among best augury for the future prospects of the their friends and well-wishers, in what Institution. manner might best be turned to advantage SHAFTESBURY.—The Linen and Woollen the leisure now obtained from the cares Drapers of this town have agreed to close and toils of their daily employments.” their establishments, for the winter, at The result of this consideration was the 7 o'clock-Saturday night excepted. formation of this society. Although still STAMFORD.— The Drapery establishin its infancy, it numbers 250 members, is ments are closed at 7, 8, and 9 o'clock, four well and constantly attended, and promises months respectively, to train up a generation of Tradesmen of a WHITEHAVEN.—On Thursday, January more intellectual character than those of 2nd, the principal shopkeepers of White former years, who will feel that they were haven commenced closing their shops at created for a higher destiny and other pur- 7 o'clock, and at that hour a royal salute seas suits than a mere routine of toil and drudg- fired from the West Pier in honour of the ery, and buying and selling from rising on event. the Monday morning to lying down on Saturday night. A highly interesting soi
AMERICA. rée of the members took place on Thursday, December 19th, which was intended as a A GOOD MOVEMENT.-The Easton formal opening of the Institution. The Pennsylvanian Argus states that the merattendance was very large, and compre chants and business men, generally, of that hended a considerable number of ladies. borough, have resolved to close their stores, The rooms were decorated with banners, during the coming winter evenings, at busts, flowers, &c.; and on the tables were 8 o'clock. The consequence is, that the laid several splendid specimens of art and young men are about to establish an assoliterature, relics of antiquity, natural curi- ciation for mutual improvement; families osities from distant climes, articles of foreign are preparing to receive the visits of their manufacture, &c. &c. When the company friends during the long winter evenings; were assembled, tea and coffee were served lectures will be given occasionally on subto them in the tea-room ; after which they jects of interest or importance ; and thus all amused themselves, for some time, with classes will be benefited, and none will be inspecting the various works of art. At injured by the early closing of shops. This 9 o'clock the chair was taken by the Lord movement, in affording facilities to the young Bishop of Norwich, who had on his right for improving their minds, and enabling the High Sheriff (Sir John Boileau, Bart.), families to enjoy the pleasures of their E. Wodehouse, Esq., M.P., the Rev. Ć. society, must have the happiest effect upon B. Power, and the City Sheriff (J. Rett, the morality and intelligence of the people Esq.); on his left were the Lord Lieuten of Easton. What say our readers in New ant of the County (Lord Wodehouse), the York and Brooklyn on the subject? Would Hon. and Very Rey, the Dean of Norwich, any of us be inconvenienced by the closing Professor Sedgwick, and the Rev. E. Sid of shops and stores at 7, P.M.2 New York ney. After the Report had been read, the Weekly Sun, December 14, 1844.
The ANNUAL MEETING of the METROPOLITAN DRAPERS' AssociaTION, which was intended to have been held in January, it has been considered desirable to postpone until the latter end of the present month.
It affords us pleasure to announce that the Chair, at the ANNUAL Dinner of the LINEN DRAPERS' AND SILK MERCERS' INSTITUTION, to be held February 25th, will be taken by J. E. TENNANT, Esq., M.P., President of the Metropolitan Drapers' Association.
YOUNG MEN'S ADVOCATE.
A COURSE OF LECTURES TO YOUNG MEN.
SELF CULTURE.-SOURCES OF INFORMATION.
We have seen that mind is possessed of the noblest powers and capacities; and though created, and therefore finite in their nature, are almost unlimited in their operations. What wouders has the human mind accomplished! Think of “ the cities, the cultivated plains, and all the varieties of that splendid scene to which the art of man has transformed the deserts, and forests, and rocks of original nature:-behold him not limiting the operations of his art to that earth to which he seems confined, but bursting through the very elements that appeared to encircle him as an insurmountable barrier—traversing the waves, struggling with the winds, and making their very opposition subservient to his course : look to the still greater transformations which he has wrought in the moral scene, and compare with the miseries of barbarous life, the tranquillity and security of a wellordered state :-see, under the influence of legislative wisdom, innumerable multitudes obeying, in opposition to their strongest passions, the restraints of a power which they scarcely perceive, and the crimes of a single individual marked and punished at the distance of half the earth ;" and is there nothing to admire in all this? Let us contemplate but a single mastermind with its powers and attainments, and how much soever we may feel humbled by our vast inferiority, we cannot but be proud of our common humanity. This almost superhuman genius is a member of the same family;-and to hold fellowship with such a spirit is a happiness to which all may be admitted. Our own minds have only to be trained and disciplined to follow him in his deepest investigations, or in his sublimest soarings, and appreciate the wonders which he has wrought.
We take it for granted that you have resolved on a course of SELFIMPROVEMENT. You are in some degree conscious of your mental capacity. The knowledge of mind is inseparable from every other kind of knowledge. Science is but the result of mental power and application;—it has no existence but in relation to the sentient, thinking mind :—and within the powers of every mind are placed all those truths which are truly valuable and important. There may be fields of investigation and discovery beyond, but surely the eye, which is clearest to distinguish the bounding circle, will not be the dullest and dimmest to perceive what lies within. You find that there are points which you may reach-truths which you can attain; nor will any common difficulty deter you in your progress. Your path may be rugged, but every step of advance will nerve and brace your intellectual man. It may be allowed to the weak and the effeminate to turn away from every path in which flowers and verdure are not beneath their feet; but he is the man who takes the way as he finds it, with all its rough and rugged diversity, and is resolved this one thing to do-to leave the things which are behind. “What should we have thought of the competitor of the Olympic course, whose object was the glory of a prize, contested by the proudest of his contemporary heroes, if with that illustrious reward before him, with strength and agility that might insure him the possession of it, and with all the assembled multitudes of Greece to witness his triumph, he had turned away from the contest and the victory, because he was not to tread in softness, and to be refreshed with fragrance, as he moved along ?” You have a nobler prize before you. It is not for a fading laurel we ask you to run. There were those who delighted to have collected Olympic dust in the chariot race.* Let it be your ambition to grasp the mighty possession of intellectual treasure. Boldly undertake the study of true wisdom—that which will elevate and dignify your nature. It is a sacred proposition, that “the husbandman must first labour before he be partaker of the fruits.” But fruit is held out as the reward of his labour. So success will follow your efforts; and the greater the efforts, the grander the results.
The mind once set on action, it will find THE SOURCES OF INFORMATION numerous and diversified Nature is an open volume, which every one may read and interpret for himself. Lord Bacon says, “ Homo nature est minister et interpres.” But if man is to be looked upon as the interpreter of nature, he must first study it. And what a field for contemplation and research! The world which we inhabit is but a larger museum replenished with whatever is either interesting or instructive. There is no paucity of objects -no husbanding of resources. What prodigious variety of substances !—what profusion what grandeur! We cannot be more struck with the beauty and diversity of the mineral than of the vegetable kingdom. To take but a single example :botanists have arranged and classified at least one hundred thousand different species of plants; and yet the least living thing in the animal kingdom rises unspeakably above the most stapendous and astonishing of the vegetable creation. The world teems with life; and the developement of this life is itself a study. It is found in air, earth, and water. It is a delicious sight to look up to the spangled firmament, and wander amid the countless suns which stretch away into the immense of space; but no less interesting is it to follow the chain of animated and intellectual being, from the little insect that spreads its wing to a summer's sun, up to the first angel that ministers before the throne. Every thing within us, and every thing without us, is impressed with characters which no one can mistake. They are casily read, and rich are the truths of which they are the significant symbols. Only look at the structure of the animal tribes; and above all, that of the human being. It is affirmed, that the study of the eye is a cure for atheism. Be this as it may, we feel confident that a diligent and faithful inquiry into, not the
* Sunt quos curriculo pulverem Olympicum
deeper arcana, but even the simpler formations and developements of nature, would supply materials for the most inquisitive mind, and promise an inexhaustible mine of knowledge to those who might undertake to work the shaft. The deeper it is entered the purer the ore ;or, to change the figure,-Nature is a splendid cabinet of jewels, which we have only to unlock, and its contents are all our own.
The researches and discoveries of Science, too, are now within the compass of every mind of ordinary capacity. No one need be ignorant of the leading facts of geology, though the youngest and most recent of the sciences the principles and elements of chemistry :—the sublime and expanding glories of astronomy :-or even the investigations and discoveries of anatomy. Lectures on these and kindred subjects, are established in almost every locality; and every facility is held out to induce an attendance. Not that we recommend one and the same mind to be turned to all these branches of inquiry at the same time. Let each make his selectionlet his thoughts have an object on which they may terminate. Knowledge is the fruit of thought ; and as one subject is perceived and comprehended, it will lead to another. This is strikingly exemplified in the case of Franklin. Having a taste for reading, and this being in great part gratified by his early vocation as a printer, his mind acquired the habit of fixed and continued thought. His mental acquisitions were followed by profound and philosophical researches. He soon appeared before the world in the character of an author ; and rose to such eminence in the learned circles, as to receive the literary honours of three different universities. There is no aristocracy in the world of letters. Men of the humblest origin have taken precedence of those of rank and title. We see it in the case of Ferguson, who was the son of a Scotch peasant; and who, by the power and perseverance of self-application, became the first astronomer of his age-attracted the attention and homage of Royalty itself, and died adorned with the highest honours. The path which he trod is open to all; and the elevation which he attained is a point to which they may rise.
It is impossible to over-estimate the productions of the press. In these, the present day is unrivalled. Books are a never-failing source of information; and where is the youth that may now be without a library ? At the cost of a few pounds (and such a sum is often expended in the pursuits of pleasure or of folly) he may put himself in possession of as many volumes, and of a far higher order, than could have been commanded for a considerable outlay even in our younger days. Wisdom is required in their selection, nor less wisdom in their perusal. The first place should be given to history. This is a prime element in the intelligence of mind, and brings within the range of thought an endless variety of topics most deeply interesting to every member of the human family every subject of Heaven's universal moral government. History is to other departments of information, what the root and stem of the tree may be said to be to its spreading branches : or it may be compared to the fountain, whose waters divide and run in a thousand channels. History is the study of man in his whole being, and in all his relations. Above all, be not ignorant of the history of your own country. It is one of unparalleled interest. England has been the theatre wave appeared men of the first character, and on which have been transacted scenes of uncommon significance and meaning. The thoroughly read in this history will never appear to disadvantage in any circle into which he may be introduced.